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Full text of "The defenders of New Zealand; being a short biography of colonists who distinguished themselves in upholding Her Majesty's supremacy in these islands"

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THE DEFENDERS 



NEW ZEALAND 



A SHORT BIOGRAPHY 



OF COLONISTS WHO DISTINGUISHED THEMSELVES IN IPHOLDING 



HER MAJESTY S SUPREMACY IN THESE ISLANDS 



THOS. WAYTH GUDGEON 

AUTHOR OF 

"THE REMINISCENCES OF THE WAR IN NEW ZEALAND" 

"the DOINGS OF THE MAORIS FROM 182OTO THE SIGNING OF THE TREATY 

OF WAITANGI IN 184O," ETC., ETC. 



BucI^lan^ 
n. Brett, Printer and Publisher, ShortlaM) Street 

MDCCCI-XXXVIl 




TO THE iMOVINc; SPIRITS, WHO TOOK SO ACTIVE A PART IN THE 

VARIOUS INCIDENTS OF 

THE LATE WAR 

WHICH PROSTRATED FOR A PERIOD 

THE DISTRICTS OF TARANAKI, AVAIKATO, WANGANUI, AND 

THE EAST COAST OF THE NORTH ISLAND, 

ENTAILING MUCH LOSS AND SUFFERING UPON THE SETTLERS IN 

THEIR PROTRACTED STRUGGLES 

WITH THE Natives, 

i dedicate with pleasure this my feeble attempt 

to chronicle their services, 

so that after-generations may look back with 

pride on the doings of their forefathers 

(the Pioneers of New Zealand), 

IN quelling the rebellion against British authority. 



THOS. WAYTH GUDGEON, 

Lieutenant and Quartermaster of 

Wanganui Militia and Volunteers. 



Auckland, 1887. 1117719 



CONTENTS, 



Adamson, Thomas 
Austin, Sergeant 
Atkinson, Hon. Major 
Ballance, Hon. J. 
Balneavis, Col. 
Bennett, Capt. 
Biddle, Benj. 
Biggs, Major 
Black, Solomon 
Bower, Capt. 
Brassey, Major 
Broughton, Mr. C. W. 

Brown, Capt. R 

Browne, Governor Gore 
Brown, Major 
Bryce, Capt. 
Buller, Sir Walter L. 
Butler and Hassard ... 
Cameron, General 
Carkeek, Sergeant 
Chaplains, 3 Military 
Chute, General 
Corbett, Capt. 
Crapp, Capt.... 
Douglas, Sir R. 
Featherston, Dr. 
Fraser, Lieut. -Col. 
Gascoigne, Major 
GiBBS, Dr. ... 
Goring, Major 
Gorton, Col. 
Grace, Dr. ... 
Grey, Sir George, K.C.B. 
Gudgeon, Major 
Gudgeon, Lieut. 
Hamlin, Mr. E. 



PAGE 




368 


Handley, Capt. 


76 


Hape, Paora 


45-46 


Hardington, Capt. 


325-326 


Haultain, Hon. Col... 


283 


Heaphy, Major 


313 


Hewitt, Mr. ... 


258 


Hill, Sergeant 


399-400 


HiRTZEL, Lieut. 


258 


FIuNTER, Lieut. W. 


475 


Hunter, Major 


241-242 


Herford, Major 


327-330 


Hutchinson, Ensign . 


47-48 


HuTTON, Capt. H. 


35-42 


Incidents of the War 


51-53 


Jackson, Major 


307-316 


Katene, Wiremu 


345-346 


Kawepo, Renata 


54 


Kemp, IMajor 


459-460 


Kenny, The Hon. Col. 


224 


Kepa, Henare 


199-208 


KiNGi, General Mete 


245 


Lingard, Trooper 


227 


Livingstone, Mr. 


291 


Lloyd, Capt ... 


180 


Logan, Col. . . 


443-444 


LoMAx, Capt. 


395 


Lusk, Major ... 


295-298 


Lyon, Col. ... 


465-466 


i\LvcE, Capt. . . 


359-360 


Mair, Capt. . . 


237 


Mair, Major... 


473 ; 


Maling, Sergt. Major 


19-32 


j\LvoRi History 


353-355 


McDonnell, Capt. W. 


481-482 


McDonnell, Lieut. -Col 


102 


McGregor, Mr. J. 



PAGE 

284 

246 

301-302 

65-66 

125-126 

428 

476 

215-216 

391-392 
261-262 

84 
165-166 
219-220 

557-587 
IO5-I 10 

•53-154 
333-334 
381-384 
193-194 
356 
363-364 

435 
118 

412 

396 
349-350 
II3-II7 
95-96 
471-472 
223-224 
129-134 

338 
483-556 

257 
183-186 

424 



14 



CONTENTS. 



PAOE 

Medallists, List of ... Addenda 

jMercer, Capt. ... 99-101 

Messenger, Capt. ... 87-92 

^Morrison, Capt. ... 57-58 

Neill, M.\jor . . 69-76 

Newall, Major . . 189-190 

Newland, Capt. . . 411 

Nixon, Lieut. -Col. ... 157-158 

NoAKE, Major ... 341-342 

Northcroft, Capt. ... 147-152 

O'Callaghan, Lieut. ... 431-432 

Officers & Men Killed Addenda 

Percy, Capt. ... ... 378 

PlERCY, IMlCHAEL ... 374 

Pitt, Major C. Dean ... 2ix 

Porter, ]\L\jor ... 419-420 

Preece, Capt. ... 427 

Richardson, Major ... 451-452 

Richmond, Hon. J. C. 139-144 

Roberts, Lieut. -Col. ... 161-162 

Rodriquez, Trooper A. 42 

Rolland, Father ... 455-456 

Rookes, Col. .. 169-172 

Rowan, Sub-Inspector 469 

Ropata, Major ... 403-404 

Ross, C.-^PT. A. ... 377 

Ross, Capt. F. ... 407-408 

ScANNELL, Inspector ... 447-448 

Selwyn, Bishop ... 423 

Shanaghan, Private ... 439-440 



Shortt, Trooper 
Shepherd, Sergeant 
Smith, Cornet 
Speedy, Major 
Standish, Lieut. 
Stapp, Lieut.-Col. 
St. George, Capt. 
St. John, Lieut.-Col. 
Tales of the INIaori 
Tamehana 
Thomas, Capt. 
Te Pokiha Taranui 
Te Puia 
TuKE, Capt, E. 
Tuke, Major . . . 
TuKiNo, The Chief 
Turner, Capt. 
Turner, Major 
Volunteers, The 
Von Tempsky, Major 
Walker, Dr. 
Waddel, Capt. 
Webber, Assist.-Surgeon 
Westrupp, Major 
White, John, R.]\I. 
Whitmore, Sir Geo. 
Wilkinson, Mr. G. T 
Wilson, Capt. 
Williams, Bishop 
Winiata 



312 

82-83 

238 

121-122 

337 

61 

• 228 

463 

588-620 

371-373 
265-280 

135-136 

254 
415-416 
287-288 

303-304 
319-322 
467 
387-388 
231-234 

367 
436 

479 
292 

79-81 

249-254 

197-198 

175-179 

62 

212 



PLANS, VIEVv7S, ETC. 



Turn Tutu JSIokai 
Plan oj Orakau Pa 
Plan of Operations at Ngatapa 
Parihaka, Vieiv of... 
The Fight at Rangiaohia 
Ngatapa, from the East 
Officers Armed Constabulary 
Major Pitt's Column at Parihaka 
Plan of Taurangaika Pa 



Frontispiece 
facing p. 101 
facing p. 
facing p. 
facing p. 
facittg p. 



108 

139 
176 

2^2 



P- 336 
P 386 
p. 621 



INTRODUCTION 




RADHION tells us that the Maori race has not occupied Xew 
Zealand more than five hundred years. They describe themselves 
as a race that came to these islands at different periods in canoes 
from the north east, landing first in the neighbourhood of Auckland, 
whence they have gradually spread throughout the length and breadth of the 
land. Both mentally and physically they are a fine and noble race ; but 
although interested writers have brought conspicuously forward their best 
qualities, nothing can be said of them that is not equally applicable to manv 
other savage tribes. 

No one can doubt the mental capacity of the Maori, and had it been possible 
to educate them and inculcate habits of sustained industry, they might by this 
time have altogether cast aside their savage habits and associations. It is true 
the missionaries have effected much good, but the unfortunate divisions amongst 
ourselves have not only prevented the gradually-awakening mind of the Maori 
from receiving fixed and decided principles, but have nearly rendered it 
impossible to convert any heathen nation to Christianity. 

The Maori, like most of the primitive races, possesses an ardent love for his 
fatherland, and, startled at the gradual increase of the white population, he 
conceived the idea of preventing any more territory from passing under British 
rule ; and from feelings of jealousy at the success of the Anglo-Saxon in the 
tillage of the land, the tribes combined to check our progress. Had they been 
better instructed in the facts of history, they would have understood how 
impossible it was to stay the progress of civilisation ; and that the only way 
left to savage nations of escaping the doom of extinction and living- in 
enjoyment, is by floating with the current instead of battling against it. 

Perhaps the truest description of Maori character ever written was given by 
Dr. Thomson in his work on New Zealand. He says : " The New Zealanders 
have the minds of children and the passions of men. They respect ancient 
laws and customs, but are ready to embrace new opinions given out by men in 
authority. So constituted are their minds that it is impossible to decide how- 
certain circumstances will affect them. Futurity is seldom looked into, 
although, like all mankind, they long for what is unknown, and regret what 
is lost. 

" Fondness for novelty is a passion, but it is almost impossible to excite 
wonder. Vanity, arrogance, and independence are universal, but they are 
more vain than proud. In all their actions they are alive to their own interest 
and in seeking this, are not overburdened with conscientiousness. 



1 6 INTRODUCTION. 

•• A New Zealander could not brook in word or deed an insult when witnessed 
bv others. Wounded vanity caused much strife and cruelty, and cannibalism 
was occasionally produced by love of notoriety. They value life, but die with 
indifference when death is inevitable. They have little benevolence towards 
others : long absent friends are greeted with a profusion of tears, but as with 
children this grief is destitute of impression. 

'• Gratitude is unknown, no word expressive of this feeling being found in 
their language. Theft is rare amongst them, revenge being their strongest 
passion, and this feeling is kept alive for generations. 

"They are jealous of each other, and love to excite terror. When excited 
thev derive pleasure from cruelty and bloodshed. Tried by the European 
standard their conversations are sensual and their ideas unclean. Secrets are 
kept with difficulty. Of their deeds they are boastful. They accost their 
equals without levity, and their superiors without awe ; and it is reckoned 
diso-raceful to give way to anger. Cheerfulness more than laughter pre- 
dominates. 

" They are liberal in giving presents, but presents are merely modes of trade, 
as returns are always expected. They possess a great flow of words, and are 
fond of eloquence and oratory. They are dirty and indolent ; strong against 
the weak, but weak against the strong. When mastered, either physically or 
mentally, they become as manageable as children ; but this power must be 
exerted in the right way, for, like their own forest supple-jack, they are more 
easily overcome by gentle and skilful management, than by ill-directed force." 

The Maoris appear to be a very mixed race, many being possessed of such 
strong Jewish features that one could easily imagine the Lost Tribes had visited 
New Zealand in times past — not to mention the woolly, the curly, and the 
straight-haired generations amongst them. 

But I myself was once asked by an Irishman the nationality of my own 
children, and for the moment was so puzzled that without answering his 
question I referred it back to him, observing that my father was a Suffolk man, 
mv mother a Dorsetshire lady, and being myself born in Hampshire, I was 
purely English. But I married the daughter of a Capt. Johnson, a Highlander 
by birth, and whose mother was a French lady, while my wife herself was born 
on board her father's vessel as she lay in the Bay of Naples. 

" Now,'* said I, "what are they.?'' He mused for awhile, and exclaimed, 
" They are everything but Irish." 

And so it is ; as the world moves on, the intermarriages will bring us so 
closely allied with other nations that a few centuries hence we shall be so 
nearly related to each other as to make our quarrels family quarrels, and our 
wars civil wars. 




5IR GEORGE GREY 




PvEY, 



KX 



/ J 



B. 



£,ir/v Life — ExpJoralion of Australia — Arrival in Nt'7V Zealand — 
Services in Heke's War — His Gover7tership of Cape Colony — Quarrel 
7vith General Cameron — Capture of Wereroa Pa — Dream of Ansrlo- 
Saxon snprcmac\ — Arduous services in the Kaffir War — Clever Capture 
of the leading Rebel Chiefs — His timely aid during the Indian 
Mutiny — He replenishes the Cape Treasury out of his private funds — 
Efforts to establish a South African Confederation — Recalled and 
reappointed — Mediation betiveen the Basutos and Orange Free State — 
Differences loith the Secretary of State. 




IR GEORGE GREY was born at Lisbon, in 1812, three 
days after the death of his father, Colonel Grey, who fell 
while bravely leading his regiment at Badajoz ; conse- 
quently, having imbibed the spirit of war at his very 
birth, it is not so much to be wondered at that he should still be 
found in the thick of the fight. Politically, Sir George Grey's 
career has been an eventful one. Too able and intractable to be 
led, and too much feared ever to be a strong leader, he has won 
staunch supporters and provoked bitter opponents; as with all 
men of pronounced character, his friends are as enthusiastic as his 
enemies are bitter. There are those who believe Sir George to be 
only one remove from the angelic, while others associate him with 
angels of a darker hue. Sir George started upon his public career 
in a rather remarkable way, A successful military course at 
Sandhurst gained him a captaincy in Her jNIajesty's 83rd Regi- 
ment before he was twenty-four years old. Two years later, his 
services were accepted by the Colonial Office, to explore North- 
western Australia, and, in 1836, he landed at Hanover Bay, with 
Lieut. Lushington and twelve men, and had onlv penetrated about 70 
miles inland, along the course of the Glenelg River, when his party 
were attacked by natives, and he received a spear-wound, from 
which he suffers to this day. Under these trying circumstances, 
further progress became impracticable, and, returning to Hanover 
Bay, the party were taken on board H.ALS. Bcoglc. After two 
years' recruiting at the jNIauritius, Sir George prepared for a 
second attempt, and a whaler conveyed him to Shark's Bay, in 
Western Australia, where he was left, with three whaleboats and 
six months' provisions. Disaster again followed; the stores were 
washed away in a storm, and the party had to set out for Perth, a 



20 THE DEFENDERS 

distance of 600 miles, in whaleboats, now in a leaky condition. 
They suffered such terrible privations, that all his party becoming 
exhausted. Captain Grey had to proceed ahead, and eventually suc- 
ceeded in not only reaching his destination, but in sending back 
timely succour to his men. He was accompanied in this perilous 
journey by two non-commissioned officers of the Royal Sappers 
and Miners, John Cole and Richard Auger — two resolute and 
noble-minded men — and by a faithful native named Kaiber. His 
conduct on this occasion found such favour in the eyes of the 
Colonial Office that they rewarded him with the Governorship of 
South Australia ; and some time after, when news of the native 
disturbances in New Zealand, under Captain Fitzroy's Govern- 
ment, reached England, Captain Grey w^as appointed to the head 
of affairs in this colony. He arrived here in November, 1845, 
and finding that the operations against the rebellious chief Heke 
were proceeding slowly and unsatisfactorily, he soon infused such 
spirit into the campaign, that within two months, not only had 
the Ruapekapeka Pa fallen, but Heke's power w^as completely 
broken. Matters were also in a very disturbed state in the 
southern part of the North Island, owing to the lawless behaviour 
of the chiefs Rauparaha and Rangehaeate, and the new Governor 
lost no time in punishing them. Having on the 23rd July, 1846, 
landed at Rauparaha's settlement before daylight with 130 men, he 
seized the old chief and carried him a prisoner on board ship, 
which act completely restored peace to the island. For these 
ser\'ices Captain Grey was made a K.C.B. 

The Home Government, having by this time formed a good 
opinion of Sir George Grey's administrative abilities, he was raised 
to the Governorship of the Cape Colony, and appointed High 
Commissioner for South Africa. The Kaffirs being in a state 
of insubordination, he took the reins of government at a most 
critical period, but was so successful in pacifying the natives, that 
in 1 86 1, after the outbreak of the Maori War, he was once more 
dispatched to this colony, and continued to administer its affairs 
up to February, 1868, when his appointment ceased by effluxion 
of time. 

During this period he came to an open rupture with General 
Cameron, who returned to England some two years before Sir 
George. Upon the latter's arrival, the Imperial Government who 
had throughout the correspondence apparently favoured the 
General against the Governor, instead of offering His Excellency 
another appointment, quietly pensioned him off. Sir George soon 
afterwards came back to New Zealand, and gave his valuable ser- 
vices for the good of the colony, by accepting various offices, such as 
the Superintendency of the Province of Auckland, the Leadership of 
the Opposition, and Premiership of the colony, which latter position 
he held for two years. In his quarrel with General Cameron, he 
vigorously refuted the charge brought by the General against the 
colonists, of desiring to use Her Majesty's forces in support of an 
iniquitous job, viz., to wrest land from the natives, and perpetuate 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



21 



large military expenditure. Sir George Grey was a man without 
fear, and his perseverance and courage were often called into play, 
particularly in his explorations, and during the Kaffir and Maori 
Wars. AtWereroa, after General Cameron had declined to attack 
the pa, on the ground that it could not be taken, and communi- 
cations kept open, with less than 2000 soldiers, and then at a 
great sacrifice of life. Sir George assembled 309 friendly natives, 
139 Forest Rangers, and 25 of the Wanganui Cavalry, and while 
200 Imperial troops looked on as spectators, he personally, at 
the risk of his life, directed the operations against the pa, which 
he eventually succeeded in taking, capturing fifty natives who 
were hurrying to the relief. 

The following correspondence took place between the Governor 
and the General upon the subject. The General wrote to the 
Governor on the 2Sth January, 1865, as follows : — 

" I consider my force insufficient to attack so formidable a work as the 
Wereroa Pa. It would be necessary to establish two posts to keep our com- 
munication open with Wanganui, and we should have to furnish escorts daily 
for convoys. This would reduce my force to 700 or 800 men, which would 
not be sufficient to provide for the protection of the camp in such a country, 
and at the same time to carry on all the laborious operations of the siege. 
Instead of iioo men, my present available force, I should require 2000. 
Besides, I should not have a single soldier left in reserve, and if anything 
should happen in any other part of the settlement, it would take a week or ten 
days to remove all the stores and raise the siege. For these reasons I do not 
intend to attack the pa, but to cross the Waitotara, and see what can be done 
on that side.'' 

As the General would not attack the pa, the Governor proposed 
to let the friendly natives do it. He writes to General Cameron — 

" The natives of this place and their friends, about 500 strong in all, wish 
to be allowed to attack the Wereroa Pa at .Waitotara. Will their doing so 
interfere with your operations .' If not, I will give them permission to do it. 
I am satisfied if they enter upon this that they will not commit any acts of 
cruelty, but will proceed in entire conformity with the rules of civihsed 
nations.'' 

The General, who had no faith in friendly natives, replies — 

"So far from interfering with my operations, the friendly natives will 
materially facilitate them by attacking the Wereroa Pa, which "Mr. Mantell 
affirms they will take 'in little more time than they will require to march 
thither.' I am quite sure that we could not take it in that off-hand manner, 
nor take it in any manner without considerable loss — that is, supposing the 
natives defend it in earnest, which there is no reason to think they will not do." 

And a few days after — 

"I was anxious to hear what the friendly natives are about. I e.xpect to 
hear that their supposed desire to attack the Wereroa Pa was all bounce, 
though both you and INIr. Mantell seemed to have believed in it. However, if 
our operations should have the effect of drawing the greater part of the garrison 

B* 



22 



THE DEFENDERS 



out of tlic pa, \vhich I expect they will, the frieiuily natives may have an 
opportunity of attacking it with some prospect of success." 

The Governor replies — 

" Mr. I\Iantcll tells me that when the natives arrived at \\'anganui, elated 
with their late victory over Pehi, they were anxious at once to have procseded 
against the place, but he did not feel justified on his own responsibility in 
aflowing ihcm to do so. Since that time many of them have dispersed, and 
althoug?! they have repeatedly pressed me on the point of their going there 
I have thought it better for a little time to watch the course of events, and see 
what opportunities presented tliemselves, anrl what your movements may be, 
and what results flowed from these."" 

The General rejoins — 

" I was very confident that the desire stated to have been entertained by 
the friendly natives to be allowed to attack the V/ereroa Pa was~ m.ere bounce ; 
and I was astonished that you should have believed in i!:, that is to say, if you 
really did believe in it ; and yet you could hardly have proposed that 500 
natives sliouLi attempt what 1 told you I would not undertake at that time 
with fewer than 2000 soldiers, if you did not really believe that tliey v/ould 
succeed. As to ]\Ir. Mantell, he appears to me an ericitable person, entirely 
devoid of common sense, and I shall pay no attention whatever in fut-.rrotobi: 
opinions." 

A few days afterwards, however, he writes more soberly — 

" The country north of ^\'anganui to the Patea cannot be subdued without 
taking possession of the Wereroa Pa; indeed, I believe that the capture of 
that position is all that is necessary to give us possession of the whole country 
between the Kai-Iwi and the Patea, for between the Waitotara and the Patea 
the country is perfectly open, and not likely to be defended. I wish, therefore, 
you would inform me whether you consider the immediate possession of the 
Waitotara block of such consequence that you wish me to attack the Wereroa 
Pa at once, notwithstanding the risk to which I have referred, or whether you 
wish me to continue my advance towards Taranaki."' 

The Governor answers — 

" You have in your own correspondence answered the question whether or 
not I can wish you attack the Wereroa Pa at once. However necessary I 
might think the capture of the pa to be, to prevent wrong impressions in the 
native mind, or to attain the important objects, which you have pointed out in 
your letter of the 17th instant would follow from the capture of that pa, it is 
quite impossible for me to request you to attack it at once, when you have told 
me thai you consider your force insufficient to attack so formidable a work, 
and that to enter upon this task you would require an available force of 2000 
men ; that the natives have rendered the pa so formidable a position, and have 
at the same time occupied it in such strength, that it could not be taken 
without serious loss, uncompensated by any corresponding loss on the side 
of the rebels, who could at any time escape into the bush with impunity. The 
other alternative presented to me, must, therefore, necessarily be the one that 
I choose, viz. — that you should continue your advance towards Taranaki, so 
far a.s the means at your disposal will admit."' 

The General now left the coast and retired to Auckland, without 



OF XEW ZEALAND. 3, 

having attempted to take the pa. Then the controversy was 
renewed, the Governor writing on the 19th May — 

" I have said that I liavo iiol taken so gloomy a view of the state of affairs 
as you appear to have recently done. I believe that large numbers ot natives 
were prepared to submit to the Government. 1 think that they have in some 
measure been led to pause in this mtention Irom what has tak:n place in 
regard to the Wereroa Pa, and the rumours which have for the las', two months 
been circulated of tiie intended, withdrawal of the troops ; but 1 still think 
much may shortly be done to bring about the submission of many of their 
leading men. 

" My own view of the course which ought to be taken in the present 
circumstances of the country, is that a sufficient force should be collected with 
the least delay practicable, to take the Wereroa Pa in such a manner as, if 
po3si'.-h, to secure a marked and decided success on our part; that the local 
government shoul.l then, occupying as it would an advantageous position, 
attempt to come to terms with the leading rebel chiefs, which I believe it could 
speedily do ; anf that then, as a consequence naturally and propeilv following 
the pacification of the country, the proposed reduction of the troops should be 
promptly carried out. The colony having in the interim made such 
arrangements as it thinks necessary for raising additional local forces to take 
the place of the troops which are to be sent home. In this way I think effect 
might safely be given to the instructions of Her INIajesty's Government." 

To this, General Cameron replies — 

" In regard to your Excellency's proposal to collect, with as little delay as 
possible, a sufficient force to take the Wereroa Pa, I must inform your 
Excellency that I consider it impossible to take that position by any formal 
operation in such a manner as your Excellency wishes, viz., so as to secure a 
marked and decided success, inflicting a large loss on the enemy, and 
sustaining but a tiiHing loss ourselves. I believe that in any formal at.a:k on 
this position (which, it must be remembered, cannot be surrounded, an 1 from 
which the natives can effect their escape at any moment), our loss would most 
probably be heavier, much heavier, perhaps, than that of the enemy ; and that, 
under such circumstances, the mere possession of the place would not be 
followed by the important advantages which it is your Excellency's desire to 
attain. 

" On the contrary, it is possible that its capture, with a loss on our side 
exceeding that of the enemy, might have an injurious moral effect on the 
natives, and, instead of hastening their submission, encourage them in 
postponing it. 

" It is, indeed, a matter of surprise to me, that any one with a knowledge 
or the country between Wanganui and Taianaki, can entertain a hope of 
striking a decisive blow there. The nature of the country forbids the idea, 
and if Her [Majesty's troops are to be detained in the colony until one is struck, 
I confess I see no prospect of their leaving New Zealand.'' 

And again — 

" With reference to your remarks as to the expediency of now attacking the 
Wereroa Pa, I would observe that the numerous army which you state to be at 
present in the colony (and which, I may remark, is distributed in posts on 
lines amounting to some hundreds of miles in length, with the finest artillery 
in the world, and abundance of scientific appliances), is not wanted for such 



34 THE DEFENDERS 

an operation as an attack on the Wereroa Pa ; and were the army in the 
country much more numerous tlian it is, I should consider it unadvisable, at 
the present lime, to assemble a large force for a formal attack on this position, 
by which there is, in mv opinion, no reasonable grounds for expecting that the 
advantages your Excellency desires could be obtained. I stated my opinions 
fully on^this' subject in mv last letter, and expressed ray readiness to attack the 
position if, after the expression of those opinions, you thought proper to 
instruct me to undertake the operation. 

" As your Excellencv, however, still confines yourself to the expression of 
opinions in which I find it impossible to concur, and leaves the decision of the 
question to me, I must exercise my own judgment as to the time and manner 
of getting possession of the place; and I shall not allow myself to be 
influenced bv remarks, however disparaging, to undertake an operation for the 
success of which I alone am responsible, in a manner which I do not fully 
approve. 

" Under any circumstances, I consider that the capture of the Wereroa Pa, 
at the present'moment, is not of sufficient importance to justify the detention 
of the whole force in the colony, after the instructions received from Her 
Majesty's Government." 

As already stated, the issue of this correspondence was that Sir 
George Grey himself took the field, exposing himself to great 
danger, and with the colonial troops and native contingent, 
captured the pa. Some interesting facts in connection with this 
operation are given in the biographies of Colonel Rookes and 
Lieut. -Colonel iSIcDonnell, who were in command of the attacking 
forces. 

In the appendix, to "Sir Gilbert Leigh," the author thus speaks 
of Sir George Grey, under the title of the Great Pro-Consul : — 

" Few English or American children have failed to hear of Sir 
George Grey. In the religious periodicals, in the stories of 
missionaries, both in New Zealand, South Africa, and the Islands 
of the South Pacific, that name continuously occurs. Lie was the 
friend of Ellis, the Madagascar Missionary ; of ]\Ioffat and Living- 
stone of South Africa ; and of Selwyn in New Zealand. In the 
colonial wars of the last thirty years, Sir George Grey continually 
appears. He was, as it were, born and bred for a soldier. His 
father, at Alexandria, first turned the tide of victory against the 
soldiers of the Republic, leading his regiment in a bayonet charge 
against the PVench. But Sir George Grey never saw that father, 
as Colonel Grey fell at the storming of Badajos, three days before 
his son was born. 

*' Sir George was educated at Sandhurst, but enjoyed through the. 
day.3 of hi.-^ youth the teaching and guidance of Dr Whately, after- 
wards Archbishop of Dublin. Thus trained, the student also meets 
his name in the treasuries of art, science, and philosophy ; yet few 
men are aware of his public labours, while still fewer attach to his 
life the notice which it merits. He started in the race with a 
definite purpc^^e — that cf opening a new future for Anglo-Saxondom 
in ths boundless cclonies of England. In those vast territories, 
v/ashcd by the v/aveo cf every sea, and canopied by every con- 
Gtellation, trusting to see communities arise free in the fullest sense — 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 25 

communities in -which the facilities for success in life should be 
vastly increased, and where talent, virtue, and worth should have 
free play and a fair held ; where the crowded hives of the United 
Kingdom, from the fields of Norfolk and Devonshire, from the hills 
of Scotland, and from the ' Green Isle of the West,' a continued 
exodus of the over-populated nation could wander forth to till the 
mighty solitudes, and gather the harvests of the world. With a 
prophetic eye he saw the continents and islands of distant seas 
peopled with settlers, rich and prosperous, virtuous and free, great 
and powerful. 

" It was in this way he formed the lofty ideas which filled him 
with the future dominance of his kindred, and revealed to him their 
future destiny. As years rolled on, he saw them anchoring deeper 
and deeper in every quarter of the earth, claiming and holding 
nearly all the habitable globe, every sea whitened by the sails of 
their commerce, ev^ery land ringing with their tongue ; and, judging 
from mortal arguments and human logic, he believed that eventu- 
ally the united Anglo-Saxon power would be strong enough to 
quell, by its mere existence, all warlike opposition, and restrain 
mankind to decide their quarrels by a Congress of the Nations. 
He looked forward to times and states in which these nations 
should govern themselves by the most perfect and equal laws. 

" He went to the colonies, therefore, as to a most delightful field 
of labour, and undertook the duties of a Colonial Governorship as 
a congenial task, firmly believing that directly a nation ceased to 
grow and expand it began to decay. 

" Sir George Grey had been appointed Governor of the Cape of 
Good Hope two or three years before the Indian Mutiny, and after 
the campaign in which General Cathcart had done so much to 
destroy the Kaffir power, there still continued a series of alarms 
and outbreaks, occasioned by certain Hottentot troojDS, who, having 
been disbanded, were receiving less pension than they had been 
led to expect. Sir George Grey, finding this to be correct, issued 
a proclamation, in the Queen's name, stating that the Hottentot 
forces should receive the same pension as their English comrades, 
and all arrears should be paid up, w'hich settled the discontent 
then and there, as far as the Hottentots were concerned. This act 
made the War Office furious ; but their fury was unavailing, as it 
was done beyond recall, in the Queen's name, and by the Queen's 
High Commissioner. 

"A more terrible peril now menaced the Cape. The Governor 
learned that the Kaffir chiefs were leaguing together to invade the 
colony at various points. He also discovered that the chiefs had 
induced their people to destroy their own crops and cattle before 
starting, so that behind them was nothing but a barren desert, 
whereas before them lay the land of promise — the crops, bread, and 
cattle of the English, which they must either take or starve ; and, 
as they numbered 200,000 strong, a most appalling tragedy was 
imminent. 

*' Sir George Grey at once proceeded to the Kaffir country, while 



26 THE DEFENDERS 

General :M:chel, who commanded the British troops, had received 
orders to take up a certain series of positions along- the frontier. 

" As Sir George Grey was passing through Kaffraria, with about 
fifty men, he was aroused from his sleep one night by messengers 
from the General. The missive was evidently drawn out of a 
brave officer by the weight and extent of the danger which 
threatened his forces, and the community they had to guard, as 
he set out the perilous condition in which his army would be 
placed by continuing to hold so extended a position, which 
rendered his line liable to be attacked at an awful disadvantage. 
lie then continued, that, having well considered the position, he 
had determined to draw back to another line of defence on the 
Fish River, which his troops could hold against all-comers. But 
Sir George Grey, knowing well that the first step of retreat, the 
first receding standard of ati English regiment, would be a certain 
signal for the onslaught of an almost innumerable host, without a 
moment's hesitation sat up and wrote the answer. Acknowledging 
the receipt of the letter, and the force of the General's reasoning, he 
said, that in his own opinion it was absolutely necessary to hold 
the adxanced line. He reminded the General, that by the Queen's 
High Commission, he was in supreme command, and stated the 
line must be held, even if it became necessary for him to remove 
General Michel, and place in command some officer who would do 
it. 

" The next day brought back the General's reply. ' He w^ould obey 
and do what man could, and Sir George Grey might depend upon 
it, that no man would carry out his orders wdth greater skill or 
determination.' .Sir George consequently passed on, and saw the 
Kaffir chiefs, satisfying himself that the tidings were too true. He 
pointed out to them the fact that they were only injuring them- 
selves, and committing veritable suicide ; but his arguments were 
useless, as one of their prophetesses, a woman reputed amongst the 
Kaffirs, as knowing the mind of the Fates, had said that it was the 
will of the deities that this sacrifice should be made, and that in 
return they would obtain tenfold from the English, in the day ot 
victory. So Sir George returned, but in doing so, struck an 
efficacious blow% By a clever combination of secret movements, 
skilfully executed, and with great daring, he captured all the 
principal chiefs, and thus broke the neck of the confederacy, for 
now, the Kaffirs having destroyed their crops and cattle, had no 
one to lead them, and the people began to starve. Pale death 
reigned there, in dreadful silence, 50,000 Kaffirs dying of starvation, 
so that their villages became vast charnel houses, and stank with 
unburied corpses. Then the wisdom and humanity of Sir George 
came into full pla}^, lor, as Governor, he dispatched relief parties 
far and wide, rescuing the remnants from destruction. 34,000 of 
them he brought to the Cape, and distributed them amongst the 
colonists as servants, lor a specified time. The remainder he 
built villages for, and, providing lood, implements, seed, etc., settled 
them in B.itish Kaffraria. So the dreaded tempest passed away, 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 21 

and history affords few parallels to these circumstances, and to the 
wisdom, determination, and mercy which marked the whole pro- 
ceedings of the great Pro-Consul in this matter. 

i-'In 1857, while (rovernor of the Cape Colony, he was called upon 
by Lord Elphinstone, then (lovernor of Bombay, to assist in the 
defence of the British Empire in India, and it so happened that 
just at this time a part of Lord Elgin's army, on their way to Canton 
to punish the Chinese, touched at Cape Town. These, Sir (jeorge 
Grey, on his own authorit}^, directed to Calcutta, two days only 
after receiving Lord Elphinstone's letters, together with a part 
of the Artillery stationed there, fully horsed, and transmitted from 
the Cape Treasury /^6o,ooo in specie; continuing to forward both 
men and horses. Knowing the Cavalry and Artillery must be 
supplied, he dismounted his own Ca\-alry and Artillery, even 
taking the horses from his own carriage, to keep up the supply. 
Vast stores of food for men and horses he also provided, and sent 
on with a quantity of ammunition. All this Sir (ieorge Grey did 
without any authority from the Imperial (Government, and so 
quickly that the troops which enabled Lord Elphinstone to hold the 
mutineers in check at Bombay, and Sir Colin Campbell to relieve 
Lucknow, on the 17th November, 1857, were largely drawn from 
the forces sent by .Sir George from the Cape. 

"Yet all this time the great Pro-Consul was training a mixed 
community of Dutch, Eng'lish, and natives to use the forms and 
substance of free representative political institutions, and laying 
the broad foundation of a great nation ; while at the same time, he 
was contending and struggling against Downing Street, which did 
its best to hamper him in his great work. 

" To sit down calmly and read the official correspondence is 
enough to make a man's cheeks glow with surprise and indignation. 
As I write, with the papers spread out before me, I wonder at the 
perverseness of the swiftly changing Secretaries of State, and with 
the patience with whicii Sir George marched on — not to fame, 
emolument, or distinction, but what is infinitely nobler, to the 
accomplishment of a great purpose — that of preserving peace and 
good government at home, and, at the same time, giving all 
possible assistance to Canning and Elphinctcne in their treinen- 
dous conflict in the East. 

" In one desps,tch Lord Stanley tcUj the Governor that the 
Parliamentary annual grant for 1858, for British Kaffrari i, v.-ould 
be reduced from ;^40,ooo to ^20,000. Now British Kaffraria was a 
portion of the British Empire, in it 50,000 people, subjects of the 
Queen, were almost on the point of starvation. The cost of civil 
government, gaols, police, hospitals, justice, education, etc., 
demanded the whole of this £^40,000, and yet, when half of the 
year was gone, during which the e:-.penditure had been on the 
same scale as formerly, the High CcmmisEioner is told, without 
warning, that only half the former amount v/ill be given. At that 
time, owing to the judicious management of Sir George Grey, all 
affairs of "British Kaffraria had been brought to a peaceable 



28 THE DEFENDERS 

condition, and most of the nativ^e inhabitants located in regular 
villages, and another two or three years would have seen a great 
amount of prosperity ; but had this reduction been carried out, all 
things would again have been thrown into confusion, and a fierce 
and bloody Kaffir war must have resulted. The authority of the 
Governor and High Commissioner would have been weakened. 
Deep offence would have been given in many dangerous quarters. 
jNIany of the most useful departments of Government would have 
been crippled or forsaken, and the common instincts of humanity 
outraged by the abandonment of thousands of starving Kaffirs to 
a miserable death. Meanwhile the 34,000 Kaffirs employed at the 
Cape would have filled the whole colony with bloodshed and 
destruction. Xor must it be forgotten by the public, although it 
seemed altogether forgotten by the Government, that Sir George 
(xrey had, by the time the despatch reached the Cape, well nigh 
stripped South Africa of troops to send to India, 5000 veteran troops, 
with about 3000 horses and nearly all the Royal Artillery stationed 
at the Cape, having been sent on, while it was well known that 
some of the Kaffir chiefs, pretending to sympathise with the 
Sepoys, were intriguing against the English power. So Sir George 
Grey at once paid into the public account of British Kaffraria the 
sum of ;^6ooo of his own private money. Then using as much 
economy as was consistent with safety, he carried on the govern- 
ment of British Kaffraria partly out of his own pocket. 

" It is to be hoped that the British Government will never again 
place itself in the humiliating position which it then occupied. The 
most powerful and incomparably the most wealthy empire the 
world has seen was indebted to the private moneys of its servant 
for the lives and safety of tens of thousands of its subjects ; on the 
other hand, long may the British people possess servants so true- 
hearted as to offer of their own tor the public safety. It is 
satisfactory to know that the Imperial Government, after some 
considerable time, repaid this money to Sir George Grey, much 
to thecredit of Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton. 

" It was about this time that, stung by the continued and 
unmerited censures heaped upon him by the War Office, he wrote 
to Downing Street thus : — 

" * If virtual censures are continually recorded against me by one department 
of ilie State when I am right, what hope is there for me if, in the difficulties with 
which I am daily beset, 1 commit some error } And how can those who are 
not acquainted with the real state of the case think otherwise, even when I am 
riglit, but that I must have acted wrongly to be so censured .'' ' 

"In 1 858-59 .Sir George Grey, in accordance with the evident desire 
of the Home Government, invited the different legislatures in South 
Africa to express their willingness or objection to bring about a 
federation of all the States, which they were unanimous in wishing 
him to do. For this, in conjunction with the German immigration 
and his management of British Kaffraria, he was in 1859 recalled, 
— in effect dismissed from 1 ler Majesty's service. This confederation 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 29 

in itself was the wisest step possible in relation to South Africa, and 
would have made those colonies and states a great and powerful 
confederation. The everlasting wisdom of Downing Street, how- 
ever, thought otherwise, and he w.as harshly recalled. He broke 
up his establishments, suffered all the loss ot such a step, and went 
home to find some in England who thought he was not deserving 
of censure. Among these were Her Most Gracious Majesty and 
the Prince Consort. When the steamer reached England, the first 
person whom Sir George Grey saw was a l^iiiics reporter. The 
ex-Governor asked the gentleman if he could tell him who had 
been appointed as the new Governor of the Cape. 

" ' Oh,' said the reporter, ' there has been a luss over that matter. 
There has been a change of Ministry, no new Governor has been 
sent up, Sir George Grey has been re-appointed, and a steamer has 
been despatched to stop him from coming home.' 

" This was so far satisfactory, as while straining every nerve to 
aid in the suppression of the Indian mutiny he was by the 
jVIinister of the day misunderstood and misrepresented, he was 
gladdened and supported by the love of the people whom he 
governed, and by the generous gratitude which Canning and 
Elphinstone, with their councils, expressed for the wise and noble 
assistance he was continually affording them in the great crisis. 
Yet no adequate public recognition of his services had been made. 
Indeed, when we remember that he was almost always at war with 
the Colonial and War Offices, this is not wonderful. 

" The English Government, some time before Sir George Grey 
became Governor of the Cape, had abandoned to their fate certain 
portions of South Africa and the communities therein living. This, 
we suppose, was the first step in the plan so favourably regarded by 
some modern politicians known as ' Economists,' of dismembering 
the Empire and allowing the colonies to shift for themselv^es. One 
of the said communities erected itself into a Republic by the name 
of the Orange Free State, and the Colonial Office made a species of 
treaty with this State, allowing it, in case of war with the native 
tribes, to purchase all munitions of war in the British colonies, and 
at the same time bound the English people and Government not to 
sell or allow its people to sell any such to the natives. 

"In 1857 a desperate and sanguinary war broke out between tlie 
Orange Free vState and the Basutos, a powerful native tribe, under 
the chief Moshesh. At first the Free State g-ained ground, having 
such faciliiies for getting arms and ammunition, but ultimately the 
natives obtained the upper hand. While, therefore. Sir George 
was denuding South Africa of English troops, there was a constant 
danger upon the frontier of a war arising with the Basutos and 
other tribes, who bitterly resented the treaty which compelled us 
to sell powder, arms, and bullets to the Free State men, and made 
us deny the same to them. At the very height of this savage and 
bloodthirsty conflict, Sir George assumed the position of mediator, 
and so well was he loved and trusted, that he succeeded in averting 
all fear of an expensive and dangerous war, and in restoring perfect 



30 THE DEFENDERS 

and complete peace between the contending parties, a peace so 
complete that he was enabled to send off, at once, 3000 more men 
to India, out of the 5000 then remaining in the colony. 

" Yet, for all this he was severely reproved by the home authorities, 
and his accounts disallowed. Again, he had hardly received the 
despatches thus condemning him, w^hen there appeared in the 
public press of the colony, letters which showed that some person 
in authority at home had communicated their contents to persons 
in South Africa, for the communications published in the colony 
stated that Sir George Grey's Kaffir policy was viewed so unfa- 
vourably by the Ministry at home, that he would be obliged to 
resign his commission and retire. vSir George, being at this time 
well nigh overwhelmed wath toil and anxiety — anxious as he was 
to serve his country, yet possessed of a proud sensitiveness which 
was keenly touched by the idea so publicly set forth as to his 
probable conduct — wrote thus to Lord Stanley, then Secretary of 
State for the Colonies : — 

Cape Town, ^^id June, 18^8. 

" ' ]\Iy Lokd,^ — 111 reference to some of the despatches which 1 have recently 
received, and which it appears to be thought here, and which (as you will find 
from my despatch No. 91) it is stated here, it was believed in England when 
ihev were written to me, were of such a nature that they would render it 
imperative on me to resign my office, I think it right to state that my life has 
been one of such constant active duty in remote parts of the world, and I have 
been so little mixed up in ordinary political affairs, that I am quite ignorant of 
what may be the conventional rules amongst public men on such subjects. 

" ' I simply believe, in so far as your Lordship is concerned, that if you thought 
it would be for the advantage of the public service that I should vacate my 
oOice, you would, in a very straightforward, although courteous manner, tell 
me so. 

" ' Yet, lest I should be violating any conventional rules which 1 do not 
understand, I beg to tell 3-our Lordship that nothing but a sense of duty has 
made me hold my present office so long as I have done. My life is one of 
ceaseless toil and an.xiety — ^of long separation from much which makes life 
valuable to man. I have only remained here because I thought I was useful 
to Her Majesty and to my country, from an attachment I feel for any duty 
which I am set to do, and from a personal regard to the very great number of 
persons in the colony who have helped me in my many difficulties. But when 
it is thought to be for the advantage of the public service to send me back to 
private life, I shall cheerfully and gladly make way for my successor. 

" ' If, therefore, Her Majesty's Government desire to remove me, the slightest 
intimation to that effect from your Lordship shall lead to my immediate 
retirement. — I have the honour to be, your Lordship's most humble servant, 

'"G. Grey.' 

" On another occasion, w^hen he was severely galled by one of 
these despatches, he wrote to Downing Street : — 

" I am here beset by cares and difficulties which occupy my mind incessantly 
and wear out my health. I feel I have conducted Her iNIajcsty's affairs for 
the advantage of her service and the welfare of her subjects whose love, 
.1,'ralitude, and loyalty I have secured for the Queen, and I certainly feel it 
hard that the reward I should receive should be to have my spirits broken by 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 31 

accounts which I feel are entitled to the approval of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment, disallowed, thus throwing me into new difliculiics, and thai this should 
be done in the uncourteous manner it is and in letters which as an old and 
loyal Government servant sorely wound my feelings is still worse." 

"This was in relation to the non-payment for 2000 pairs of boots 
used for the German Legion, which force was clearly entitled to 
them. 

" When will the farce of attempting to govern the colonies from 
the Home Ofhce by men who cannot know anything of the colonies 
or of the people dwelling in them be played out r 

" Here was a man governing a great satrapy or consulate with 
wonderful ability and patience, healing the wounds left by long 
years of war, mediating between fierce and hostile nations, tiding 
quietly over a tremendous crisis, inaugurating a system of free 
government, caring for the wants of his people down even to the 
desires of the meanest peasant, rectifying- the mistakes of his 
predecessors, and amid all this, sending well nigh 10,000 veteran 
troops in strength and efficiency to aid the Empire in India, taking 
upon himself a responsibility so vast that if it had been unwisely 
or improperly taken, or if one single step had miscarried, it would 
have brought upon him ruin utter and absolute. Yet we see him 
in the midst of these congregated cares and perils suggesting to 
the ]\Iinistry at home new schemes for the welfare of the people and 
the glory of the Queen's Empire, fostering science, aiding religion, 
promoting education, art and settlement, binding the affections of 
the community to the Queen, and so ruling that the people refused 
absolutely to take the power from his hands and rule themselves. 
With one INIinister he was strongly at variance in relation to the 
federation of the colonies of the South African Group. With a 
wise forethought he saw that all the colonies belonging to Great 
Britain in South Africa, together with the free territories upon our 
border, should be, before the safety and true greatness of that 
country were accomplished, drawn together into a federal union, 
which would give them unity of council and strength, unity of 
wealth and all resources. In a word, he in 1859 desired to 
accomplish what in 1875 the British Government sent Mr. Eroude 
to the Cape to attempt. For this he was recalled in disgrace, but 
subsequently, when the Duke of Newcastle became Secretary for 
the Colonies, reinstated in his command, and it is, to say the least, 
wonderful that the same minister (Lord Carnarvon) who was so 
strongly averse to federation in 1859 should be the Colonial 
Minister who tried to achieve it in 1875. 

" Sir George Grey was essentially a man of original ideas and 
determination. When a great crisis arose the Ministry sent him 
to the spot confident in his powers although the very exercise of 
that power alarmed them. When Colonel Gawler, the Governor of 
Adelaide, got into a mess the Ministry sent Sir George Grey to 
Adelaide and he soon settled matters. Then when Governor 
Eitzroy had embroiled the Government of New Zealand with the 
Maoris Captain Grey was sent there and succeeded. Then affairs 



2,2 THE DEFENDERS 

at the Cape of Good Hope brought upon England a disastrous 
Kaffir War, Sir George Grey was sent there again to be successful, 
and there it was that the Indian Mutiny found him. It is question- 
able whether another man could have been found in the Queen's 
dominions to do the work done by him as well or as surely as he 
did it. Swift to read the signs of the times, fruitful in expedients 
to achieve victory and to avert defeat, wielding marvellous influence 
over the minds of those, whether civilised or barbarian, with whom 
he came in contact, Sir George Grey took steps which surprised 
and discomfited both the officials in Downing Street and at the 
War Office in Pall Mall. They were willing enough to accept the 
happy results, but they grumbled and chafed at the means by which 
those results were obtained." 



34 



THE DEFENDERS 




SIR THOMAS GORE BROWNE 



0/ NEW ZEALAND. 35 



Sl^T. pORE 



Browne. 



/ 




Incidents of the Afghan War — Appointment as Governor of New Zealand — 
Origin of the war — History of the Waitara land purchase — The dis- 
covery and early settlement of Taranaki — Governor Broivnes firmness 
-with the natives — The rival claimants, William King and Te Teira — 
Dilatory action of Imperial troops. 

jOLONEL SIR THOMAS GORE BROWNE, K.C.M.d., 
son of Robert Browne, Esq., of Morton House, Bucking- 
hamshire, and brother of the Bishop of Winchester, 
was born in 1807. He entered the army when very 
3-ouiig", and served many years in the 28th Regiment; acted as 
Aide-de-Camp to Lord Xugent, Lord Hig'h Commissioner of the 
Ionian Islands, and was for some time Colonial Secretary. \\\ 
1836 Major Gore Browne exchanged into the 41st Regiment, and 
was engaged in the occupation of Afghanistan. After the massacre 
of our troops at the Khyloer Pass the 41st joined General England, 
and advanced to the rescue of General Xott and his troops. At 
this time ]Major Browne held the command of his regiment, and was 
also in command of the reserve at the disastrous battle of 
H}'kulzie, where by forming his men into a square, when the van 
of the army had been broken, he was enabled to repulse the enemy 
and cover the retreat. He held command of the regiment also at 
the battles of Candahar, Ghuznee, Cabul, and during the march 
through the Khyber Pass, where he commanded the rear, as he did 
also under General McGaskett at the storming of the Nik Fort at 
Issaliif — the most daring action during the war. Major Gore 
Browne's gallantry and humanity were praised in the General's 
despatches, which were quoted in both Houses of Parliament, and 
for his services he obtained a lieutenant-colonelcy and was made a 
C.B. On his return with his regiment from India he exchanged 
into the 21st, which he commanded until made Governor of St. 
Helena in 1851. From St. Helena he was promoted to the 
Governorship of New Zealand, and in 1861, having completed his 
term of office, he took the place of Sir Henry Young as (Governor 
of Tasmania ; on resigning this last-mentioned appointment m 
January, 1869, he was created a Knight Commander of the Order 
of vSt. Michael and St. George, and appointed (xovernor of 
Bermuda. 

It was in the month of September, 1855, that Colonel Gore 



36 THE DEFENDERS 

Browne succeeded Sir George Grey as Governor of New Zealand, 
Sir George having left to assume the direction of affairs at the Cape. 
I was residing at Taranaki at the time of the new Governor's first 
visit to that part of the colony, and from the unassuming and un- 
ostentatious manner of the Colonel's landing, he had nearly passed 
through the guard of honour drawn up to receive him before the 
settlers were aware of his presence. He was a soldier in every 
sense of the word, a man of prompt and decided action, and 
not easily turned from the strict path of duty by any fear of conse- 
quences. He was the first and only Governor who treated the 
natives in a blunt John Bull manner, a treatment which the Maoris, 
having hitherto been used to theflour-and-sugar policy, could not for 
a time understand. His policy began by impressing on the natives 
that his word was law ; that he was here to dispense justice and 
defend the rights of Her JMajesty, as well as to listen to and redress 
Maori grievances, and, as there was but one law for the two races, 
he would, in obedience to that law, respect and defend the indivi- 
dual rights of any native having land of his own and willing to sell. 
This declaration fell like a bombshell into the camp of the Maori 
King Land League, and caused the new" Governor many enemies, 
not only amongst those who had hitherto existed on the peace-at- 
any-price policy, but also of many missionaries, who could see 
nothing wrong or extravagant in anything the natives did or 
demanded, and who were mainly instrumental in delaymg, if not 
in preventing, the settlement of the great question at issue between 
the two races, viz., who were to be the future masters of New 
Zealand, for it was soon evident to Colonel Gore Browne that the 
policy hitherto pursued had not only lost us the prestige usually 
accorded to Englishmen, but had gained us the contempt of the 
whole Maori race, as up to this time they had actually dictated to 
the Government, bouncing them with the most extravagant 
demands, and defying the law whenever it suited them , and were 
supported in their rebellion by those who should have known 
better. To these false sympathisers may be attributed most of the 
troubles that have befallen the natives. 

The new Governor's first, attention was directed to the land 
question, the source and origin of all disputes in a new colony, 
particularly when the sovereignty of the same is vested in the 
hands of the natives, for they never will understand that land is 
of little or no value until rendered so either by population or 
cultivation, by labour bestowed upon it, or by roads made cowards 
it, and it is only when so improved that, jealous of its increased value, 
they become dissatisfied, and, setting up some frivolous excuse, 
either demand the land back again or double the amount already 
paid for it. Many a settler who, by the labour of his hands, 
has carved from the wilderness a really comfortable homestead, 
sooner than leave it has, for the mere sake of peace, submitted 
to be robbed times out of number. This was the case of the 
Waitara settlers, who were dispossessed of their farms after a long 
occupation, the Government, to save a conflict, giving way, and 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 37 

removing the settlers to the site of the present township of \e\v 
Plymouth. The dispute over this block was the legacy left by his 
predecessors to Colonel Gore Browne, to be fought out between the 
two races, and his determination to master the difficulty, by taking 
forcible possession of the land he had purchased, was not only 
endorsed by the authorities, but fully approved of by the settlers 
generally. 

Taranaki, the seat of the war, takes its name from the lofty, 
snow-clad mountain, called by us Egmont, and by the natives 
Taranaki. The first European who beheld Taranaki was the 
Dutch navigator, Tasman, in December, 1642, and on the loth 
January, 1772, Captain Cook sighted Mount Egmont, just one 
month before the French navigator, j\I. Marion du Fresne, made 
the land. From that time to 1839 Taranaki was only visited by 
whalers. In iS.^g a company was formed in f.ngland, called the 
Plymouth Company, to establish a colony in New Zealand, and 
this company mvested ^10,000 in the purchase of 50,000 acres from 
the New Zealand Company at the Waitara, Colonel Wakefield 
acting as agent for them in negotiating the purchase. He first 
arranged for the purchase with the fugitives residing on the shores 
of Cook's Straits, who had been driven from off the lands in 
question, and were afraid to return. About the end of the same 
year, the company's naturalist, Ernst Duffenbach, found a handful 
of wretched natives living at Taranaki, on obscure plantations, 
hidden deep in the recesses of the forest, and succeeded in 
purchasing their right to the soil. After this, the head chief of 
Waikato who had conquered these tribes, sent a subordinate 
named Te Kaka, with 200 men, to demand payment for the 
Waitara land, it being his by conquest, and to satisfy him Governor 
Hobson gave him ^150 in cash, two horses and saddles, two 
bridles, and 100 red blankets, and further, entered into an 
agreement, that for the future one-tenth of the land purchased 
should be reserved to the natives, and so as to expedite their 
civilization, these reserves should be in the midst of the lands 
selected by the Europeans. Consequently, a village was soon 
formed about eight miles from the present township of Taranaki, 
on a beautiful and level tract of land on the banks of the Waitara, 
and the settlers had hardly taken possession of the dwellings they 
had erected, when a number of returned slaves, the original owners 
of the district, who had been set at liberty through the influence of 
the Rev. John Whiteley, became in their turn most insolent and 
tyrannical, demanding the land back again. And to settle this 
question, the Home Government sent out a Commissioner, by the 
name of Spain, who having heard all the pros and cons, gave his 
decision against the returned slaves, and confirmed the purchase ; 
but as this decision rather increased the feeling of discontent, 
Governor Fitzroy, to avert unpleasantness, reversed the award of 
the Imperial Commissioner, declared the settlers trespassers, and 
abandoned the settlement (already twice purchased) to the returned 
slaves, with this proviso, that the dispossessed settlers should 



33 



THE DEFENDERS 



re-enter on their original selections whenever the native title should 
be extin«^uished. It was this imprudent act of Governor Fitzroy 
that firsf gave the natives a knowledge of their power over us, 
which they never forgot from that moment to exercise, and laid the 
foundation of a future war of races, which was staved off from 
vear to year only by expensive gifts and repeated acts of 
humiliation on the part of the Government up to the arrival of 
Governor Browne It was also a death-blow to the new settlement, 
inasmuch as many emigrants immediately left for Australia, 
others were induced by the Government to go up to Auckland 
and work a newly-discovered copper and manganese mine, 
while those who remained were compelled to go into the heavily- 
timbered land at Taranaki and hew out for themselves farms 
with the axe. 

The new Governor had hardly set his foot in Taranaki before a 
deputation of the settlers waited upon him to describe the straits 
they were in ever since their removal from the banks of the Waitara 
on to a block of land far from sufficient in area to give to each 
sufficient acreage, with all their ingenuity, to carry their increase, 
while all around them were millions of acres of wild, uncultivated 
land lying idle, belonging to natives, who refused to cultivate it 
themselves, or dispose of it to those who would, the Taranaki tribes 
having joined the Land League initiated (through the suggestions 
of the pakeha-Maori; by the so-called Maori King, to put a stop to 
any further sale of land to the Government of the country. These 
representations it was that caused the Governor to take the first 
step towards counteracting and breaking up this compact, by 
declaring, at his first interview with the natives, that, for the future, 
it was his intention that if any native had land, of which he could 
give an undisputed title, and was willing to sell, he would respect 
such a ones wish, and make good his purchase ; inasmuch as he 
would not allow any third person to interfere or forbid the sale of 
land he had no real interest in. On hearing this, a native by the 
name of Teira immediately arose and offered to the Governor a 
small block, belonging to himself and friends, at the Waitara, and 
asked him if he would purchase it. The Governor replied, " Yes, 
if you can show you are really the owners ; but I will have nothing 
to do with any land where any of the parties interested are 
unwilling to sell. I do not wish anyone to sell against his will." 
This was the death-blow to the League, and "William King as 
chief, saw that his only chance lay in his disputing Teira's right to 
sell, in which step he would be supported by all the King natives, 
and the League in every part of the island ; for on the question 
being put to William King, " Is the land in question Teira's T' he, 
before a large assembly of pakehas and Maoris, replied, " Yes, 
the land belongs to Teira, but I, as chief, will not allow him to sell 
it." Notwithstanding this reply of William King, the Governor, 
to be further satisfied that Teira's title was good, took the greatest 
trouble to ascertain, by referring the question to the Chief Land 
Purchase Commissioners, Mr. McLean, Mr. Parris, and Mr, 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



39 



Stephenson Smith, for their report thereon, before he would 
entertain the purchase, as the following memorandum will show : — 

[.ME.MORANDUM BY HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR.] 

" Government House, 20th July, i860. 

"In order to complete the documents about to be printed for both Houses 
of Assembly, the Governor requests the Chief T.and Purchase Commissioner 
to answer the following questions : — 

" First : Had Tamata Rara, Rawiri Rauponga, and their i)eople such a title 
to the block of land recently purchased at the Waitara as justified them in 
selling it to the Queen ? 

" Secondly : Had William King any right to interfere to prevent the sale of 
the above block of land at the Waitara to the Queen? " 

[chief land purchase commissioner's reply.] 

" Auckland, jjrd yulv, i860. 
" Sir, — In reply to your Excellency's memorandum of the 20th inst., I have 
the honour to state, with reference to the first-mentioned question, that I 
believe the above-mentioned chiefs, conjointly with others at the South, asso- 
ciated with them in the sale, had an undoubted right of disposal to the land 
in question. With reference to the second incjuiry, ^^'illiam King's question 
of title has been carefully investigated. All the evidence that has come before 
me, including William King's own testimony, that the land belonged to the 
above parties, goes to prove that he had no right to interfere ; the interference 
assumed by him has been obviously based upon opposition to land sales in the 
Taranaki province generally as a prominent member of an anti-land-sclling 
league. — 1 have, etc., 

■' Donald jNIcLean, 
" Chief Land Purchasing Commissioner. 
" To His Excellency 

"Colonel Gore Browne, C.B., etc." 

Mr. Parris' answer was equally condemnatory of William King's 
action in trying to stop the sale. 

So anxious was the Governor to get at every information on the 
subject from both sides that he allowed nine months to elapse 
before he was completely satisfied, and paid over the deposit, he 
having during this time obtained the opinion of all those who were 
competent to judge on jVIaori matters, and who all declared Teira's 
title good. William King, in the meantime, had not been idle. 
He knew full w^ell that if he once allowed the purchase of Teira's 
land to go unchallenged, all the resolutions of the Land League 
were useless ; consequently he fought for the mana — the right of a 
chief to control his tribe and keep them slaves to his will — which 
Teira naturally objected to, and the Governor would not sanction 
while one law existed for both races. During the time the 
purchase was under consideration, Teira's party got tired of 
waiting, and wrote the following curious letter, showing the 
figurative language of the INIaoris in their communications: — 

" WArroKi, /g//i yanuary, i860. 
" Go this loving letter to Governor Browne and to Mr. Smith. Friends, 
salutations to you. This is our word to you. Hearken. Why do you delay? 



40 THE DEFENDERS 

You sav thai Mr. Parris has the arrangement of the matter. INIr. Parris says 
that it Hes with the Governor to consummate our marriage with the beautiful 
woman, Waitara — with the hand which we have given up to you. Give your 
consent at my request. You said that it was deceit on my part. Agree that 
INIr Parris shall complete it ; do not delay the matter. If you are willing to 
do so, write to me ; and if you are not, write to me. Write speedily, that 
it may come straight to your children who are residing with Mr. Parris. We 
arc sad l)ecause of our marriage with this woman being deferred so long. 
This woman that we gave to you in the face of day is now lying cold. You 
had better turn her towards you and warm her, that she may sleep comfortably 
in the middle of the bed. Come also yourself, that I may know your intentions, 
and that you may hear my word to you. Come my father the Go\ernor. 
This is our letter to you. 

"From Te Teira. Hemi, T.vmati, Weterini, Eruera, Paranihi, 

" Te Retimana, Rawhiri, Matiu, Hori. 

"To His Excellency Governor Browne, Auckland.'' 

On Thursday, March ist, i860, the Airedale arrived from Auck- 
land with Governor Browne and suite, accompanied by Colonel 
(jold, an extensive military staff, and 200 rank and file of the 65th. 
The same day Her Majesty's steamship Niger dropped her anchor in 
the roadstead. The first step of the Governor was to issue the 
following proclamation in Maori, a translation of which is given 
in full, as it tends to explain both the origin and justness of the 
war : — 

[translation.] 

" I. When the Pakehas first came to Taranaki there were no natives at the 
Waitara. The Ngatiua had been dispossessed by the Waikato. 2. The 
Waikato transferred their rights to the Government and received a payment for 
the land. 3. Afterwards the Ngatiawa returned and occupied the land : the 
Government acquiesced in this occupation. 4. In March, 1859, some of these 
occupants, Te Teira and others, openly offered to sell to the Government their 
claims to a portion of the land at the Waitara. 5. William King opposed 
this offer, and said that no land at the Waitara should be sold. But the 
' mana " of the land was not with William King, and he had no right to forbid 
the sale of any land which did not belong to him personally. 6. The Queen 
has said that all the natives shall be free to sell their lands to her, or to lieep 
iheia — as they may think best. None may compel the Maori people to sell 
their lands, nor may any forbid their doing so. 7. William King sets his 
word above the Queen's, and says, though the rightful owners of the land may 
wish to sell, he will not allow them to do so. 8. The Governor cannot allow 
William King's word to set aside the words of the Queen. 9. The Governor 
has said that he will not allow land to be bought, the title to which is disputed. 
He has also said that he will not allow interference with the rightful owners in 
the sale of their lands. When land is offered, the title to which is clear, the 
Governor will use his own discretion in accepting or declining the offer. 10. 
The Governor accepted TeTeira's offer conditionally on its being shown that he 
had an indisputable title. 11. Te Teira's title has been carefully investigated 
and found to be good. It is not disputed by any one. The (Governor cannot, 
therefore, allow William King to interfere with i'c Teira in the sale of his own 
land. 12. Payment for the land has been received by Te Teira. It now 
belongs to the Queen. 13. William King has interfered to prevent the survey 



OF NEW Z]': A LAND. 



4' 



of the Queen's land by her own surveyors. This interference will not lie 
permitted. 14. The Governor has given his word to Tc Teira and he will not 
go back from it. The land has been bought and must be surveyed. The 
Queen's soldiers will protect the surveyors. If William King interferes again 
and mischief follow^ the evil will be of his own seeking. 15. The Governor 
desires peace. It depends upon William King whether there shall be peace 
or not. If he ceases to interfere with what is not his own he will be treated ai 
a friend, and there will be peace. 

Closely following this, a meeting took place between the Maoris 
and the Governor, who after stating how anxious he was to see the 
natives become a happy and civilised people, told them boldly and 
determinedly that had he been in New Zealand when Katatore 
slew Rawiri, he would have had him arrested and brought before 
the judge, and, if the judge had sentenced him to be hanged, he 
would have caused him to be hanged. The Governor also stated 
that the Maoris would be wise to sell the land they could not use 
themselves, as it would make what they could use more valuable 
than the whole. 

Governor Browne, seeing that the undecided and pusillanimous 
manner with which Government had hitherto met these difficulties 
had done much towards giving the IMaoris an exaggerated 
confidence of their own prowess, gave instructions over and over 
again, in the early days of the rebellion, to officers commanding 
troops, to show the natives, by a decided demonstration, our supe- 
riority in arms, so as to convince them how futile it would be 
to attempt to compete with us and hope fof success. Had the 
Governor's wishes been met, there is every reason to believe that 
the rebellion might have soon ended in a confirmed peace through- 
out the island. Instead of which, no one who has made himself 
acquainted with the proceedings of the Imperial forces in the 
conflict, but must see that in no one instance was an advantage 
gained that was followed up. At the very commencement of 
hostilities we allowed an inferior number of savages to evince their 
superiority in strategy, by escaping from their besieged pa, on an 
open flat, in the face of a very superior European force. After the 
Battle of Waireka, the beaten rebels were permitted, unmolested, 
to retire to their own country laden with plunder. The same at 
Kaihihi, and INIahoetahi, and in no instance were the beaten 
jVIaoris, by judicious and rapid movements on our part, prc\enled 
from occupying fresh, and in many cases, more advantageous 
positions. This it was that gave the Maoris such false hopes, and 
which tended to prolong the war for so many years. 

The war, in consequence of the increasing disaffection of the 
natives, extended throughout the North Island, and on the termina- 
tion of Colonel Gore Browne's term of office the Home Government 
recalled him, and re-established Sir George Grey as Governor, 
hoping that his previous knowledge and influence among the 
Maori chiefs would assist him in putting down the rebellion. 
News having reached the colony of the appointment of .Sir George 
Grey as successor to Colonel Gore Browne in the Governorship of 



42 THE DEFENDERS 

New Zealand, a valedictory address was presented to the retiring- 
Governor, sig-ned by the entire male adult population of Taranaki. 
Sir Georife Grey arrived in Auckland, from the Cape of Good Hope, 
on the 26th of September, and was welcomed on shore by Colonel 
Gore Browne, and on the ist of October, Colonel Browne and 
family left Auckland, for Sydney, in the Henry Fernie, amidst the 
warmest expressions of respect and esteem from the inhabitants. 



ROOPEI^^ A, RoDRIQUEZ. 



A brave Foreigner. 

NTONIO RODRIQUEZ was one of the earliest 
settlers at Taranaki, and was suddenly called upon 
to defend his life and property from ths assaults of the 
disaffected natives of the district. He joined the 
mounted force under Captain Mace, and did such good service all 
through the war that he was recommended for and received the 
Xew Zealand Cross for noble and daring conduct in assisting and 
carrying wounded men from the field, under fire, on several 
occasions, notably on the 2nd October, 1863, at Poutoko, and nth 
March, 1864, ^■t Kaitaki, upon which latter occasion he was 
particularly mentioned in garrison orders after the engagement. 
Rodriquez's conduct was repeatedly mentioned by Colonel Warre 
and other ofiicers in their despatches. 




44 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR ATM NSON 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 45 




Ajoi^ Atkinson. 



His life as a bush settler — Growth 0/ Maori discontent — Company 0/ Bush 
Rangers formed — A series of spirited engagements— A devoted and brave 
CO mpam - — Poll tic a I s nccess . 




'AJOR x\TKINSON and his brother the late Decimus 
Atkinson) arrived in the colony about the year 1855, 
and settled down at Taranaki, where they purchased a 
quantity of bush land, and set to work with a will to 
carve out of the forests of New Zealand their future homesteads. 
Prior to their arrival some uncertainty existed as to the peaceful 
character of the natives of the district. Their constant demands on 
the Government, and the visible change in their behaviour towards 
the pakeha, induced the settlers to accept the offer of an old Indian 
officer (jNIajor Lloyd; to g'ive them lessons in drill, so that, in case 
of an outbreak, they might be able to work together, under their 
officers, for the protection of their wives and children. Major 
Lloyd constantly warned the }'0ung men to miss no opportunity, 
but to learn all they could, and as quick as they could, as the 
question of supremacy might arise at any moment, and would 
have to be fought out before any lasting peace could be established. 
On my arrival in 1850, and for a few years afterwards, the 
natives of the Taranaki district were the best behaved and the 
most civilized of the North Island, vieing with each other as to 
who should possess the best farm implements, the best bullocks 
and carts ; bringing in every Saturday (the market day) their 
produce, and laying out the proceeds in European clothing and 
provisions. But at last, quarrelling among themselves ov-er the 
boundary of land claimed by one of their most influential men, a 
native magistrate named Rawuri, they shot him down. From that 
moment all was changed ; the European clothing was discarded for 
the blanket, and the farm implements were seized and burnt. 
Although the settlers were not mixed up with these disputes at 
first, they were gradually drawn in by their sympathies. 

When the war began in earnest, the colonists of Taranaki found 
the value of the drill they had received, and, having something to 
tight for, were always to be found where danger threatened. 
Amongst the foremost of those was Major Atkinson. The young 
men ot the district were as thoroughly used to bush life, and as 
much at home in the forests of New Zealand as the natives 



46 THE DEFENDERS 

themselves. Forming themselves into a company of bushrangers, 
they chose Mr. Atkinson as their captain.. It was this sort of 
fighting the Imperial British soldier dreaded — a guerilla warfare 
in every sense of the word — which the newly-arrived regular was 
neither htted for either in dress, nor in the way he was armed. 

The first action fought by the colonial troops was at Waireka, on 
the 28th jNIarch, i860, where their behaviour elicited the admira- 
tion of the whole colony, being the first under fire, and the last to 
leave the field. After this, Major Atkinson was present at the 
taking of several pas at Kaihihi in October, i860; the battle of 
Mahoetahi, on November 6th of the same year; and the battle of 
]\Iatarikoriko, in the following month. He also assisted in the 
capture of Kaitake, on the 24th J\larch, 1864; the several skir- 
mishes at Sentry Hill ; the recovery of the wounded and killed at 
Ahu-Ahu, after the defeat of the Imperial troops ; the battle of 
Allen's Hill at Potokou ; and the taking of the pas and strongholds 
at Manutahi and jNIataitawa. Having 150 men under his com- 
mand, who would follow him anywhere, his company were 
effectively employed in clearing the bush and district of rebel 
natives. For liis gallant services in the field, he was promoted to 
the rank of major, was repeatedly mentioned in despatches, and on 
several occasions received the thanks of the Government of the 
day. Colonel Warre, in his despatches, said that Major Atkinson 
possessed the energy and perseverance requisite to make him a 
first-rate guerilla leader. 

]\Iajor Atkinson was soon afterwards chosen to represent a 
Tarana.ki constituency in the House of Representatives, and on a 
change of Ministry taking place, he accepted the portfolio of Defence 
^Minister ; and eventually rose to the highest office in the public 
service — the Premiership of New Zealand. AVhatever the Major 
undertook, he gave his whole attention to ; and, although many 
may have differed with him in his politics, all must admit and 
admire his earnestness in promoting the welfare of the colony. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 47 



Captain R. J3^own. 



Early frouhUs with the Natives — Shot by a former Maori servant — His 
compeiition ivith the New Zealand Company. 




jICHARD BROWN was born in Dublin, in 1804, and 
was brought up and educated in that city by an uncle. 
In his youth, he was employed in a mercantile house 
in liobart, and at the age of twenty paid a visit to 
the Bay of Islands, and to the islands of the Pacific Ocean, in a 
Tasmanian whale ship. Shortly after the occupation of Taranaki, 
he settled in New Zealand, and, after conducting a coasting trade 
for some time, ultimately became a merchant in New Plymouth, 
having- for his place of business, a long, low warehouse near to the 
boat-sheds. In 1847, he had a quarrel with the natives about a 
horse, and striking one on the head with a hea\'y whip handle, 
nearly paid for his temerity with his life. The natives came into 
town in large numbers, danced the war dance, and demanded that 
he should be given up to them. P'or safety, the authorities confined 
him in the town prison, around which the natives kept watch all 
night. In the morning, the natives were pacified by Mr Brown 
consenting to give up the horse, as utu for the injury he had done. 
P'or some time after this, Mr Brown engaged in whaling, employing 
a shore party at Moturoa, vmder the management of Robert 
Sinclair, and at the same time added to his business the profession 
of land agent. He was also believed, about this time, to have been 
the editor of the l\ira}iaki Herald. 

When the war broke out, Mr. Brown received a commission as 
captain of the native contingent, and proved himself to be an 
intrepid officer. On Saturday, 26th May, i860, Captain Brown 
left the camp, at Waitara, for the purpose of seeking a straying 
horse. When riding- along the beach towards the township, he 
was surprised at the ford of the Waiongona River by three of 
William King's natives, one of them a young man whom the 
Captain had employed in his store. This man sprang out 
from behind a bush, where he was lying concealed, and fired 
at his master. The first shot struck Captain Brown's revolver 
cartouch-box and glanced off, the next penetrated his thigh, and 
the third passed through his left side, and lodged in his body. At 
the first shot. Captain Brown's horse swerved, and the succeeding 
shots struck him as he was turning. Captain Brown galloped 



48 THE DEFENDERS 

back to the Waitara camp, and being observed to drop out of the 
saddle, was carried to the camp in a fainting state. Here he 
lingered till the 21st of August, bearing his sufferings with great 
patience and resignation, until death brought him a release. 
Captain Brown was a man of education and polite manners, a 
clever improvisatore, and convivial, but sober in his habits. 
He was singularly reticent regarding his antecedents and business 
transactions, strictly just and pleasant in his dealings ; but there 
was an inner intrenchment in his nature that was impenetrable, 
and a fire in his eye that forbade too close an acquaintance. To a 
certain extent he lived and died a m3-stery. Dying intestate, and 
without legal heirs, his estate was escheated. 

The above statement I have taken from Well's " History of 
Taranaki,'"' but knowing Richard Brown personally as early as 
January, 1850, I am enabled to say something more of this very 
extraordinary energetic settler. His first appearance at Taranaki 
was on board a vessel which had anchored in the roadstead, having 
a quantity of merchandise belonging to him, and on his applying 
for the surf boats to land his cargo he was refused, the New 
•Zealand Compan}^ at that time usurping the whole of the trade 
Richard Brown, I fancy, must have had some inkling of this as he 
was evidently prepared for the emergency. He had packed all his 
merchandise in hogsheads and coolly waiting for the turn of the 
tide, put them over the ship's side, floated them ashore, rolled them 
up on the beach, knocked in the heads and commenced selling his 
cargo there and then at prices not to be refused. He soon arrived 
with another cargo, and, building premises, settled down as a 
merchant and completely upset the monopoly of the company. 

Richard Brown was a strictly honourable and upright man, a 
good and firm friend, but an unforgiving enemy. He took the 
part of Ihaia against Katatore, and often risked his life to assist 
him. Daring to a degree and brave as a lion, this extraordinary 
man died about the time the war began, being, as I before said, 
shot by a Maori he had befriended for years. He left a half-caste 
.son and daughter behind him. His son George was until lately 
in the Native Office in Auckland. 



D 



50 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR B ROW N . 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 51 




AJOI^ Ijrown. 




First Superintendent of Taranahi — Early fronhles ivitJi the Nati')es — 
Volunteers under fire for the first time in A'e-iV Zealand — Fierce 
engagement at Waireka Hill — The Volunteer force in great peril — 
T.mely arrival of blue jackets — A salutary lesson to the rebels. 

AJOR CHARLES BROWN arrived in Taranaki in the 
year 1841, and in 1853 was elected the first Superinten- 
dent of the province. In 1 855 he received his commission 
as Captain of the Taranaki Militia, and held that post 
up to i860, the year of the outbreak of the J\Iaori Rebellion. On 
martial law being proclaimed, Major Herbert, of Her Majesty's 
58th Regiment, who had seen some service and who had been 
wounded in previous Maori rebellions, was appointed to the 
command of the district, Captain Brown, from his knowledge of 
engineering, acting as engineer officer under him. After a 
consultation with the Governor (Colonel Gore Browne), respecting 
the danger the Omata out-settlers were exposed to, a council of war 
was held, and the result of the deliberation was, that a force of fifty 
militia and 100 volunteers, under Captain Brown, supported by a 
company of Her Majesty's 65th Regiment, under Colonel Murr^iy, 
to which were subsequently added some sailors and marines from 
Her Majesty's ship Nige'r, under Lieutenant Blake, were ordered to 
their relief. The plan of operations agreed upon was that Captain 
Brown, in command of the militia and volunteers, should proceed 
by the beach, keeping the sea coast, and try to pass in rear of the 
natives, who had built a pa on the Waireka Hill, while the Imperial 
forces should proceed by the main road and dislodge the rebels 
reported to have taken up a position near the Whalers' Gate, thereby 
cutting off communication between the village of Omata and the 
town. The militia and volunteers marched out about noon, taking 
the coast track, and on approaching the Waireka, the rebels 
showed in force. The volunteers, under Captain Atkinson, were 
then thrown forward, and all parties were soon warmly engaged, 
many casualties occurring on both sides, when, a reinforcement of 
the enemy appearing on their flanks, Captain Stapp joined with his 
force, and took command of the volunteers, occupying Jury's farm 
buildings, while Captain Atkinson, with his company, d»;fendedthe 
sea face of the hill and shot many natives who attempted to get 
in rear. Colonel Murray, hearing the firing some two miles in 



^2 THE DEFENDERS 

advance, marched his force to the town side of the Waireka gully, 
sending the Naval Brigade, under Lieutenant Blake, R.N., and a 
section of the 65th Regiment, under Lieutenant Urquhart, to their 
assistance, who by that time had been joined by some of the 
garrison of the Omata Stockade, under Lieutenant Armstrong, and 
by some Royal Artillery, under Lieutenant McNaughton. With 
their assistance the militia and volunteers drove the natives under 
cover, but being reinforced by natives from Ratapihipihi, they 
endeavoured to intercept the line of communication between the 
Imperial and colonial forces, when Lieutenant Urquhart returned 
and occupied the opposite side of the gully, thus keeping open the 
communication. He had not, however, taken up the position long, 
when " the recall " was sounded. Lieutenant Blake being then 
severely wounded, and Colonel Murray marched the Imperial 
forces home. Colonel Murray's explanation is at follows : — 
" Considering my force too small to keep our communication open 
should the enemy attack us in force, I recalled Lieutenants Blake 
and Urquhart's party, particularly as the day was far advanced, 
and my orders were to return by dark." No sooner had Lieutenant 
L^rquhart retired, than the rebel natives took up a position in rear 
of the militia and succeeded in killing and wounding several of the 
volunteers. The natives were now rampant, shouting out, 
" Kahoro, kahoro!" ("They are beaten, they are beaten!") 
Captain Brown, finding his present position untenable, moved his 
force forward, carrying the killed and wounded across the gully to 
the advanced volunteer position, where the wounded were placed 
in Jury's house, w^hich had been strengthened with a rough breast- 
work and converted into an hospital. The wounded were attended 
to by Mr. Grayling, in the absence of a medical officer. A 
gentleman named Pitcairn here greatly distinguished himself by 
his gallantry in riding through the rebel position with his 
haversack full of cartridges, he having heard that the volunteers 
were short of ammunition. His daring was all the more apparent, 
as, at the time, he was suffering with a dislocated shoulder, and 
carried his arm in a sling. 

At this critical moment, Captain Cracroft, of the Niger, hearing 
the firing, landed some of his men, and proceeding to the battlefield, 
ascertained from some of the settlers the position of the enemy's 
pa, and guided by them made an onslaught on their stronghold, 
carrying all before him, which attack was no sooner made known 
to the other rebels, when they ceased firing and decamped, leaving 
the militia and volunteers to retire in peace. Nothing but this 
gallant attack of Captain Cracroft saved them, by diverting the 
attention of the enemy to another part of the field. Captain Brown 
on retiring left all his killed and wounded at the Omata Stockade, 
and was there met by a force of militia and volunteers, under Major 
Herbert, hurrying to their assistance from the township of New 
Plymouth. The natives, who numbered between three and four 
hundred, suffered severely, as several cart-loads of killed and 
'vounded were taken by them down the coast on the following day. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 53 

The chief Taurua and seventeen of their principal men bit the dust, 
and the whoJe of the rebels were so panic-stricken that on meeting 
a body of natives coming up to their assistance, they endeavoured 
to persuade them to return, and actually took their arms from them 
in their sleep to save them, as they said, from destruction. 

Captain Brown was afterwards appointed second in command at 
Mahoetahi, and was in charge of the advanced line of skirmishers 
at Omata on the 23rd February, 1861, his conduct on that occasion 
being brought under the notice of the general commanding. A 
coolness existing between Major Herbert and himself caused 
Captain Brown to accept the paymastership of militia and 
volunteers, and when the Major retired, Captain Brown again 
assumed the command, performing field officer's duty for some 
time. On the 7th November, 1864, he was gazetted Major, and 
was in command of the local forces when the Rev. ^Ir. Whiteley 
and Lieutenant Gascoigne were murdered. He had been ordered 
to hunt up the rebel Titokowaru when a change of ministry put an 
end to further military operations. Major Brown then resumed his 
seat in the House of Representatives and when called upon by Mr. 
Fox to resign the command or his seat in the House he sent in his 
resignation as commanding officer. 

The fight at Waireka was the first occasion of the settlers 
meeting the natives in fair combat, and they acquitted themselves 
most creditably, although many were youths under twenty years of 
age. 



P' 



54 THE DEFENDERS 



Cols. Butler and Wassai^p. 




{ENERAL CHUTE having determined to attack the 
Hauhau position at Otapawa, the troops stood to their 
arms three hou'.s before daybreak. The plan of attack 
was that the troops and Forest Rangers should follow 
the track previously taken by the reconnoitring party, and attack 
on the comparatively open front of the pa, while the contingent and 
kupapas marched through the bush to the rear of the position, with 
the view of cutting off retreat. The plan was a good one. Had it 
been carried out few of the enemy would have escaped ; but when 
the General arrived in front of the pa, he ordered an Armstrong 
gun to be brought up, and fired several shells into the place, to 
make the enemy show their strength. Some whares were set on 
fire, and, as we afterwards heard, a man's head blown off his 
shoulders ; but the garrison made no sign. All was still as death ; 
not a sound could be heard, and the General would not believe that 
the enemy were there. Under these circumstances he declined to 
Avait for the contingent to get in rear, they having a long and 
difiicult road to travel, and ordered the detachment of the 57th 
Regiment, under Lieut. -Colonels Butler and Hassard, to storm the 
stockade, supported by the 14th. Well the old Crimean veterans 
maintained their reputation. On advancing they found that the 
enemy had carefully levelled the ground in front of the pa to prevent 
the attacking party finding cover, and when within fifty yards of 
the palisades, the hitherto perfect silence was broken by a volley 
from at least 200 Hauhaus, who, hidden in their rifle-pits behind 
the strong palisades, rained death and destruction upon the gallant 
57th. For a moment the storming party halted, but Colonel Butler's 
voice, calling out, "Goon, Die Hards!" steadied them, and rushing 
to the palisade, they tore it down with hands and tomahawks, and 
entered the pa, killed all who had the presumption to stop, or had 
not time to escape. Meanwhile, Major Von Tempsky, with his 
Forest Rangers, had been engaged with a party of the enemy, who 
were in the bush on the right flank of the pa, and had driven them 
back, with a loss to himself of two men wounded. The enemy lost 
29 men killed, and our casualties were equally heavy, being eleven 
killed and twenty wounded, among the latter the gallant Colonel 
Hassard, mortally, and Lieutenant Swanson, of the 14th Regiment, 
slightlv. 



56 



THE DEFENDERS 




C A PTA IN MORRISON 



OF NE W ZEA L A ND. 5 7 



Captain Morrison. 



The first engagemenls in the Taranai War — The altac on luri-liiri 
I\Iokai — Pursuit of Titokowaru — Expeditions against 7e Kooti. 




lAPTAIN HENRY CHARLES MORRISON arrived 
in Taranaki a day or two after the first Waireka fight, 
in ]\Iarch, i860. He was enrolled as a volunteer, and 
at once sent on outpost duty to Bell Blockhouse, at 
that time garrisoned by both regular and colonial troops. He was 
under fire for the first time at General Pratt's attack on Huirangi 
(known as the Retreat of the Fifteen Hundred). Whilst at Bell 
Block, he was placed in charge of the signal department at that post. 
During the fight at Mahoetahi against the Waikatos, a message 
was received at Bell Block, by signal, from Puketekaurere to the 
effect that a large body of natives were on the march from Huirangi 
to reinforce the Waikatos at Mahoetahi, and Captain ISIorrison 
immediately volunteered to carry the message to General Pratt, 
which he was permitted to do by his commanding officer (Captain 
Strange, afterwards killed at ^latarikoriko). He succeeded in 
delivering the despatch to the General just as the Waikatos were 
being driven out of their works under a heavy fire. He afterwards 
joined the Bush Rangers under Major Atkinson, and took part in 
most of the skirmishes so frequent around New Plymouth at that 
time. He subsequently served in the Taranaki Mounted A'olun- 
teers under Captain Mace, and accompanied the various expeditions 
conducted by Colonel Warre, doing despatch duty from the military 
camps. In 1866 he received a commission in the Taranaki Military 
Settlers, and was posted to No. 5 company, commanded by his 
brother (Captain W. J. Morrison). Was stationed in command of 
the Matditawa Redoubt with a part of the company, and eventually 
proceeded to the Patea district with the company, in 1867, where 
they built and occupied the Turi-turi Mokai Redoubt. 

When the military settlers where placed on their land, he took 
up and occupied an officer's grant of 200 acres, until the murders of 
Squires, Cahill, and others compelled the occupants to abandon their 
holdings. Upon the re-occupation of the Turi-turi Mokai Redoubt 
by Captain Frederick Ross and a party of Armed Constabulary, 
Captain Morrison, whilst engaged in looking after stock and 
property, was invited by Captain Ross to share his whare, and 
probably only missed sharing that gallant officer's fate by having 



^8 2 HE DEFENDERS 

gone into Patea late on the afternoon prior to the attack on the 
redoubt. When the news of the disaster reached Lieut.-Colonel 
iNIcDonnell, Captain ]\Iorrison was ordered on active service again, 
and proceeded with the Colonel at once to Turi-turi JMokai, where 
he was placed as second in command, Captain (now Colonel) 
Roberts being his superior officer. When the latter was ordered 
to headquarters at Waihi, Captain Morrison assumed command of 
the redoubt, and upon the withdrawal of the forces to Patea, he was 
left as second in command of Kakaramea Redoubt, under Captain 
Harvey Spiller, the only outpost in the district at that time. 

In January 1869, Captain Morrison was made Sub-Inspector 
of Armed Constabulary, and was posted to No. 6 division, under 
Major Roberts. He accompanied Colonel Whitmore's expedition 
up the coast in pursuit of Titokowaru, and was present at the engage- 
ments at Taurangaika, Karaka Flats, Otauto, and Whakamaru. 
Prior to the column under Colonel Whitmore marching through 
the bush, in rear of Mount Egmont, to Waitara, he was ordered, with 
fifty of the Armed Constabulary, to march by the coast to Opunake, 
to embark on board the Sfnrf Government steamship , for Waitara; 
but on their arrival at Opunake, the sea being very rough, they had 
to continue their march towards Taranaki, and could not embark 
before arriving at Tataraiwaka, having made a raid of upwards of 
fifty miles through the enemy's country. 

Upon the removal of operations to the East Coast, Captain 
[Morrison accompanied Xo. 6 division to Tauranga, and throughout 
the Uriwera campaign, under Colonel Whitmore, returning to 
Tauranga for a few months prior to his company being ordered 
to Taupo 'the Government having decided to occupy that district 
by establishing posts between Lake Taupo and Napier). He was 
placed in command of Tapuaeharuru, and soon afterwards accom- 
panied the expedition under Colonel McDonnell to Tapapa. Upon 
that column being divided, he was ordered to accompany Major 
Kepa's party, with fifty of the Armed Constabulary, marching 
through the bush to Oropi, where Colonel Fraser had checked Te 
Kooti. Te Kooti having got through to the Uriwera country, 
Captain ^Morrison proceeded, with part of the column, to Taupo 
and again took up the command at Tapuaeharuru, partici- 
pating in the several expeditions to prevent Te Kooti from entering 
the King country. 

In October, 1871, he was ordered to Tokanu, at the south end of 
Lake Taupo, to organise a party of natives for the purpose of 
watching and scouting the tracks along the Kaimanawa Ranges. 
In 1872 he was sent to the Waikato district, and in 1878 to 
Taranaki, where Te Whiti, the prophet, began to be troublesome, 
and was stationed at Opunake, Pukehinau, and Cape Egmont. At 
the Parihaka demonstration he commanded No. 7 company. 

In October, 1883, on the Government deciding to occupy the 
Kawhia district. Captain ]\Iorrison proceeded there with the party 
under Major Tuke, and in May, 1885, was appointed to the 
command of the batteries at the North Head, Auckland. 



6o 



THE DEFENDERS 




L I E UT. -co LO N E L STAPP. 



V 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 6i 



I EUT.- Colonel Stapp. 




Bravery displayed iti Heke's War — Services in Crimea — The mtirders of 
Volkner, Ftilloon, and Rev. Mr. Whiteley. 

lEUT.-COLONEL STAPP joined Her Majesty's 58th 
Regiment in April, 1842, and came out to New South 
Wales the following year. When Heke's war broke out 
in the North, the 58th Regiment was ordered to New 
Zealand, and the Colonel was present at the attack on the Okaihau 
Pa, on the 8th May, 1845. Forming one of the forlorn hope that 
stormed the Ohaeawae Pa, he particularly distinguished himself 
on that occasion by carrying a wounded man off the field under a 
heavy fire. He was afterwards at the night attack up the Waikare 
River, and was engaged at the recapture of a hill on the ist July, 
1845; was present at the assault and capture of Kawiti's Pa, at 
Ruapekapeka, on the iith January, 1846, which event terminated 
the war. Returning to England, he volunteered for service in the 
Crimea, and received the appointment of Staff Officer to Lord 
William Paulett, who commanded in the Bosphorus, where he 
remained until the breaking up of the military establishment at 
Scutari, on the 31st July, 1856. 

Returned to New Zealand in 1857, and, on his regiment being 
ordered home the following year, he retired from the Imperial 
service, and was appointed Adjutant of the Taranaki Militia. In 
March, i860, he greatly distinguished himself at the battle of 
Waireka, by the judgment and coolness he displayed during the 
day, and in drawing off his wounded at night, after the Imperial 
forces had retired. In 1865, he was appointed to the expeditionary 
force sent to Opotiki, to avenge the murders of Volkner and Fulloon, 
and was several times engaged with the enemy. After relincjuishing 
the command, he again returned to Taranaki, and was placed in 
charge of the force that recovered the bodies of the Rev. Mr. 
Whiteley, Lieutenant and Mrs. Gascoigne and children, and the two 
settlers who were murdered by the natives. His name has been 
continually mentioned in despatches, and he has received the 
thanks of the Government on several occasions. On the 21st 
March, 1872, Major Atkinson, on behalf of the oflficers of the 
district, presented him with a field officer's sword, in appreciation 
of his services, and the Government has placed him at present in 
command of the militia and volunteer district extending from the 
White Cliffs to Rangitikei. 



62 THE DEFENDERS 



f 



iSHOP Williams. 




ISHOP WILLIAMS was at Whaerenga-a-Hika in 
March, 1868, when Kereopa made his first appearance 
in the Bay. His advent caused the greatest excitement 
among the Bishop's people. Nearly 500 of them rushed 
to arms, and insisted upon proceeding to the village of Taureka, 
where Kereopa was, announcing their intention of either expelling 
him from the district, or handing him over to the pakehas as a 
murderer. Bishop Williams evidently did not place much reliance 
on these valiant Avords ; he feared the effect of the prophet's influence 
on the fickle Maori mind, and determined to accompany them. 
His men remonstrated, but to no purpose, for his lordship was firm. 
When they arrived at the village of Taureka, Kereopa was 
surrounded by the people of the place, who had evidently fallen 
under his influence. This was so patent to the Bishops party that 
they forgot all about the expelling and capturing, and contented 
themselves with sitting down quietly and speechifying. The usual 
amount of talk ensued, and the result was that these rabid 
churchmen welcomed the murderer by rubbing noses with him. 
This concluded, Kereopa walked up and offered his hand to the 
bishop, who refused it. Kereopa demanded the reason, and his 
lordship replied, " I see blood dripping from your fingers." This 
was a sufficient answer. The prophet walked ofF somewhat crest- 
fallen, and the bishop seeing that a large majority of his people 
would join the new religion, left them and returned to his own home. 
Things now went rapidly from bad to worse, Kereopa openly urging 
the murder of the bishop ; but the tribes had hardly reached the 
pitch of fanaticism which was necessary before they could kill a 
man from whom they had received nothing but kindness ; and the 
faithful few mounted guard every night at Waerenga-a-Hika. 

By this time the Government had received inform.ation as to the 
state of affairs in the Bay, and fearing that the Rev. Mr. Volkner's 
fate might overtake the bishop, despatched a steamer to bring him 
and his family to Xapier. His lordship handed his property over 
to the old catechist and left. Scarcely had they reached the 
steamer when Kereopa and his converts arrived to loot and burn 
his house, but old Haronga seated himself on a pile of valuables 
and declared that nothing should move him. The house was not 
burnt, and old Haronga saved the property. 



64 



THE DEFENDERS 




COLONEL H AU LTAI N 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



C 



OLONEL HaULTAIN 




Colonel Haultains nnlccedents — Indian services^-Organisation of the 
A tick la nd Militia — Politica I career. 

;OLONEL HAULTAIN was born at Stoney Stratford, 
Buckinghamshire, his ancestors being of Dutch 
extraction, having come over with William of Orange, 
in 1688. They were a race of soldiers, and from that 
date to the present have had their representatives in the Imperial 
service. At the age of fourteen the Colonel entered the Royal 
Military College at Sandhurst, and obtained his commission in 1834, 
when he was ordered on foreign service, ten years of which were 
spent in India. He was placed on the Quartermaster-General's 
staff, with the Army of Reserve, then assembled at P'erozepore, with 
a view of covering the return of the army operating in Afghanistan. 
The Gwalior campaign succeeding, he took part in the same, 
serving with his regiment, the 39th, at the battle of Maharajpoor, 

Some four years later he returned to England with his regiment. 
He was then adjutant, but soon after gaining his company was 
appointed Staff Officer of Pensioners, and in 1849 brought out to 
New Zealand the eighth division of P'encibles. 

This detachment was first located at Onehunga, but on the retire- 
ment of Lieut. -Colonel Grey he was removed to Panmure. On the 
completion of his term of service with the Pensioners, namely, seven 
years, the Colonel retired from the army, and in 1856 settled down 
to farming pursuits at Mangere in company with the late lamented 
Colonel Nixon. On the outbreak of the war in i860 Colonel 
Haultain's military services were availed of by the Government in 
organising the Auckland Militia, he becoming Lieut. -Colonel of 
the first battalion. .Shortly after the opening of the Waikato cam- 
paign of 1863 the Government enrolled a large force of military 
settlers, in order to occupy the confiscated lands, and guard the 
frontier. This force was formed into four regiments, Lieut.-Colonel 
Haultain having the command of one of them, the 2nd AVaikato 
Regiment, then stationed at Alexandra. He was present at the 
engagement at Orakau, and here he gained the rank of Colonel 
for his services on the field on that day, and was afterwards 
promoted Colonel-Commandant of the four Waikato regiments. 

In 1865 he resigned his military post to attend the session of 
the General Assembly. Here he was in opposition to the Weld 



66 THE DEFENDERS 

Ministry with respect to the policy of the removal of the Imperial 
forces. Colonel Haultain entered the Assembly in 1859 as member 
for the Southern Division of Auckland, having defeated Mr. David 
Graham by a majority of one. At the general election of 1861 he 
was defeated by Mr. Charles Taylor, but was again returned in 
1864 as the representative of Franklin consequent on the death of 
Colonel Xixon. 

In October, 1865, the Weld Ministry were defeated and resigned 
ofhce, and on !Mr. Stafford forming a new cabinet the Colonel was 
offered and accepted the portfolio of Defence IMinister. In this 
capacity, from 1865 to 1869, he supervised the location of the 
military settlers, and directed the operations of the colonial forces 
on both the east and west coasts of the North Island, a period 
which included the Wanganui Campaign, opening with Turi-turi 
Mokai, the crossing over the great Xgaire swamp after Titokowaru, 
the siege and capture of Ngatapa, and finishing with the expedi- 
tions into the Uriwera country. The operations of the Whaka- 
marama expedition in the vicinity of Tauranga were conducted by 
Colonel Haultain in person until stricken down with rheumatic 
fever, which compelled him to retire from active service. 

Colonel Haultain went out of ofPxCe wiih his colleagues in June, 
1 869, and received the title of Honourable on the recommendation of 
His Excellency the Governor, having served the colony as Defence 
]\linister over three years. At the general election in 1870, the 
Colonel declined to stand for re-election, retiring from that date 
from active political life. In 1871 he was made a member of the 
Flax Commission, drew up a report on the workings of the Native 
Lands Act, took charge of the payment of the Imperial pensioners, 
became Trust Commissioner under the Native Lands Frauds Pre- 
ventive Act, and, on the death of Colonel Balneavis, succeeded to the 
office of sheriff, the duties of which he fulfilled until it was united 
with that of registrar. He was trustee of St. John's College and 
Grammar School, member of the Board of Education, joint 
secretary of the Howe-street Industrial Home, and was selected by 
the present Government to represent the Colony of New Zealand in 
the reception given in Sydney to the New South Wales contingent 
on their return from the Egyptian campaign. The Colonel's 
bearing as Defence Minister was, although firm, most gracious. A 
strict disciplinarian himself, giving his whole mind to any duty he 
undertook, he naturally expected all under him to do the same. 



68 



IHE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR N E I LU. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



69 




AJOI\ 



N 



EILL. 



Tivenlv years' army lift' in Ne'V Ztaland — The attack on Kai-taka-luria Pa — 
The first brush in the Waikato — Fii^hting at Razorhack — The shelling 
of Meremere. 




A.MUEL NEILL enlisted in Ireland in Her Majesty's 
65th Regiment, or Royal Bengal Tigers f^as they were 
always called), when quite a young man, and after a few- 
years of home service w^as despatched with his regiment 
to New Zealand, where they remained until the rebellion was 
nearly over, a period of tw^enty years. His diary, which I give 
verbatim, shows the vicissitudes the regiment passed through, and 
how a steady, sensible soldier can rise from the lowest ranks of the 
service to one of the highest, in a short space of time, if he only 
takes advantage of the opportunities that offer in the daily routine 
of life. He left the regiment on the expir'a ion of his term of 
service as Colour-sergeant to join the colonial force as the 
author's Quartermaster-sergeant and has now retired a iNIajor of 
Militia, a rank which his steady conduct and constant attention to 
his duties fully entitled him to. 



THE ROYAL BENGAL TKtERS. 
Diary of an old 65TH Man. 

" Her Majesty's 65th Regiment landed in Auckland on the jGtli 
of March, 1847, and :n the following January my company wi h 
others were drafted to Wellington. During the year 1S49 I was 
sent into the commissariat department, where I remained until the 
issu2 of rati'jn rum to the troops was discontinued. In Sep- 
tember, 1853, I was sent on detachment to Porirua until that post 
was broken up when I again returned to Wellington, acting as 
Commissariat-sergeant on board the Shepherdess while shifting 
troops to Wanganui. The war having in the meantime broken out 
in Taranaki, and the volunteers and militia of the colony called out, 
I was sent to Turakina to assist in drilling this portion of the 
newly-raised force ; but the rebellion sprer.ding I was called upon 
to join my company and we landed zX. Taranaki in July, 1861, and 
immediately marched for the Waitara, occupying a redoubt until 
recalled to garrison the town so as to enable the 57th Regiment 
quartered there to take the field, which they did on the following 



70 THE DEFENDERS 

morning by marching southwards and occupying the country by 
building three redoubts, variously named St. Patrick's, St. 
Andrew's, and St. George's. They were just finished and manned 
when the Governor and General Cameron arrived. This Vvas in 
April, 1863, and preparations for the winter campaign commenced, 
urged on by the massacre of Lieutenant Tragett, Dr. Hope and 
nine non-commissioned officers and men, who were ambuscaded by 
the natives at the Wairoa Stream on their way to town ; one man 
alone escaped by running for his life. On his reaching St. 
Andrew's Redoubt a relief party was sent out, who found nothing 
but the dead and mutilated bodies of their comraJes. 

'• The news of the massacre caused a fearful commotion in town, 
the vclunteer3 and militia clamouring to be allowed to avenge their 
deaths, while the whole of the Impsrial force involuntarily got under 
arms, exp cting orders to march immediately, and were greatly 
disappointed when the cnly orders given were that three hundred 
men proceed to meet and assist the party bringing in the bodies. 
No further steps were taken until the 3rd of June, when orders were 
issued that the militia and volunteers should garri on the town, and 
that the whole of the Imperial force parade at sundown in light 
marching order, with ninety rounds of ammunit'on per man; the 
artillery and baggage waggons to start one hour before the troops, 
under proper escort. On arrival at St. Patrick's Redoubt, the 57th 
were relieved by 200 of the 70th, and, on reaching St. Andrew's 
Redoubt, the 70th replaced the 57th there also, while the 40th, 
200 strong, relieved the headquarters of the 57th at St. George's. 
We then formed in column by regiments — mounted and fcot 
artillery on the right. Royal Engineers next, the 57th and 65th, 
and 100 men of the 70th on the left. 

" General Cameron then addressed us, saying that he was about 
to attack and carry by assault the Kai-taka-turia Pa on the hill in 
front, to avenge the loss of the officers and men who fell a' the 
Wairoa Stream, and he knew well we would uphold the prestige 
of the British army The 57th immediately begged the honour of 
the storming party, and that their old friends, the Tigers, should 
support them, which was immediately granted ; and the whole 
force piled arms and laid down to rest until daybreak. All was 
profound stillness, when, as the first streaks of dawn appeared, the 
quiet was broken by a shell on its flight from a man-of-war in the 
offing opening the ball. The force sprang to their feet as one man, 
fell in by companies, and moved off by divisions from the right. 
The 57th and 65th, extended in skirmishing order, doubled up the 
hill, and the attack commenced. The natives reserved their 
fire until tlie 57th was close up to the pa, when the dogs of 
war were let locse in earnest. Nothing daunted, the 57th made 
straight for the pa, and, despite the Maori fire and tomahawk, 
threw themselves over the pallisades in every conceivable manner, 
and, with the old Tigers at their heels, were scon in possession of 
the pa. In fact, the 57th had fairly taken it before the reserve got 
properly up. Many of the natives in the pa took refuge in their 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 71 

whares, and could only be got out by setting fire to them. The 
loss on our side was four killed and twelve wounded, while 54 dead 
bodies of the enemy were visible, besides three consumed in the 
whares. A few escaped, and, after our dead and wounded were 
collected, we started in pursuit, and had just found their where- 
abouts, when from all parts ot the field the bugle sounded the halt, 
retire, and double, while orders were issued to leav^e all behind, 
and make for the beach to embark on board the man-of-war, as 
the town had been attacked during our absence. And it was not 
until after we had rounded the Sugar Loaf Rocks, we could see 
that it was an Exeter Hall or a political dodge to save the natives. 
The killed and wounded had been got on board, as well as the 
57th and 65th, while the 70th and baggage were to return by the 
road. 

"A few days after the attack, the Governor and General both 
left for Auckland, as affairs began to look very ' pouri ' in the 
Waikato, and on the morning of the 28th June, just as another 
expedition was about to start from Taranaki, under Colonel Warre 
of the 57th Regiment, to make a second attack on the Kai-taka- 
turia Pa, the natives having returned and taken possession of it in 
our absence, a man-of-war steamer was seen in the distance, 
evidently coming from Auckland, and our expedition was postponed 
until after her arrival in the roadstead. Captain Sullivan, the 
officer in command of the vessel, came on shore, having despatches 
for Colonel Warre, to embark without delay the men of the 40th, 
65th, and 70th Regiments, as they were required in Auckland. 
Consequently the second expedition fell through. The natives, 
remaining in comfortable possession of their fortifications, and 
verily believing we dared not again attack them, acquired boldness 
in their future operations against us. 

" The men and baggage were soon on board, and we left the 
same evening- for Auckland, arriving on the night of the 29th. 
As the 2nd battalion of the i8th Royal Irish were daily expected, 
being under orders to relieve the 65th, ordered home, every prepa- 
ration was made by the men for embarking on their arrival, and 
great were the rejoicings of the old Tigers when, on the 4th July, 
the 18th Royal Irish arrived. But, alas! they were doomed to 
disappointiiient by orders received on the gth to proceed to Drury, 
and not to take with them anything further than a change, their 
great-coats, and one blanket each, as they would not be away more 
than nine days. We arrived in Drury on the loth, and, having 
pitched camp, the whole regiment assembled together for the first 
time since leaving Dublin in 1 845, a period of eighteen years. After 
the men had dined the whole regiment fell in, and were each served 
with a tomahawk, haversack, and ninety rounds of ammunition, 
when some artillery and the right wing of the 65th, under Colonel 
Wyatt, started for Tuakau ; 100 artillery, some of the i8th Royal 
Irish, and the left wing of the 65th, under the command of Lieut. - 
Colonel Murray, left for Kirikiriroa, to warn all the natives who were 
disloyal to the Queen to cross the Waikato river within fourteen 



-2 THE DEFENDERS 

days, or they would be treated as rebels, and taken prisoners. After 
performing this duty the Captain of my company applied and 
obtained permission for his men to do duty as bush rangers, so that 
we were out nearly every night, scouring the bush and forming 
convoys to protect the commissariat drays that left Drury every 
morning for the Queen's Redoubt. On the 17th of July, while the 
grog was being served out, a volley was heard from the direction of 
Shepherd's Bush, and, at the call for the bush rangers, we did not 
even wait to fall in, iDut each one ran as fast as he could in the 
direction of the firing. It turned out to be an attack made by the 
Maoris on a small convoy returning from the Queen's Redoubt to 
Drury, in command of Captain Ring, of Her Majesty's second 
battalion of the i8th, on a very dangerous part of the road. 
Captain Ring had retired with some of his men to Martin's Farm. 
On arrival we found the Maoris so busy plundering the 
commissariat drays that they did not notice our approach, and 
the first volley made them scatter away into the bush, where we 
followed them, until we got abreast of Martin's P'arm, where we 
were joined by some men from Williamson's Clearing, w'ho had 
also heard the firing; and as we started back again to look for 
Captain Ring we picked up four men of the i8th Regiment and 
one of the 70th killed, besides twelve of the i8th wounded, and 
carried them back to Drury. 

" During the running skirmish there was a man of the 65th 
Regiment named Gallagher, who, annoyed at seeing a huge Maori 
urging on the rest to stand and fight the pakeha, ran after him and 
shot him down, and on examining him found he had on three shirts 
and a large Hauhau flag wrapped round his chest, measuring nine 
feet in length. Having buried him decently we cut and planted a 
flagstaff near him, on which we hoisted the Maori flag with the 
Union Jack over it. This was the first brush in the Waikato 
district. 

" The fourteen days having expired, the Artillery (under 
Lieutenant Rate), the 18th Regiment (under Major Inman), with 
300 of the 65th Regiment, the whole under the command of 
Colonel ]\Iurray, started to pay another visit to Kirikiri to see if the 
M loris had obeyed orders and cleared out of the district. On our 
arrival at Papakura we fell in with Colonel Nixon's two troops of 
volunteer cavalry, and at daylight the following morning the force 
was divided. One part, under Major Inman, started for Wairoa ; 
the other part, under Colonel Murray, for Kirikiri. We advanced 
in light skirmishing order and took two pas without firing a shot. 
Fulloon, the Maori interpreter who was with Colonel jMurray's 
party, found out from an old Maori in the pa that all the fighting 
men were in the bush, and would soon be returning ; he con- 
sequently advised Colonel Murray to plant his prisoners under 
guard in the whares, and get his men under cover in the bush 
around the pa. He had hardly done so when about a dozen women 
came in with swags on their back, followed by the men walking in 
Indian file, armed with guns, tomahawks and spears. They had 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 73 

just formed up inside the pa when, at a signal given, the troops 
made a rush and took them prisoners, while the interpreter shouted 
out to them in Maori that the scldiers would not harm them if they 
laid down their arms. Major Inman was also successful in taking 
a pa, so that the hrst lot of Maori prisoners taken in the W'aikato 
war were sent down to Otahuhu, while Captain Ring and two 
hundred of the 18th Regiment were left in charge of the district, 
with orders to erect redoubts and keep it clear of Maori rebels. 

" Soon after this, a settler went into the bush for a load of 
firewood, and was waylaid and shot, the natives taking his 
bullocks and dray. No sooner was this known than Colonel 
Wyatt, of the 65th, ordered out some of the i8th and C)5th men 
to search for the murdered man, and they found him in a Maori 
clearing near the bush, and on the way to Hay's farm, hearing 
heavy firing towards Kirikiri, Colonel Wyatt started off in that 
direction. On arrival the only occupant of th 3 pa was found to be an 
old decrepit woman who told us the Maoris were all in the bush and 
pointed out a road which she stated they had taken, but the Colonel, 
not deeming- it necessary to go further, returned with the d'ead body 
to Drury, where he was overtaken by the bugler of the Royal 
Artillery, who informed Colonel Wyatt thatCap'.ain Ring was sur- 
rounded in the bush, and had already one ma!i killed and four 
wounded. 'Right-about-turn' was the order gi 'en, and back 
again to Kirikiri we marched, taking the track the IMaori woman 
had pointed out, and we had not proceeded far when we came upon 
the unfortunate man's bullocks, and a little further on we saw a 
scout perched up in a tree, who gave the alarm ; but a corporal of 
ours, who was leading, soon brought him down, and we all made 
for the clearing, where we found some of the rebels sitting quietly 
around their fires cooking, while the rest kept up a brisk fire on 
Captain Ring and the i8th. Our first fire dispersed them like 
magic as they rolled themselves down the hill and di appeared in the 
bush. Colonel Wyatt, fancying he had got between two fires, 
ordered the 65th regimental call to be sounded, when a cheer to the 
left showed the position of tha i8th, whom we hastened to relieve. 
We then followed up the ]\Iaoris, knocking over nine of them in the 
skirmish. At this moment we were joined by Lieutenant Rate and 
his artillerymen, whom he had dismounted, and were armed with 
revolvers and swords. We only lo3t one man, private Meade, of 
No. I Company, and I succeeded in taking a first-class double-barrel 
gun, tomahawk and spear. I handed the spear over to Dr. White, 
while the gun and tomahawk I had to give up on our return to 
camp. We remained on the ground until Captain Ring took off his 
detachment and returned to Drury. 

" Soon afterwards we were relieved by the 70th Regiment and 
shifted to Queen's Redoubt, where we were broken up into small 
detachments and sent to Razorback, Williamson's Clearing, Martin's 
Farm, and other places along the old South Road, where the 
convoys had to pass. One of our sentries noticing a body of 
Maoris crossing the road between Razorback ann our redoubt, I 



74 THE DEFENDERS 

increased the guard that night, in case of an attack. All was 
quiet until day dawn, when a volley was heard away to the left, a 
post occupied' by the ist Waikatos. Fifty of our men, under 
Colonel Murray, started as quick as possible, guided by the firing, 
and arrived only in time to have a parting shot. Here Captain 
Sal tm arch was wounded, and we lost one man, Private fohn 
McKay ; the Maoris lost heavily. We had hardly got back to 
breakfast, when the alarm was again sounded, firing being heard 
in the neighbourhood of Razorback, and away we started again, 
the Maoris having this time attacked the convoy close to the 
redoubt. Only two men were wounded. One a young man, or 
rather lad, was wounded in the hand, the ball passing between 
two of his fingers without breaking any bones. Nevertheless it 
caused the young soldier to cry out so lustily, * Oh mother, dear, I 
am kilt ! ' as to amuse the whole of his company. 

" The next skirmish we had was on the day the jNIaoris killed 
the two sentries placed over the arms of the 40th while the 
men were felling bush between Razorback and Williamson's 
Clearing. The advanced guard of the convoy saw the Maoris 
crossing the road into the bush, carrying the captured rifles, and 
two of the convoy fired at them, and one man was seen to fall, but 
he rose again, when Captain Clark, who was in charge of the 
convoy, jumping off his horse, asked the man what distance he 
had sighted his rifle. He replied 600 yards ; and Captain Clark, 
taking a loaded rifle from another man, sighted it and fired at the 
same Maori, who was limping behind the others, and brought him 
down a second time. He again tried to rise, when a large black 
dog belonging to one of the men caught him and held him until we 
got up. The remainder got clear away with the fifty stand of new 
rifles. 

"A few days after, the Maoris attacked Razorback Redoubt, 
where two companies of the 65th were stationed. One of the 
sentries noticed a bush that seemingly got nearer and nearer to 
him. He thought it so strange that he told the next sentry to 
look out, and pass the word into the redoubt to hold themselves in 
readiness. The bush still advanced, and, just as the sentry was 
about to fire, a Maori darted out with rifle levelled, but the sentry 
was too quick for him, and shot him dead before he could get his 
weapon to his shoulder. The next moment a regular volley was 
fired from the surrounding bush, riddling the tents and wounding 
three of the men. The Maori killed turned out to be a chief who 
had adopted that method of leading his men. We gave him a 
burial suited to his rank, some of the men erecting a slab to his 
memory. 

" Soon after, we were shifted to the Queen's Redoubt, and from 
there were sent one nightto strengthen the Whangamarino Redoubt, 
overlooking Meremere, which was threatened with an attack. 
While here, an outlying picket, a young lad of the 12th Regiment, 
seeing something resembling a pig moving about in the dark, 
hesitated to fire for fear of being laughed at by his comrades ; 



OF NEW ZEALAND. ^^ 

when suddenly this supposed pig sprang upon him, makint: a 
desperate blow at his head with a long-handled tomahawk but 
struck his rifle just where the sentry had his left thumb ready to 
fire. The force of the blow severed the thumb from his hand and 
the yell he gave was heard all over the camp, but the Maori got 
away clear. The lad was in the hospital for two months. 

"Subsequently, Lieutenant Pickard was sent up the Waikato 
River with two guns to shell Aleremere. This pa was situated 
about nine miles from the Queen's Redoubt, on the bank of the 
river. General Cameron ordered up two gunboats, the Avon and 
Pioneer. Their bulwarks were iron-plated to withstand bullets, 
and all the best marksmen were collected and sent on board, as the 
General wished to reconnoitre the enemy's stronghold. On the 
steamer arriving opposite the place the Maoris opened fire from 
some old ships' guns they had fixed in the forks of some trees. 
One of the shots penetrated the bulwarks and lodged in a cask of 
beef which was on deck. The cask Avas quickly opened and the 
missile was found to be the weight taken from a pair of steelyards. 
Taking no notice of their fire we proceeded up the river nearly to 
Rangiriri ; when, on returning, the General ordered the artillery to 
get ready for action, as he was going to give the natives a volley 
when he arrived off Meremere. The consequence of our not 
returning their fire on going up the river was apparent by the 
confident manner in which they had assembled to annihilate us on 
our return. The word was now passed along to man the portholes 
and load, which we did quickly, and the General ordered the 
forty-pounders to open fire with shell,. and the artillery poured in a 
volley which made them scamper under cover in every direction, 
so that a minute later not a Maori was to be seen. About twenty 
or thirty shells were thrown into the pa, but as no one landed the 
effect could not be ascertained. The General was only too anxious 
to be at them, but he had to wait the Governor's orders and the 
Governor was waiting for nobody knows who, the result being that, 
a day or two after, the Maoris actually came down and opened fire 
upon us while in the midst of divine service outside the Queen's 
Redoubt. After the service was over Colonel Havelock and Maj(^r 
Blythe, of the 40th, took out a party of men and drove them back 
into the bush without loss on either side. In the evening I received 
orders to issue a large quantity of picks, spades and shovels for the 
use of the troops, when wo.d came down from Lieutenant Pickard 
that the Maoris w^ere evacuating ]\Ieremere. Every man was now 
put in motion —steamers, vessels and every craft that would carry a 
man w^as brought into use — but the place was deserted before we 
arrived. They had left their big guns behind, being too heavy to 
remove, which we afterwards sent down to Auckland as trophies. 
General Cameron, after leaving a strong detachment at Meremere, 
returned to the Queen's Redoubt, and I again joined the store 
department and saw no more fighting in the Waikato. 

" On the 9th of April I received my discharge and proceeded to 
Wanganui, and on the 29th joined the staff of militia and volun- 



76 THE DEFENDERS 

teers of the district, \vas promoted Captain on the igth April, 1873, 
and commanded the volunteers in the Patea, Rangitiki, and 
Wanganui districts from ist July, 1883, to the 31st, and was further 
promoted to Major unattached on the 3rd April, 1883." 



Sergeant ^b. /Austin. 





Heroic conduct at Putaki Pa — Narro7i' escape of Captain W. McDonnell. 

pERGEAXT SAMUEL AUSTIN received the New 
Zealand Cross for gallant and distinguished conduct on 
the 7th January, 1866, when at the capture of the Putahi 
Pa, Lieut. -Colonel McDonnell was severely wounded, 
and vSergeant Austin carried him during a great part cf the 
engagement, under a raking lire, and finally off the field, which 
action was witnessed by General Chute, who then thanked him for 
his fearless and heroic conduct, not only in this instance, but on 
all occasions during the campaign on the West Coast. Also, on 
the 17th October, 1866, at the capture of the village of Keteoneta. 
Captain William McDonnell, leading a small advance guard of 
Maoris, came upon an ambush, and fell severely wounded. Hi3 
men, leaving him, retired on the main body, who commenced to 
retreat, when Sergeant Austin, assisted by another man (since 
dead , returned to where Captain jNIcDonnell lay on the point of 
being tomahawked by the enemy, and at all risks carried him off. 



78 



THE DEFENDERS 




JOHN WHITE 



OF NEW ZEALAND. ^g 



OHN White. 




Land purchases for the Government — ResiJen/ ^Ta^islrafc for Central 
Wanganui — Tribal ivar/are — The attack on Puketeliatiere—Graphic 
account of the engagement. 

OHN WHITE, for many years Resident Magistrate at 
Wanganui, came out to this colony in its very earliest 
days, and took up his residence at Ilokianga until 
Heke's war compelled him to move to Auckland. He 
was present with Colonel Wynyard, the then Deputy-Governor, at 
a meeting of the chiefs at Coromandel, when that district was first 
proclaimed a goldfield, and received his appointment as (iold 
Commissioner, under Major Heaphy, V.C. Soon afterwards, he 
was appointed interpreter and land purchaser, under .Surveyor- 
General Ligar, and purchased for the Government the district now 
known as Waitakerei, and obtained from the natives a deed of gift 
of two chains in width, from the head of the Waitemata River to 
Helensville, for the present Helensville railway. He also succeeded 
in extinguishing the native title over most of the land in the 
Auckland district. Being appointed Resident Magistrate of 
Central Wanganui, he soon made himself acquainted with the 
native chiefs, attending all their meetings and instructing them in 
English laws, etc., opening his court, and deciding their disputes 
so satisfactorily that even Hemi Hape, the rebel chief, who had 
headed the natives in the former raid on Wanganui, gave in his 
adherence to the Government. General Cameron had now arrived 
at Wanganui, and having taken up his quarters at Waitotara, gave 
Mr. White orders to inform the rebel natives up the river that if 
they made their appearance below the island of Moutoa they would 
be fired upon by the friendly natives who were protecting the 
river. But Epanaia and his party, taking no notice of the warning, 
came down the river and, firing on the friendly Maoris, killed 
Nape. A regular fight ensued, in which the rebels were beaten 
back, many of them being killed, and the remainder taken prisoners. 
As Resident Native Magistrate, Mr. White was instructed to 
discover, and report to the General commanding, the movements 
and intentions of the rebel natives, which he did very successfully. 
Mr. White was also present at the attack on Puketekauere, at 
Taranaki, and his report of this battle being the best given, I quote 
it vcrbafim. He says :— " We had been stationed at ^Vaitara for 



8o THE DEFENDERS 

some time when "Mr. Richard Brown, in passing on his way to town, 
was waylaid by a Maori servant of his, and mortally wounded. 
The camp was situated on the south bank of the river, about a 
thousand yards from its mouth, on rising ground, while Pukete- 
kauere lay about half a mile inland on a sugar-loaf shaped hill. 
The pa was about an acre in extent, surrounded with an embank- 
ment, and a fence about ten feet in height. The hill all around 
was covered with high fern. On the south was a deep, swampy 
valley, covered with soft grass and fern, and on the south-east a 
narrow strip of dry land, connecting the pa with the mainland, also 
covered with high fern. The day before we made the attack on 
the pa, we noticed that the natives had, in a valley between us and 
the pa, built up some fences. While in the act of destroying these, 
one of our men's rifle burst, in consequence of a Maori bullet 
entering the barrel, just as he had pulled the trigger. A council of 
war was held, and it was determined to attack the position. Colonel 
Gold was to leave the township, marching overland, so as to join 
us by five o'clock in the morning. One half of our force was 
to take up a position on the river bank side of the pa, whilst the 
other half were to attack on the inland side. This party consisted 
of 175 soldiers and sailors, under command of Captain Seymour 
and Captain Nelson, of the 40th Regiment. We left camp about 
two o'clock in the morning on a miserable drizzling day, Sergeant 
Margorem having charge of our one gun — the twelve-pounder. 
About a quarter of a mile from the camp our party divided — 
one half going off to the left, the other half continuing on the 
main road to the pa. Having taken up our position on the south 
side of the valley, we there waited for daylight and for the 
force under Colonel Gold, which was expected to join us. We had 
been seen from the pa, and had been fired upon, and we found 
our men on the north side of the pa returning the fire. The shots 
fell thick amongst us, as we held a position on a hill about three 
hundred and fifty yards from the pa, the only position from which 
the pa could be seen. As the fire from the pa became hot, we 
returned it, when an old chief left the pa, walking down the narrow 
strip of land described as joining the swamp to the mainland, and 
although some of our shots fell close to him, he did not seem to 
take the slightest notice. Reaching the valley, we soon found the 
fern alive with the rebels intending to attack our right. The 
twelve-pounder opened on them with canister and grape, which 
soon dispersed them. I was standing near to Captain Seymour 
when a rifle ball cut a piece off a bullock's horn which was attached 
to the gun, and one of the artillerymen was shot in the stomach, and 
dropped dead within a few yards of me. Soon afterwards. Captain 
Seymour was hit in the thigh, and taking off his neck-tie bound 
up the wound. In doing so he said, ' By all that's good, do not 
let it be known that I am wounded,' and took no further notice of 
his injury, save that now and then he bit his lip in silence as he 
moved about to give his orders. Just then, we perceived, in the 
direction of the Hui range, a large body of natives coming to the 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 8 1 

support of the rebels, and as our men on the bank of the river were 
not able to get near the pa, and could not see the enemy coming, 
they were soon surrounded and cut off from us. Some of them fell 
fighting to the last, while others were driven up the river and killed 
or drowned. The wounded with our party included a midshipman, 
w^hose hand w^as smashed, and a soldier, who had a ball in his left 
breast. They were taken charge of by me and another soldier, and 
taken to the camp. On the way we met another wounded man, 
who had his ankle broken, and after reaching the camp we went 
back to assist him. For thirty-six hours before the battle, I liad 
not time to eat, and I had no sooner seen the wounded safe in the 
hospital than I swooned away, and w'as laid up for ten day.^." 

Since the war, the New Zealand Government has entrusted Mr. 
White with the onerous duty of writing a complete history of the 
Maori race, and from his knowledge of the native customs and 
language, it will probably become a standard work. 



82 THE DEFENDERS 



Ei\GEANT R. Shepherd. 



Hoiv he ivon the New Zealand Cross — The siege of Ngalapa — Hair-hreadth 

escapes. 




ERGEANT RICHARD SHEPHERD, of the Armed 
Constabulary, obtained the New Zealand Cross for dis- 
tinguished bravery at Otauto, the 13th March, 1869, 
^^I J whils holding the ground close to the encampir.ent, and 
enabhng- a close reconnaissance to be made by Major Kepa and 
the colonel commanding. Sergeant Shepherd was dangerously 
wounded on this occasion. The bullet entered at the left side of 
the jaw, passing under the tongue and out of the right side of 
neck, within a hairbreadth of the jugular vein. Sergeant Shepherd 
was entrusted with this important duty by Colonel G. S. Whitmore 
(now Sir George), and told to hold the narrow path leading to the 
IMaori encampment until relieved by Colonel Lyon, who v/as 
expected up in a short time with a porti:n of the field force. Of 
the six volunteers who were along with him, three of them were 
shot through the head. Corporal Guthrie wr.s struck in the mouth 
by a spent bullet, knocking out two of his teeth, and he coolly 
put his fingers into his mouth and pulled out the bullet. A 
young man named Langford \\as in the act of firing when a 
bullet passed through the wrist of his left hand, then cutting off 
two fingers of his right hand, and finally entering his right 
breast and passing out under the shoulder-blade. It was all 
but a hand-to-hand conflict. There were three killed and four 
wounded out of the seven. 

When Te Kooti made his escape from the Chatham Islands, and 
landed at Poverty Bay, Sergeant Shepherd was along with No. i 
Division in their long chase after him; and when the arch-rebel 
and his followers entrenched themselves in the Ngatapa Pa, 
Sergeant Shepherd was selected as the officer to take charge of 
ten men who were appointed to hold a narrow ridge at the back 
of the pa, it being the only place where there was a possibility of 
the Maoris making their escape. The position this party occupied 
was on a hill at the back of the pa, and situated about twenty 
yards from the enclosure. Amongst the party was vSolomon 
Black, Whaponga (a Maori), and Barry Reid, who also got the 
New Zeal?nd Cross for gallant services. This party had their 
work cut out, as they were conctantly exposed to a galling fire 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 83 

from the Maoris. The only cover they had was a small breast- 
work of stones, and about a foot deep of a trench they dug out 
with bayonets and tomahawks. They held this position from the 
ist of January to the morning- of the 5th, when the pa was taken 
by the besieging forces. On the fourth d^iy, the men were worn 
out with their long watch, and some of them left the trench to get 
refreshed by having a good wash. The Maoris, taking advantage 
of the weakened state of the place, to the number of about twenty, 
made a sortie, and killed two of the party and wounded one. 
Sergeant Shepherd had a very narrow escapa on this occasion, as 
the shoukUr-knot was shot off his coat, and a bullet tore the skin 
off his forefinger and thumb. During the fight he reached out his 
hand to prevent a wounded man frjm falling down the cliff, and 
when he looked up a big Maori was standing with his rifle to his 
shoulder and the muzzle within about three feet cf the Sergeant's 
body. He fully expected his time had come, as he could plainly 
see a line from the fore-sight along the barrel and o/er the back- 
sight to the rebel's eye, and if the Maori had fired a period would 
have been put to his existence; but Sergeant Flowers, of the 
Poverty Bay Scouts, had come upon the scene just at the critical 
moment, and, by a shot from his revolver, laid the JNIaori low. 

The following letter and memorandum show that Sergeant 
Shepherd did good service during the war, and also that the 
training he received in Her jMajesty's 68th Light Infantry was not 
lost upon him : — 

"Native and Defence Office, Wellington, i y,h May, iSyS. 

" Sir, — Under instructions from the Honourable Native Minister, I have 
the hono-'.r to inform you that His Excellency the Governor has been pleased 
to award you the New Zealand Cross for gallant services rendered by you 
during the late war. 

" W. MouLE, Lieut. -Colonel. 

" Mr. R. Shepherd, late Sergeant 
"Armed Constabulary Force." 

"Wellington, i^th August, iSyo. 

" Sergeant Shepherd served under my command in tho Armed Con- 
stabulary from the first raising of No. i division, and was only discharged on 
account of a very severe and painful wound, which he received at Otauto, 
near Patea, on the 13th March, 1869. The Sergeant was always a steady, 
civil, well-conducted man, and a brave, smart, and willing soldier. I have 
seen him on several occasions under fire, and have known him to distinguish 
himself upon many occasio?iS. 

" G. S. Whitmore, Colonel, late Commanding Field Force." 



84 THE DEFENDERS 




AJO]\ HeF^FOI^D. 




Iler/ord's bravery at Orakau — lie is shol in Ihc head ivhile assaulting the 
pa — Remarkable recovery and sudden death. 

'AJOR HERFORD, in 1863, when the New Zealand 
Government sent officers to Australia to raise men to 
serve in the Waikato, was practising as a barrister, in 
South Australia, and being full of the love of adven- 
ture, threw up his practice and, raising a company, joined the 
3rd Waikato Regiment, in which he was gazetted captain. He 
subsequently joined the Transport service and was sent to 
the front within a week of his arrival at Te Awamutu. 
The Maoris, under Rewi Maniapoto, were discovered entrench- 
ing" themselves at Orakau. Captain Herford at once applied 
for, and received from the general in command, permission 
to join the storming party. The pa was much stronger than 
was anticipated, the consequence being that most of the 
officers and a number of the men comprising the storming party 
fell under the withering fire of an unseen enemy, and the first rush 
of our men was beaten off by the rebels. Major Herford, however, 
with Lieutenant Harrison and a few of the Transport men, would 
not give way, and bursting through the light outer palisading 
surrounding the pa, rushed into the great inner trench and 
endeavoured to scramble up the embankment. It was an act of 
splendid but unavailing bravery ; for while vainly struggling to 
clamber up the steep sides of the trench, Major Herford was shot 
by a Maori who, for a moment, stood on the top of the parapet just 
above him. The bullet entered his skull, just above the eyebrow, 
and he fell apparently dead. His comrades carried his body to 
the rear, out of the enemy's fire, and the surgeon proceeded to 
examine him, but, upon seeing- an apparently lifeless body with 
a bullet-hole in the forehead, naturally concluded that it was a case 
beyond his skill, and did not hesitate to say so. Very soon 
after, however, Herford showed signs of life, and opening his 
uninjured eye, recognised some of those around him. He 
subsequently, to all appearance, recovered, was promoted to the 
rank of major, when he suffered a sudden relapse, and died in 
great suffering. A post mortciu disclosed the remarkable fact that 
the bullet was still in his head, havmg traversed round to the 
back of the skull, where its irritating presence had caused a fatal 
abscess to form. 



V* 



86 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN MESSENGER 



0/ X£JV ZEALAND. 87 



APTAIN yA/lESSENGER. 




Taranaki sei/lers summoned to arms — The battle of JVatre/ca — Attack on 
Ml mi Pa — Battle of Mahoetahi — E7igagement at Aliens Hill — 
Amusing incident at Stoney Rivcr--Wreck of the steamer Alexandra — 
The Mhite Cliffs massacre. 

APTAIN MESSENGER, wiih most of the younger 
settlers of Taranaki, perceiving the warlike disposition 
of the natives around them, had formed themselves into 
a company of volunteers years before the outbreak, 
determined to prepare themselves for the defence of their homes 
in the fight for supremacy which had only been delayed by the 
Government of the day acceding to the demands of the natives 
and bribing them with costly presents. AVhen the threatened 
outbreak did take place, therefore, William Alessenger, who had 
done duty as full private and sergeant, was made ensign of the 
Taranaki Militia, promoted to the rank of lieutenant on the 4th 
December, 1862, made captain on 27th July, 1863, and sub-inspector 
of Armed Constabulary on the 2nd December, 1877, when he was 
placed in command of the post at White Cliffs, where he has been 
stationed ever since. His own account of the events as they 
occurred at Taranaki is so lucid that I give it verbatim. 

He says that he joined the volunteer force in consequence of the 
uneasy feeling of the settlers with regard to native matters, about 
June, 1858, as a private, was elected sergeant in 1859, ^"^ ^t the 
outbreak of hostilities in i860 received a commission as ensign in 
the Taranaki Militia, After assisting in building the stockade at 
Omata, a village about three miles out of New Pl3'mouth, he was 
ordered into town to assist in putting it into a state of defence. He 
marched with the militia and volunteers, under Major Stapp, to 
the relief of the Rev. H. H. Brown, on the2Sth March, i860, which 
led to the first battle (Waireka). In this engagement he was under 
the immediate command of Captain Charles Brown. It is a fact, 
perhaps not generally known, that the militia in that engagement 
were armed only with the old Brown Bess muskets ; the volunteers 
had rifles, but many of the members having just joined, were 
ignorant of the sighting of the weapons placed in their hands. 
Messenger was near Lieutenant Urquhart, of the 65th, about four 
o'clock in the afternoon, when the "retire" sounded. The fire was 
very heavy at the time, and not until it had sounded three times 



88 2HE DEFENDERS 

and an order arrived for Lieutenant Urquhart to retire at once, did 
this brave officer leave the field. On leaving he said to the 
volunteers, " Well, I suppose I must go,'' and he took his men back 
across the gully to Avhere the main body of his regiment were. 
Only a few minutes elapsed before the natives swarmed down the 
gully, cutting off the retreat of the militia and volunteers, and 
Captain Brown sent a messenger to warn a party under Captain 
Webster, who were carrying wounded to the rear, that the road 
was blocked, consequently a position was taken up round a house 
and some low hills and held until long after dark. Some of the 
men had only two or three rounds of ammunition left and had to 
husband it with great care, only firing when a native came too 
near. Just after dark they heard shouting and saw flashes in the 
direction of the pa on Waireka Hill, where the main body of 
natives were. Captain Messenger continues : " Major Stapp had a 
portion of our rough defences pulled down and preparations were 
made for going to assist in the assault (it turned out afterwards that 
it was an attack on the pa by the sailors from Her Majesty's ship iV/j'^'/', 
guided by my two brothers, Charles and Edward, and F. Mace), but 
as the firing suddenly ceased. Major Stapp was, I believe, doubtful 
whether it might not be a ruse to draw us out. Volunteer Coad 
offered to go by himself and find out what was going on, but was 
not allowed to do so. As soon as we had completed stretchers to 
carry the wounded we marched by the beach road, which the 
natives had left unguarded when the pa was attacked by the blue 
jackets. AVe reached the stockade at Omata without any other 
incident than an alarm, which turned out on closer inspection to be 
caused by some dead bodies of natives lying in the flax. We then 
marched back to town, meeting a body of troops who had been sent 
out to try and discover our whereabouts." 

After this. Captain Messenger was stationed in town and at one 
or other of the small blockhouses in its vicinity, also at Bell Block 
stockade with a detachment of the 12th Regiment. Constant skir- 
mishing went on. On one occasion he formed one of a small 
scouting party, Captain Queade and Dr. Lynch, of 12th Regiment, 
and Lieutenant Hammerton, Taranaki Volunteers, being with 
them ; returning to camp, they were suddenly greeted with a 
sharp volley from a detachment of the 12th Regiment, who, 
surprised by their appearance, had mistaken them for a prowling 
party of natives. Luckily no one was hit. but there were many 
narrow escapes. While stationed here Major Nelson, 40th Regi- 
ment, marched up one day with a detachment from Waitara, and 
called for volunteers from Bell Block to assist in attacking the 
Mimi Pa, The natives were seen there in the morning and a 
red flag was still flying. The Major was on horseback, and had, 
a minute before, been soundly rating Corporal Bush, 40th Regi- 
ment, for neglecting to take cover, when he suddenly galloped 
up to the pa (which had the usual crooked entrance), dismounted, 
and ran in. Messenger was close behind him, and when he got in 
Major Nelson was quietly rolling the flag up, and tucking it under 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 89 

his arm. The pa, fortunately for him, was deserted. Captain 
JMessenger was soon afterwards attached to the Taranaki Bush 
Rangers, a corps whose special duty it was to patrol the country, 
under Captains Atkinson and F. Webster, lie was at the battle 
of Mahoetahi. The troops marched from town before daylight, and 
firing began as they were crossing the river. They had orders to 
charge the hill — an old site of a village with banks and ditches, 
which were occupied by the enemy, chiefly Ngatihaua, under 
Wetini Taiporutu. The regular troops advanced at the same time, 
they taking one end of the rise, and the colonial forces the other. 
The natives stood their ground well for a time, but were driven 
out. The colonial forces had two men killed (Volunteers Brown 
and Edgecombe), the 65th losing the same number. The natives 
left 37 men dead on the field, including their chief, Wetini 
Taiporutu. They carried off their wounded, while, with the 
Bush Rangers, they surprised an ambuscade party of Ngatiruanui, 
who were lying in wait for an escort from Bell Block ; the chief of 
the Ngatiruanui party being killed in the skirmish that ensued. 
At the battle of Allen's Hill, where there were about eight hundred 
natives engaged, Colonel Warre, C.B., being in command of the 
regular troops, the natives made a stubborn fight, and repulsed the 
troops more than once. The Bush Rangers were sent for, and went 
at the double nearly all the way from town, about four-and-a-half 
miles. As they got near they could hear that the firing was very 
heavy, and at Waiuku Hill they met an orderly sent to hurry them 
up. Directly afterwards. Captain Y . Mace, who was in command 
of the mounted corps, galloped up on the same errand. They 
marched through the line of wounded men, extended and relieved 
the skirmishers ; but were not allowed to charge the position held 
by the natives, who soon retired, and the colonial troops were 
ordered back to town. One of the regular officers received a 
Victoria Cross for bravery at this engagement. 

Captain JMessenger was next appointed to command a company 
of military settlers who had arrived from Melbourne and was sent 
with 150 of these men, before they were served out with arms, and 
only a few days after they landed, to build a redoubt at Sentry Hill, 
under the protection of the military. They finished the redoubt in 
a few days, and were complimented by Colonel Warre on their 
work. After a short time spent in drilling his company. Captain 
Messenger was sent to occupy a redoubt at Manutahi, and after- 
wards commanded at the Poutoko Redoubt. On the taking of 
Kaitake Pa by the Bush Rangers, he was sent to occupy that 
station. 

An amusing incident occurred at Stoney River, to which place a 
reconnaissance under IMajor Butler went from Tataraiinaka. They 
had just formed camp, and, as an attack was threatened, outlying 
pickets, etc., were posted. The men had piled arms, and were busy 
getting their supper, the bullocks, which had been dragging the 
guns, etc., all day, having been turned out to graze (in most cases 
with their yokes on). The only fodder was ground tutu, a stunted 



90 THE DEFENDERS 

growth of the ordinary tutu shrub (which drives cattle mad). 
Suddenly the brutes rushed the camp, staggering about apparently 
quite blind, knocking down rifles, capsizing billies of tea, causing 
tents to suddenly collapse, and playing havoc generally. It was a 
curious sight. At one spot would be seen a pair of huge bullocks, 
heels upwards, kicking furiously, with two or three drivers thrusting 
sharp-pointed sticks violently vip their nostrils, blood spurting in 
all directions, this being supposed to be the only cure for a " tuted" 
bullock ; while at another place some maddened animal was 
" running a muck '" through the tents. A conspicuous figure in 
this curious scene was a noted bullock-driver named Jack Phillips, 
who, by-the-by, received a revolver with an inscription in silver on 
the handle, as a reward for his bravery in remaining with his team 
during a sudden attack from a native ambuscade. The commander, 
]\Iajor Butler, was in a very anxious state of mind, fearing that the 
force, in consequence of the misadventure described, would not 
have sufficient bullocks to bring away the guns, etc. However, by 
the morning most of the animals had sufficiently recovered (although 
several were left dead) to do the work required. 

In 1864 Captain jMessenger was ordered to Pukearuhe, White 
Cliffs. This post had just been occupied by the Bush Rangers and 
70th Regiment, whom the colonial forces relieved, one company cf 
the 70th, under Captain Ralston, remaining for a time. The men 
had plenty of work clearing a site and building a redoubt. The only 
means of supplying the post was by sea, and they were fortunately 
not molested by natives until some time later. Skirmishing began 
when the Imperial Government steamship Alexandra was wrecked 
on the beach about a mile from the redoubt. She was engaged to 
bring timber for a blockhouse and supplies for the post, and running 
on a reef had a large hole knocked in her bottom. Being ?,n iron 
ship she would have sunk in deep water if Captain Williams had 
not headed her for the beach at once. As it was, she filled and sank 
just as her bows touched the sand. The natives came down from 
Mokau to plunder the vessel and constant skirmishes took place. 
Captain Messenger remained at White Cliffs until his company of 
military settlers were placed on their land, and it was while living 
on the land allotted to him that the massacre of the Rev. J. Whiteley, 
Lieutenant Gascoigne and family, and two of his company of military 
settlers named Milne and Richards, occurred. A short time before 
this a communication had been sent to him by the Government 
stating that from certain information received, there was reason to 
believe that the Ngatimaniapoto natives intended to attack some 
one of the outposts, either in Waikato or the White Cliffs, and that 
the settlers, not being on pay, were to use their own judgment as 
to remaining on their land ; also requesting him to make the people 
acquainted with this notice. The blockhouse at White Cliffs had 
been for some time without any garrison, a half-caste from Urenui 
Redoubt, ten miles distant, being sent up once a week to White 
Cliffs, apparently to ascertain whether any of the out-settlers 
were killed or not, but not a man was sent to garrison the post. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. gi 

Things went on in this way for some weeks, when on the 
afternoon of Saturday, the 28th February, 1869, the Rev. J. 
Whiteley called at Captain Messenger's house, on his way to the 
Cliffs to hold service the next day. As it was raining he was 
pressed to stay the night, but did not do so. He rode away, and 
was shot dead immediately on his arrival at the redoubt by a 
party of natives belonging to the rebellious Ngatimaniapoto tribe, 
from Mokau, among w^hom the good old man had spent some 
years of his life as a missionary. This was the taua or war 
party that the Government had been warned about, and which 
had decided to make Pukearuhe their point of attack. They 
had arrived at Pukearuhe early in the day, and the main body 
had concealed themselves in the creek below the redoubt, while 
a few, armed with spears and tomahawks under their mats, 
induced one of the settlers, Milne, to accompany them to the 
beach to bargain for some pigs, when he was struck on the head, 
from behind, with a tomahawk, and fell dead, Richards was 
then led to his death in the same way. Lieutenant Gascoigne 
was in his garden, with his wife and children, some little distance 
from the redoubt. Hearing himself called, he came, carrying one 
of the children. Just as he reached his own door, he was struck 
from behind, and fell stunned. His head was immediately split 
open with an axe. The child was also killed, his wife and the 
remaining children being killed on their arrival at the house. It 
was some time after their massacre that j\Ir. Whitele}- arrived. 
Meanwhile, the natives had ransacked the place for arms, 
ammunition, and valuables. When the Rev. j\lr. Whiteley and 
his horse wer^ killed, some of the war party became " pouri," and 
it was decided to return home, instead of, as at first intended, 
going as far as Urenui and killing all the settlers on the way. So, 
after setting fire to the blockhouse and other houses, and cutting 
down the flagstaff, they retired. The next day (Sunday) was very 
wet. On Monday, the two half-castes, j\IcClutchy and Coffee, 
whose duty it was to make periodical visits to Pukearuhe, arrived 
from Urenui, saying they had been sent by Captain Good to ask 
Captain Messenger if anything was wrong at the Cliffs. The 
Captain advised them to go on and see, which they refused to do. 
So, after exacting a promise from them to stay until his return, 
and in case he did not come back, to see his wife and children safe 
to Urenui, he started on horseback. Before reaching the Cliffs, 
however, he met a man who had been told by one of the military 
settlers, named Skinner, that he had been on his way to the 
redoubt, and had seen a dead body on the road, and that the 
blockhouse was burnt. Captain ]\Iessenger, after assisting all the 
settlers over the river j\Iimi to Urenui, then tried, without success, 
to induce some of the native contingent to accompany him back to 
the Cliffs. He remained at Urenui until the arrival of an armed 
party, under Major Stapp, with whom he went to the Cliffs, and 
recovered the bodies. The Rev. J. Whiteley lay where he had 
fallen on his face, with seven bullet wounds in his body, his watch 



92 THE DEFENDERS 

and coat being taken away. Mr. and Mrs. Gascoigne and family 
were put all together in a shallow pit, and slightly covered with 
earth. The two other men lay where they had fallen. Captain 
Messenger received the thanks of the Government for his conduct 
on this occasion. 

After this melancholy tragedy, Captain Messenger was placed 
on duty under Captain Good, at Urenui, for a short time, when he 
was sent to Huirangi in command of a party of militia engaged in 
building a blockhouse at Te Arie. When that was completed, he 
was ordered to proceed, as second in command, with an expedition 
consisting of Armed Constabulary, Bush Rangers, and native 
contingent, to assist in the capture of Titokowaru, at Ngatimaru ; 
but, on reaching ]\Iataitawa, the expedition was recalled. Captain 
Messenger was now despatched to Wai-iti, two miles from 
Pukearuhe, to take charge of a company of Bush Rangers, where 
he built a redoubt, being joined by a body of Armed Constabulary, 
who erected a redoubt about half a mile distant. While on patrol 
duty, with a portion of his company, he came across Te Wetere 
and a scouting party in the hills, and nearly succeeded in securing 
him. As it was, they got such a scare that they never again 
ventured to return to the district for the purpose of fighting. They 
broke two or three guns in rushing headlong down a steep hill, then 
scattered in the bush, and were some days in reaching home. Captain 
Messenger was next employed in charge of a working party or 
Armed Constabulary, sawing timber for building bridges over the 
Urenui and Mimi Rivers, making the approaches, etc., for which 
work, when completed, he received the thanks of the Government. 
T-astly, he was placed in command of the post at White Cliffs, with 
rank of sub-inspector, and is still stationed there. 



94 



THE DEFENDERS 




COLONEL LYON 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 95 



OLONEL Lyon. 




Service in the Imperial army — The campaigji against TilokoWaru, 

OLONEL LYON, commanding officer of the Auckland 
district, was formerly an officer in the Coldstream 
Guards, one of Her Majesty's crack regiments ; he after- 
wards, to obtain active service, exchanged, as captain, 
into the g2nd Highlanders, serving ten months with them in the 
Crimea. On the regiment returning to England, after the peace, 
he met with an accident while sporting, which caused the loss of 
his right arm, and retiring from the service, he came out to this 
colony to settle down to agricultural pursuits. But the Maori 
war breaking out soon after his arrival, the Government called 
upon him to take the command of a company of volunteers, and 
he was appointed adjutant of a battalion, under the command of 
Colonel Balneavis. He gained his majority in 1863, and com- 
manding a wing of the 3rd battalion of Auckland IMilitia, was sent 
on special service with 150 men, composed of imperial and colonial 
troops, to the AVairoa, in August of that year, where, after 
repulsing the Maoris in an attack on his redoubt, he drove them, 
W'ith considerable loss, from their position, for which service he 
received the thanks of Lieut. -General Sir Duncan Cameron, 
K.C.B., and Major-General Galloway, commanding the colonial 
forces, and was favourably mentioned in despatches. He was 
appointed Lieut. -Colonel of the 3rd regiment of the Waikato IMilitia 
in October, 1863, and took the command of an expeditionary force 
at Opotiki, in 1865, returning after some months to resume the 
command of the Waikato district. 

In 1869 he was appointed to the command of the colonial field 
force, collected at Wanganui during the absence of Lieut. -Colonel 
Sir George Whitmore at Poverty Bay. On Colonel Whitmore's 
return he continued to serve under him as second in command 
during the whole of the campaign against Titokowaru, being present 
at the fight at Otauto and capture of Te Ngahiere. After the 
campaign he remained for some time in command at Patea, until 
ordered back to the Waikato. 

During the twelve months' leave of absence granted to Colonel 
Moule to visit the home country. Colonel Lyon performed all his 
duties as Under-Secretary for Defence and Commissioner of Armed 
Constabulary. 



96 THE DEFENDERS 

This brave and energetic officer has been on active service or 
outpost duty in New Zealand ever since the year i860, and under 
fire so often that it would nearly lead one to suppose he had 
hitherto borne a charmed life. 

The late differences existing between Russia and England 
which naturally, though unexpectedly, led to that spontaneou.-- 
outburst of loyalty and offers of assistance from all Her Majesty's 
colonies throughout the globe, opened the eyes of hostile nations to 
the strength Great Britain could derive in case of need from her 
dependencies, and made them pause ere they forced a war upon us. 
Nevertheless, Her Majesty's colonial subjects at once saw their posi- 
tion, and taking the initiative, prepared to resist any invasion of 
their seaports, and Auckland — the principal port in New Zealand 
— a port of all others most liable to attack in case of war, was 
entrusted to Colonel Lyon to defend, one of the highest compliments 
the colony could bestow on so well tried a soldier. 



98 



2HE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN MERCER. 



01' NEW ZEALAND. 99 




APTAIN /ViERCEF^ 




Gallant cnndaci at the capture of Rangiriri—A soldier's death— Tributes 
by Sir George Grey and General Cameron to his memory. 

APTAIN MERCER, of the Royal Artillery, was 
despatched to this colony to assist in putting down the 
rebellion, and had not landed many months when the 
capture of Rangiriri (one of the strongest of the native 
fortifications, manned by many hundreds of Maori warriors) was 
made which resulted in the death of this beloved and much 
lamented officer. General Cameron, well aware of the strength of 
the Maori fighting pa, and having the character of a shrewd general, 
it has surprised many that he should have ordered so small a force 
as 36 artillerymen, and, after their repulse, go seamen, to assault 
so formidable a palisading, surrounded as it was by rifle-pits in 
every direction. Neither would it appear desirable to take thirty- 
six artillerymen from their guns to attempt a duty foreign to their 
calling. The attack on the pa, though eventually successful, 
resulted in the loss of many of our best and bravest troops, no less 
than 130 having been either killed or wounded in the attack, as 
will appear in General Cameron's report of the engagement to Sir 
George Grey, and the latter's reply, copied from the Gazette of the 
30th November, 1863 : — 

[Lieutexaxt-Gexeral Camerox to the Goverxor.] 

" Head Quarters, 
" Camp, RANGiRn<r, 2^th November, iS6j. 

" Sir, — I have the honour to report to your Excillency that on th^ morning 
of the 20th instant I moved frcm Meremere with the force detailed in ih^ 
margin (853 ofiicers and men) up the right bank of the Waikato River, \vit!i 
the intention of attacking the enemy's entrenched position at Rangiriri, in 
which operation Commodore Sir William Wiseman, Bart., had arranged to 
co-operate with thj Piomer and Avon, steamers, and the four gunboats. The 
troops under my command and the steamers and gunboats arrived near 
Rangiriri at the same hour — 3 p.m. The enemy's posit'on consisted of a 
main line of entrenchment across the narrow isthmus which divides the 
Waikato River from Lake Waikare. This line had a double ditch and high 
parapet, and was strengthened at the centre (its highest point) by a square 
redoubt of very formidable construction. Behind the left centre of the main 
Hne and at right angles to it there was an entrenched line of rille-pils parallel 



ICO THE DEFENDERS 

to the Waikato river, and obstructing the advance of t.oops from that direction. 
On a reconnaissance made on the iSth, I had determined on landing a force 
in rear of the position simultaneously with attacking it in front, with the view of 
turning and gaining possession of a ridge 500 )ards behind the main entrench- 
ment, and thus int:rcepting the retreat of the enemy. With this object 
300 men of the 40th Regiment were embarked in the Pioneer and Avon, to 
land on a preconcerted signal, at a point which I had selected. Unfortunately 
the strength of the wind and current was such that the Pioneer and Avon were 
unable to reach this point, notwithstanding the persevering efforts of Sir 
William Wiseman and the officers and men under his command. The same 
cause deprived us of the assistance of two of the gunboats. After shelling the 
position of the enemy for a considerable time from Captain Mercer's two 
i2-pounder Armstrongs, and the Naval 6-pounder, under Lieutenant 
Alexander, R.N., in which the two gunboats joined, and it being now nearly 
five o'clock, I determined not to wait any longer for the landing of the 40th 
from the steamers, and gave the word for the as:ault. This was brilliantly 
executed by the troops, who had to pass over a distance of 600 yards in the 
face of a heavy fire, the 65th Regiment leading and escalading the enemy's 
entrenchment on the left. After passing the main line of entrenchment, the 
troops wheeled to the left towards the enemy's centre, and came under fire of 
the line of rifle-pits facing the Waikato River. This they at once stormed and 
carried, driving the enemy before them to the centre redoubt, which they now 
defended with desperate resolution. While the troops were forcing their way 
over the parapet of the main line, as already described, I was glad to perceive 
that the 40th were landing sufficiently near the point I had indicated to enable 
them to carry and occupy the ridge in rear, and to pour a heavy fire on a body 
of the enemy, who were driven by them from that part of the position, and fled 
by the Waikare Swamp. In this part of the attack they were joined by a 
portion of the 65th Regiment detached from the main body after the latter had 
passed the main line of entrenchment. The troops who carried the main line 
being still checked by the fire from the centre redoubt, two separate assaults 
were made on this work — the first by 36 of the Royal Artillery, armed with 
revolvers and led by Captain Mercer ; and the second by 90 seamen of the Royal 
Navy, armed in a similar manner and led by Commander INIayne, under the 
personal direction of Sir William Wiseman. Both attacks were unsuccessful 
on account of the formidable nature of the work, an 1 the overwhelming fire 
which was brought to bear on the assailants. An attempt was also made by a 
party of seamen under Commander Phillimore to dislodge the enemy with 
hand grenades thrown into the work. It being now nearly dark, I resolved to 
wait the return of daylight before undertaking furth r operations, the troops 
remaining in the several positions they had gained, in which they almost com- 
pletely enveloped the enemy. Shortly after daylight on the 21st, the white 
flag was hoisted by the enemy, of whom 183 surrendered unconditionally, 
gave up their arms, and became prisoners of war. The exact strength and 
loss of the enemy I have been unable to ascertain, but he must have suffered 
severely. We buried 36 bodies, and there is no doubt a large number were 
shot or drowned in attempting to escape across the swamp at Waikare lake. 
Their wounded must have been removed during the night, as there were none 
among the prisoners. Our loss, necessarily severe in carrying so formidable a 
position, testifies to the gallantry of the troops I have the honour to command, 
and also, I am bound to say, to the bravery and determination of its defenders. 
I enclose a list of casualties. Your Excellency will observe that it includes a 
large proportion of ofiicers, most of those who led in the different attacks being 
severely wounded. 















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OF NEW ZEALAND. 



lOI 



" It will afford me the highest gratification to report to the Right Honourable 
the Secretary of State for War, and to His Royal Highness the Field Marshal 
Commanding-in-Chief, the admirable conduct of the troops engaged on this 
occasion, and to bring to their special notice the names of those officers and 
men who more particularly distinguished themselves. — I have, etc., 

"D. A. Cameron, Lieut. -General. 
"PJis Excellency Sir George Grey, K.C.B." 

[Lieut.-General Cameron to the Governor.] 

" Head Quarters, 
"Camp, Rangiriri, 26th Novemher^ 1S63. 
" Sir, — Since I closed my despatch of the 24th instant, I have received in- 
telligence of the death of Cap;ain Mercer, commanding Royal Artilhry on this 
station, from the efTect of wounds received in the action of the 20th instant, 
whilst gallantly leading his men to an assault on the enemy's strongest work. 
I regard the loss of this able, zealous, and energetic officer at the present 
moment as a seiious misfortune. Your Excellency having been intimately 
acquainted with Captain JNIercer, and appreciating his noble character and 
many sterling qualities, will, I am confident, participate in the grief felt by 
myself and by the whole force, for the death of this invaluable officer. I have 
also to deplore the loss of another brave and excellent officer. Captain Phelps, 
2nd Battalion 14th Regmient, who died in consequence of a wound received 
in the action of 20th instant. — I have, etc., 

" D. A. Cameron, Lieut.-General. 
"His Excellency Sir G. Grey, K.C.B." 

[His Excellency the Governor to Lieut.-General 
Cameron, C.B.] 

" Government House, 

Auckland, 28'Ji November, iS6j. 

" Sir, — I have directed that your despatch of the 26th instant, which I 
received in the night, should be published for general information, at the same 
time as your despatch of the 24th instant. 

" I entirely enter into your feelings of grief for the loss of the brave officers 
and men who have fallen in obtaining a victory from which may be anticipa ed 
such great advantages for this country. 1 can assure you that very deep sorrow 
for the heavy loss sustained and for the sufferings of the wounded is felt 
throughout the entire community, who will, I am aware, in a fitting manner, 
express their debt of gratitude to yourself and the forces under your command. 

" You mu:t permit me, whilst expressing my own sorrow for the loss .of 
Captain Mercer, Captain Phelps, Lieutenant Murphy, Mr. Watkin, and so 
many gallant men, to add that my intimate acquaintance with Captain Mercer 
has caused me in his case to feel very keenly the loss of an officer whose many 
excellent qualities I regarded with admiration and esteem. — I have, etc., 

" G. Grey, 

"The Hon. Lieut.-General Cameron, C.B." 



102 THE DEFENDERS 



^VLr, ^. H 



AMLIN. 




]\Ir. Hamliii at Omaninui—Thc Uriweras routed at Waikare, 



HE late Mr. E. Hamlin took so active a part in the 
late war that had I passed over his services, I should 
have placed myself in the position of an imperfect 
chronicler. In th 3 early part of 1863, Mr. E. Hamlin, 



from his knowledge cf the Maori language and character, was 
attached to Sir Donald jMcLean, who valued his services highly 
and brought him before the notice of the Government on several 
occasions. He was selected by Sir Donald to carry his ultimatum 
to the HauhauS; then assembled at Omarunui, just before their 
extermination. A temporary staff had been erected, on whicli a 
white flag was hoisted when Hamlin started with the message 
" that if, within one hour, they did not lay down their arms and 
surrendei, they would be attacked." This was an extremely bitter 
pill for them, and the only reply that Hamlin could obtain was 
" that the time allowed was short." For some time the Maoris 
took no notice of Hamlin, but sat glowering in their whares. They 
were puzzled how to act. They did not intend to surrender, nor 
did they wish to fight just then. We had evidently, by taking the 
initiative, upset all their plans; for had Te Rangihiroa been ready 
to operate from the western spit, there would have been no hesitation 
shown, and iMr. Hamlin's life would probably have been sacrificed 
as an offering to Tu, the Maori god of war. Again at Ngatapa, 
Mr. Hamlin particularly distinguished himself, being one of the 
first men in the pa. He was all through the Poverty Bay troubles, 
and took a party across the Waikare Lake, and utterly routed the 
Uriweras, after 800 men had abandoned the attempt. 



104 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR J ACKSON 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 105 



Major Jackson. 



Services at /he beginning of the Waikato luar — Gallant conduct laith the 
Forest Rangers at Hunua — An account with some Maori murderers 
seitled — 2he ''Bathing Party'' episode — The Forest Rangers at 
Orakau. 




AJOR JACKSON, at the commencement of hostilities in 

the Waikato, was farming his own land near Papakura, 

and as his was not the spirit to submit tamely to be 
driven from his homestead, with the loss of his flocks 
and herds, by rebel Maoris, he came forward and offered his 
services as a private in the volunteers, and in that capacity took 
an active part in driving the enemy out of his own neighbourhood. 
He first distinguished himself in repelling an attack made by the 
rebels upon a half-finished redoubt on the Wairoa road iknown 
afterwards as Ring's Redoubt), being one of the most conspicuous 
in its defence, and was further credited with having by his unerring 
aim severely punished the attacking- force. 

After this ]\Iajor Jackson came prominently to the front by 
engaging to raise a company of forest rangers, who would follow 
the Maoris from place to place and surprise them in their forest 
strongholds. The Government gladly accepted his offer, and he 
accordingly enrolled a body of men, composed of brave and 
experienced bushmen, whose general physique and equipments 
were superior to any other corps in the colony. With ihe utmost 
perseverance and daring Jackson and his men endeavoured to track 
the marauding and murdering bands of Maoris who for several 
months had infested the large tract of forest country lying between 
the Lower Waikato and our settlements, but their success in 
finding the enemy was not equal to their expectations or 
exertions. 

On several occasions they had smart skirmishes, and did good 
service in showing the natives that we were both able and willing 
to follow them anywhere ; but like the movable column, com- 
manded by Imperial officers and employed at the same time on 
somewhat similar duty, they never had the good fortune to inflict 
any great loss upon the enemy. Major Jackson's original company 
of forest rangers were only engaged for a short period of service, 
and being a rather expensive corps, the Government, after six 
months' service, disbanded them, but authorised Major Jackson to 



io6 THE DEFENDERS 

raise a new company for special service like the first, but to be 
attached to and form part of, the 2nd Regiment of Waikato Militia. 
Although this act reduced their pay considerably, the men would 
not leave the IMajor, and most of them joined under the new con- 
ditions. 

During the whole of 1864 IMajor Jackson and his company were 
actively engaged in the AVaikato, and distinguished themselves on 
several occasions, more particularly at the siege and capture of 
Orakau. For this and other incidents of individual bravery Major 
Jackson received the thanks of the General commanding and was 
promoted to the rank of major. 

At the conclusion of the campaign, the Major again settled down 
to farm life on land which the Government granted to him for his 
services at Rangiaohia ; and although, from that time forward, 
there has been no actual fighting in the district, there was for years 
a deal of uneasiness and threatening among the Kingites ; so 
much so that jNIajor Jackson, seeing the state of affairs, was mainly 
instrumental in raising two troops of cavalry volunteers, of which 
he was appointed and still remains commandant. And it may 
be safely said that, apart from actual fighting, no body of 
volunteers ever did better service in New Zealand, their martial 
and determined bearing having reassured the settlers, and awed 
the rebels into submission against their will, thereby thoroughly 
protecting our exposed frontier and preserving peace and order in 
the district. 

Major Jackson was elected by the settlers of the district to 
represent Waikato in the House of Representatives, and still 
continues to take an active and lively interest in all matters 
connected wath the defence of the colony. It appears from 
documents before me, that a dispute arose with regard to land 
claimed as compensation for services performed by the members of 
the Forest Rangers while serving under the IMajor, and the following 
extract, in support of their services, I have taken from the evidence 
given, and papers laid before the Commissioner (Colonel Haultain) 
on the subject : — 

THE FOREST RANGERS. 

AT THE HUNUA RANGES. 

During the month of December, 1863; Captain Jackson left 
camp at Papakura to scour the Hunua Ranges, it havmg been 
reported that natives had been seen in the neighbourhood. He 
had a force of about thirty, all ranks. These men were raised 
under instructions from the Defence Minister. When in the bush, 
they came upon tracks of the enemy, which they followed for 
two days. At about 8 o'clock on a Sunday morning, in the 
vicinity of the Papakura Valley, not near any post occupied 
either by Imperial or colonial forces, the whereabouts of the 
enemy was discovered through observing steam ascending 
from their ovens, when opened for the morning meal ; and 



C/' lYJ^JV ZEALAND. 107 

from the earliness of the hour, Captain Jackson concluded they 
were on the move. The party they had tracked so long, he was 
well aware, were travelling-, and, from the appearance of the tracks, 
were evidently a small party ; but there could be no doubt as to 
the strength of the camp whose whereabouts they had discovered, 
as each of the five puffs of steam they had noticed bore evidence 
of a separate oven, while others may not have been seen ; and it 
must necessarily be a large party requiring such extensive cooking 
arrangements. 

When the whereabouts and strength of the enemy became 
known, the Captain had great doubt on his mind as to whether 
he should attack the enemy's position or not, feeling that in 
doing so he incurred a great responsibility ; for should he be 
unsuccessful in his attack, the probability, if not certainty, 
was that to a man they would be destroyed, being well aware 
that if once the natives succeeded in causing a retreat, so small 
a force would be considerably reduced ere that stage was reached, 
and probably so much embarrassed with the care of the wounded 
that few if any would be left to tell the tale; and, notwith- 
standing the anxious wish of his men to engage the enemy, should 
he unfortunately be defeated, the disaster would be credited to his 
rashness and want of judgment, more especially as he knew that 
the authorities looked upon his corps more as a scouting than an 
attacking force. He knew the ranges he had travelled through 
had been, since the commencement of the war, harbouring a 
murdering set of natives, who for nearly twelve months had 
caused great anxiety to the Government by murdering such 
settlers as they could surprise when visiting their abandoned 
homesteads, and thus causing a large extent of settled country 
to be deserted. jMajor Jackson knew that if he could succeed 
in dispersing this marauding band the result would be of 
incalculable benefit to the country ; and consequently the mere 
probability of success warranted him in making the attempt, if, 
after consulting with his men and explaining to them the 
danger incurred, he found they would freely undertake the duty. 
He consequently called his men together and, as well as he could, 
showed them the position they were in, and the risk they would 
run by making an attack ; that while in the bush, with proper 
precautions, they might be able to protect themselves from an 
attack of the enemy very much their superiors in number, yet 
it was necessary to well consider what would be the result of 
defeat ere they voluntarily made an attack upon a force that was 
evidently much stronger in numbers than their own ; but, as 
these men were probably the murderers of our men, women, and 
children, he thought it was their duty, even at great risks, to 
endeavour to relieve the anxiety of the out-settlers, for should 
they happily succeed in dispersing the enemy, he felt certain they 
would not again return to the scenes of their former murders. 
The men were quite willing to leave the matter in the hands 
of their officers, and it was decided to make the attempt. Before 



io8 THE DEFENDERS 

they started, the men stripped themselves of everything but shirt, 
trousers, and boots, taking only their arms and ammunition with 
them. 

Before leaving the Captain again addressed them. " Is there 
any man who feels that he is not equal to undertake this duty, 
either on account of illness or that his heart is not at present in the 
right place ? If so, let he or they start at once for head-quarters, 
and they may perhaps do good service in bearing a despatch to 
Colonel Nixon, who would be soon on the move to assist us." Not 
a man stirred. The attack was successful, and from information 
obtained afterwards the natives were at least two hundred strong. 
Without going into details, the force completely surprised the 
enemy ; the action was short, sharp, and decisive, with no casualties 
on our side, several of the enemy being killed and wounded — the 
actual murderers of the late Mr. Hamlin, Turt's children. Cooper, 
Calvert, Jackson, and Mr. and Mrs. Fabey being amongst the 
slain. 

In this action an act of self-devotion on the part of a native 
deserves to be mentioned. About twenty minutes after the charge 
and capture of the enemy's camp a Maori was seen returning, and 
while the sentry was watching his movements saw him enter a whare 
and taking up a tin box ; he was in the act of making off with it 
when the sentry challenged him, but as he took no notice he fired, 
wounding him in the arm, which caused him to drop the box before 
he disappeared in the bush. The Forest Rangers thinking they 
had a prize, rushed to the box, and forcing it open found it to 
contain only the king's flag, which had been entrusted to his care, 
but which in the suddenness of the surprise of the camp he had left 
behind him, and had risked his life to try and recover. 

AT AVAIARI, FEBRUARY, 1 864. 

IMajor Jackson happening to be with Major Heaphy in Colonel 
Havelock's tent before Paterangi when the news arrived of the 
attack of the enemy on a bathing party in the Mangapiko 
River, about a mile from the camp, hurried off to the scene 
with others. As the IMajor reached the river he found him- 
self with three men of the 40th opposite to an old native pa 
(Waiari), the entrenchments of which, as well as the steep 
sides of the opposite bank of the river, were thickly covered 
with scrub and occupied by the enemy. The bank of the 
river on his side vras low and flat, while the opposite side 
was steep and high, and about one-third down a wounded soldier 
was seen stretched on the ground. Several soldiers were on 
the top of the bank firing down into the scrub below, where 
the enemy were supposed to be. Jackson's attention was called 
to the wounded man by the men on the opposite bank 
(one being an officer) requesting him to come across the 
river and relieve the wounded man. Jackson replied, " It would 
be easier and better for you to get down the bank and take 
him up yourselves, and in the meantime if the enemy showed 




^^OOOM MIAV3'^ 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 109 

I could keep them down without injury to the relief party." 
This the olhcer declined to do, and the men with Jackson cried out, 
"You are a lot of cowards; "and turning to Jackson said, "If you 
will lead us we will soon shift him." Jackson immediately agreed, 
and they proceeded to cross the river at great risk to their lives, 
the water in places being up to their chins. When nearly across 
Jackson saw^ the arm of a j\Iaori above the scrub in the act of 
ramming down a cartridge, and while keeping his eye on him 
(waiting a favourable opportunity to get a shot at him), did not 
perceive at the moment another IMaori had concealed himself 
in the scrub only a few paces from his landing-place, and 
had covered him with his double-barrelled gun. As the 
Captain placed his foot on the opposite bank the Maori pulled 
the trigger, but fortunately for Jackson it missed fire, and put 
him on his guard. Seeing his adv^ersary now about to fire 
his second barrel, he let fly at him with his revolver, which did 
not seem to take any effect further than to distract the Maori's 
aim, as he fired and missed, and in his rage and disappointment 
hurled his gun at the Captain, and was in the act of bolting when 
Jackson's second shot killed him. After this they proceeded to the 
assistance of the wounded man, bringing him into a place of safety. 
General Cameron, who was apprised of this gallant action, ordered 
the gun taken to be given to i\Iajor Jackson, saying, "As it was so 
nearly the cause of your death, it will remind you in after years of 
your narrow escape." Although it was not until after the battle 
of Orakau that J?xkson obtained his majority, it was dated back to 
this event, viz., nth February, 1863, as an acknowledgment of his 
services on that occasion. 

The enemy were by this time completely surrounded by the 
troops, yet they still la}^ concealed in the scrub, the soldiers 
not caring to enter it, when Major Jackson asked the General 
to send for his and Von Tempsky's Bush Rangers, who on 
arrival went in with bowie knives and revolvers and soon made 
short work of the natives, which pleased the General so much 
that he despatched Major Jackson into town next day to 
endeavour to procure more men of the same stamp. 

AT ORAKAU, APRIL, 1 864. 

As a party of Forest Rangers were busy pushing forward the 
sap to the enemy's position, a militiaman was shot down about 
half way between the head of the sap and the pa — a distance of 
about twenty yards from the pa— and was left lying wounded 
and exposed to a heavy fire from the enemy. The Forest 
Rangers, twenty in number, under Lieutenant AV^hitfield, deter- 
mined to recover the wounded man. To have sent two or more 
men to bring him in would, for a certainty, have resulted in more 
men being killed or wounded ; consequently, after an exchange of 
ideas, it was determined to effect his release by the majority of the 
men making a sudden rush across the open space between our 
works and the enemy's, thus causing a diversion by taking 



no THE DEFENDERS 

possession of the enemy's outworks, during which time the 
wounded man was brought in ar.d handed over to the medical 
staff in attendance. In going across this open space, they laid 
themselves open to the fire of the whole native force m the pa, but 
owing to the suddenness of the movement, they were almost across 
ere their intention was suspected, and being so close under the 
enemy's works, were somewhat protected. It was not until some 
time after that Major Herford and others were shot down while 
trying to join the Forest Rangers. This movement had an 
important effect on the issue of events, for the Forest Rangers 
were not long in er.tablishing themselves in comparative security 
and clearing the enemy's out-works of its occupants, thus enabling 
communication to be kept up with them and the covering party 
protecting those in the sap. A party with hand grenades were 
tl,U5 enabled to get into position immediately under the very walls 
of the pa, and by throwing grenades over the palisading amongst 
the occupants caused great consternation amongst them while 
endeavouring to escape. 



112 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR LUSK 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 



11. 



M 



AJOR 



USK, 



Mailing and Lusk's patriotic offer — Forest Rifle Volunteers raised — The 
battle of the Bald Hills — Exciting hand-to-hand conflict. 




jAJOR LUSK, prior to the outbreak of the war, was 
employed by the Government in surveying a part of the 
North Island. When hostilities commenced he joined 
with the late Judge Maning (the author of " Old New 
Zealand") in a scheme for marching 1,200 Ngapuhi warriors 
through the Waikato into the Taranaki district, and thereby 
crushing the rebellion at its outset by placing the Kingites between 
two fires. The Ngapuhi had given in their names to the Judge, 
who was to command the force, with Lusk as his lieutenant, which 
was duly reported to the Governor, Colonel Gore Browne, in the 
formal offer of theip services ; but as the Government were not then 
prepared for such vigorous measures, the offer was declined with 
thanks. I-ong after all concerned in this movement had given up 
the idea of their services being required, the Government intimated 
to Judge Maning their wish to accept the assistance of the Ngapuhi, 
and received for answer that the tribe had now changed their minds, 
the fact being that emissaries from the Kingites had been busy 
amongst them, and they decided for the future to remain neutral. 

In the autumn of 1863 IMr Lusk was residing on his property, 
situated between the Alaori settlement at Patumahoe and the 
Waikato river, and it becoming evident to him that the ^Maoris in 
his neighbourhood w^ho were a particularly bad lot meant mischief, 
he called a meeting of the settlers of the district, and so forcibly 
pointed out to them the danger that existed to the out-settlers 
and the necessity for banding themselves together for their mutual 
support, that the Forest Rifle ^'olunteers was formed, Mr. Lusk 
being elected their Captain. The first act of the Captain was to 
advertise for a few men of the right stamp to make up his comple- 
ment, which was readily responded to, and the corps was ready, 
Avhen the crisis came, to take the field. For the first five months 
the Rangers had a lively time of it, as the Waikato natives and 
their allies made the forest country the principal scene of their 
operations, and for a time really believed they could not only drive 
in the settlers but take the town of Auckland. 

The first fight that occurred was Avith a party of about two 
hundred rebels who were overtaken in the dense bush near Mauku, 

H 



114 THE DEFENDERS 

on the 9th of September, 1863, when a sharp skirmish ensued in 
real bush fashion, from tree to tree. It was the first time the 
volunteers had met the Maoris in the Waikato, and the first time 
the great majority of them had been under fire. But they behaved 
so well that the Maoris, being out-manoeuvred by a flank movement, 
fled, and left their temporary camp to be ransacked by the volun- 
teers. In this skirmish, thanks to the bad firing of the rebels, only 
two of the company were wounded, whereas six Maoris were killed. 
Several other slight skirmishes took place in the forest, and on the 
15th September the Maoris, numbering over two hundred men, 
suddenly attacked the small body of volunteers, who were posted 
at the Pukekohe church, under Captain Lusk's command. The 
volunteers were taken quite by surprise, and at the first rush the 
enemy nearly carried the stockade, but our men, having rallied, 
fought with such desperation as to drive the rebels back for a time 
to seek shelter. The heavy firing which had been kept up on both 
sides, brought up a number of regulars from the South Road, 
also a company of militia from Drury. These reinforcements 
joined the besieged force, and drove the enemy off at the point of 
the bayonet. 

On the 23rd of October, Captain Lusk and his men fought what 
is known as the battle of Bald Hills. This was, in some respects, 
the most desperate and remarkable action during the war. A 
party of over three hundred Ngatimaniapotos, under two near 
relations of the celebrated chief Rewi, together with 50 Ngatiporous, 
who had just before brought a large quantity of ammunition from 
the East Coast, had slipped quietly down the Waikato River, in 
their canoes, passed our forces, who were confronting the rebels at 
Meremere, and landing below Cameron Town, expressed their 
intention of killing all the settlers between that place and Auck- 
land. There were, at this time, at the Maukau stockade, under 
Captain Lusk, 60 non-commissioned officers and men of his own 
company, and 20 of the ist Waikato Regiment, under Lieutenant 
Percival, and at the church, further up the valley, which was 
converted into a stockade, about thirty men also of the ist 
Waikato Regiment, under Lieutenant Norman, who was at that 
moment absent from his post, having g'one to Drury to draw the 
pay for his men. Captain Lusk had that morning, as usual, taken 
40 of his volunteers out on a reconnoitring expedition round the 
district, and, on arriving at the church, found the small force there 
in some alarm, their officer being absent, while a considerable 
force of the enemy had suddenly appeared within a mile of the 
post, seemingly intent on shoocing cattle. Captain Lusk soon 
took in the situation, and as there appeared to be upwards of 
one hundred and fifty of the rebels in view, he considered it 
prudent to get up reinforcements before attacking them. He 
accordingly dispatched a mounted messenger to Drury, requesting 
assistance, and suggesting " that the movable column stationed 
at the Queen's Redoubt should be sent down the banks of the 
river, so as to get between the Maoris and their cc^noe?," 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 115 

Unfortunately, neither his request nor suggestion was attended to 
with sufficient promptitude to be of any service, as the reinforce- 
ment did not arrive until dusk in the evening —two hours after the 
battle — and the flying squadron only reached the Maori landing 
place (Rangipokia) early next morning, just in time to witness 
the last canoes, with a small rearguard of the enemy, disappearing 
round a bend of the river. 

The consequence was that Captain Lusk and his men remained 
at the Church Redoubt for nearly six hours, fretting and fuming at 
seeing the rebels so near and no sign of assistance coming, which 
could easily have arrived within four hours of the time the 
des|.>atches left. About three o'clock in the afternoon the engage- 
men*', w^as brought on by Lieutenant Percival, who had been left in 
charge of the lower stockade, and who had received orders (when 
the enemy was perceived by Captain Lusk) to place the charge of 
the redoubt in the hands of the commissariat officer and to join him 
at the church with twelve men. Percival, being anxious to dis- 
tinguish himself in having the first shot at the rebels, directed his 
guide to take him by a forest track past the church and within 
sight of the enemy, which was accordingly done, and the first notice 
Captain Lusk had of Percival's presence was witnessing from the 
Church Redoubt a small band of volunteers emerging from the 
bush to the west of the slope of the Ti Ti hill, lately occupied by 
the rebels. Fortunately for these twelve men the Maoris had just 
retired over the brow of the hill to a hollow beyond, probably to 
regale themselves on the cattle they had shot. Percival, who 
soon came within sight of them, opened fire at a long distance, 
and the ]\Iaoris seeing the handful of men firing at them did not 
condescend to return it, but despatched a strong party round the 
shoulder of the hill to cut them off. 

Captain Lusk, seeing the state of affairs, at once advanced to 
their rescue, and Lieutenant Percival, perceiving at the same 
moment that it was time he beat a retreat, retired qu'.ckly on the 
support. It was a close shave, but the rebels seeing Captain Lusk's 
force hurrying to the rescue halted, and the junction was effected 
without loss. The Forest Rangers then advanced in skirmishing 
order, as the Maoris retired up the cleared slope of the hill, 
disappearing between two belts of bush land. Up to this time, as 
well as could be judged, not more than 130 Maoris could be counted, 
and as Captain Lusk had sixty-seven officers and men with him, 
including Lieutenant Norman, who had arrived in the meantime, 
he did not hesitate to advance upon the now retiring enem}-. 

When our line reached the brow of the hill. Captain Lusk observed 
that the enemy, instead of retiring straight on and down the slope 
on the other side, had turned off at right angles and taken up a 
position in the standing forest on the east of the clearing, and 
at once realised what the movement meant, viz., that the rebels 
had only shown a portion of their force, the main body being hidden 
in the bush, while the smaller body were the decoy-ducks, to try 
and draw the volunteers into the ambush laid for them. And so 



ii6 THE DEFENDERS 

far they had succeeded, as at that moment there were 350 Maori 
warriors between the sixty-seven volunteers and their stockade. 
It was an anxious moment for all, and Captain Lusk had just time 
to change his front when the storm burst, as with terrific yells the 
whole body of rebels in a long line rushed from the shelter of the 
fores [ upon the volunteers, expecting an easy prey, while from 
behind each log and stump on the clearing leapt angry flashes of 
fire on this brave and devoted band. But they never flinched from 
their duty, and, shoulder to shoulder, kept their ranks, relying 
on their commanding officer to extricate them from the ambush 
they had fallen into. The men wers too well used to the 
yelling of the savages for that to have any effect on their 
courage ; but when the long line of rebels began to lap 
round them. Captain Lusk gave orders to retire slowly on to the 
belt of bush at their backs. Then it was that the flank fire of 
the enemy began to tell, and the first to bite the dust was the 
brave but rash Lieutenant Percival. He fell shot through the 
jugular vein. He had only time to say, "Fight on, men; never 
mind me," when the rush of blood choked him. A few moments 
later, Lieutenant Norman was shot in the chest by a Maori, 
who jumped from behind a stump within two yards of where 
he stood. The men now began to drop quickly, but the force by 
this time having gained the edge of the bush, a stand was 
made, and the advantage of shelter was all on the side of the 
volunteers. The Maoris soon learnt this to their cost, for when they 
rushed up thinking to finish the volunteers with their tomahawks, 
they were met with such a well-directed fire as considerably to 
check their ardour. Before this occurred, the volunteers had 
fixed their bayonets, in case of a charge occurring, and a few 
of the fanatic3 rushed madly upon the cold steel. Corporal 
Power had got his bayonet so fast in the body of a huge Maori 
that ere he could free it a long-handled tomahawk had split 
open his head ; and while Private Worthington was striving to 
get a defective rifle to go off, his brains were dashed out with 
an axe. Such a hand-to-hand fight had it become that a chief 
rushing up close to our line was instantly shot through the 
heart, and while a dozen of his followers rashly came forward to 
drag away his body, six of them fell in one heap across him, while 
the rest, losing heart, bolted, and the whole line fell back and gave 
up the fight. Our men were too few and too encumbered to follow 
up their advantage, having eight killed and a large number of 
wounded to remove ; whereas the enemy's loss was 32 killed and 
so many wounded that they fled across the Waikato River that 
same night and left the district. 

The following was the despatch sent by Sir George Grey to the 
Duke of Newcastle, reporting the battle : — 

" Government House, Auckland, 2nd Noveviher, 186 j. 

" My Lord Duke, — I have the honour to transmit for your Grace's infor- 
mation the copy of a letter I have received from Lieut. -General Cameron, C.B., 



OF NEW ZEALAND. ,,7 

enclosing a report from Captain Lusk, commanding the IMauku Volunteers, 
of a very smart engagement which the force under his command had with the 
natives on the 23rd ultimo. 

"2. The gallantry shown by Captain Lusk and all concerned in this 
engagement reflects the highest credit upon ihem. It was no enterprise which 
they undertook against the natives, but an attack upon one of those murderin<'- 
and marauding bands, who had penetrated far into our settlements for the 
purpose of murder and plunder. 1 am satisfied that the spirit with which this 
party was assailed, the moment it was discovered by so small a body of men, 
and the punishment they received by an European force of only about one- 
eighth of their own, will do m'.'ch to increase the respect of the natives for the 
courage and determination of the settlers, and to check the marauding parties 
who have murdered so many people. 

"3.1 have every reason to believe that the loss of the natives was heavy, and 
although we have so much to regret the considerable loss which we ourselves 
sustained, it is impossil)le, at the same time, not to feel the greatest atlmiralion 
for the resolute gallantry shown by the small body of men under Captain Lu:k's 
command. — I have, etc., 

" G. Grey." 

After the forces under General Cameron had advanced past 
Ngaruawahia, the transport service nearly broke down, partly- 
through the shallowness of the river ; and Captain Lusk was 
specially selected, from his knowledge of bush service, to open up 
communication between Raglan harbour and the AVaipu valley, 
so as to transport the provisions across the forest ranges. After 
a short trial, and the crossing of a few convoys, the route was 
abandoned, the track being too steep. Captain L sk was then 
appointed to the command of the transport service at Te 
Awamutu, which place the force had just reached, and was 
present at the siege and capture of Orakau, after being the first to 
discover the whereabouts of the enemy. On this occasion he 
narrowly escaped being caught by the rebels. In 1868 Te Kooti 
escaped from the Chathams, and being in the neighbourhood of 
the Waikato, Major Lusk, in comrnand of the AVaiuku and 
Wairoa districts, assembled his men and made a forced march 
to iSIercer, and within twenty-four hours' notice had marched 
his force of 300 men a distance of nearly thirty miles, showing 
the mettle the volunteers were then composed of. For this service, 
he and his force received the special thanks of the Government. 
The IMajor afterwards continued in command of the Waiuku 
and Wairoa districts until 1878, when the staff was reduced (the 
war being over';, and his further services being dispensed with, he 
retired on his laurels. 



H* 



ii8 THE DEFENDERS 



R. Livingstone. 




Gallant conduct at Ngatu-o-te-manu — The death of Sergeant Russell. 



lli 



R. LIVINGSTONE, one of the most energetic settlers 
at Waihi, on the West Coast, about half-way between 
Taran^iki and Wanganui, accompanied the force on 
their second expedition to Te Ngatu-o-te manu as a 
volunteer. In the midst of the engagement, following the example 
of the rebels (who had posted themselves in the trees in the 
vicinity of the pa, and picked off many of our officers and men), 
he mounted a tree overlooking the pa, and, with Sergeant Davey, 
of No 2 division, did terrible execution amongst the rebels. So 
intent were they in their occupation that they were nearly left 
behind when the force retired. His mettle was severely tried in 
the retreat to Te Maru, being under fire the whole time. 
Coming up with Captain Roberts' party, who were separated 
from the main body, under Colonel McDonnell, he assisted 
in defending the rear, and behaved so gallantly that a few 
miore of his stamp would have soon changed the fortunes of 
the day. About sunset Sergeant Russell had his thigh 
smashed, and as there was no means of carrying him off the 
field, his fate was sealed. This fact he recognised himself, and 
asked his comrades to shoot him. This they refused to do, but 
Livingstone put his revolver in his hand and bade him a sad 
adieu. Some months afterwards the facts of poor Russell's end 
were elicited from a Hauhau prisoner. He died game to the 
backbone. When the pursuing rebels came to where he lay, one 
of them, thinking he had an easy prey, rushed forward to 
administer the coup de grace with his tomahawk. R.ussell quickly 
drew his revolver and killed the Maori. After this reception, the 
Hauhaus stood off and shot him from a distance, 



120 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR SPEEDY, R.M,, 

AND GROUP OF NATIVES. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. t2i 



M 



Ajop^ Speedy. 



Friendly relations hetiveen the Maukii settlers and the natives. Plot to 
murder the Europeans — Organisation of the Mauku, Pukekohe, and 
Waitiku volunteers — Speedy' s narrow escape — Maori gratitude. 




AJOR SPEEDY, a retired Imperial officer, who served 
in India as major of the 3rd Buffs, was one of our 
earliest settlers, purchasing his land at INIauku. This 
district was settled by a very intelligent and superior 
lot of settlers, who were on the best of terms with all the principal 
chiefs of the Waikato, taking an interest in the'r religious welfare, 
throwing open their houses to afford them English hospitality, and 
giving them entertainments, particularly at Christmas time. 
Major Speedy often welcomed a whole hapu, which the natives 
seemed highly to -appreciate. Thus, up to the commencement 
of the war, the Lower Waikato natives and the j\Iauku settlers 
were seemingly the best of friends. But no sooner had the seeds 
of rebellion been sown by emissaries from King Potatau than 
all confidence ceased. The ]\Iaoris became " pouri " (dark) and 
morose, which bespoke the coming storm. They began to hold 
secret meetings, at one of which the massacre of the male Euro- 
peans, and the distribution by lottery of their wives and daughters, 
was not only proposed, but received such warm support that the 
East Coast natives were sent for to come up and take the leading 
part in the massacre, the instigators hoping thereby to remove the 
stigma of ingratitude off their own shoulders 

A day was actually fixed for this atrocious deed, but tlia 
Princess Sopia, daughter of King Potatau, being at that time 
on a visit to her relatives at Mangare, it was feared she might 
be caught or shot by the soldiers, in revenge for the massacre. 
After her departure to the King Country, another night was fixed 
upon for the deed, but, by a strange coincidence, the settlers 
had chosen the same night to celebrate the Prince of Wales' 
marriage, and had lit bonfires on all the principal hills. The iMaoris, 
mustering after dark, had actually started to commence their 
bloody work when the sudden glare of the fires startled them 
into the belief that their plot was discovered, and that ihe settlers 
had a counter-plot for their destruction, which caused them to 
slink back to their settlements, and remain on the watch all night. 
This was not made known, however, until some time aftei wards, 



122 THE DEFENDERS 

when Hakopa f Jacob), an old lay reader, called upon Major Speedy 
and informed him of the plot. It was a strange but significant 
fact that this man, and a few other JNIaoris who were regarded as 
friendly, gave Major Speedy, on several occasions, most important 
and correct information about the intentionc and movements of the 
enemy, but in every case too late to te of any service. 

Soon after this ISIajor Speedy, being the Resident Magistrate 
and natixe agent of the district, was directed to read a proclamation 
of the Governor to the natives, the substance of which was that 
they were either to take the oath of allegiance to Her IMajesty and 
deliver up their arms for safe keeping, or, by a certain day named, 
leave the neighbourhood of the settlement, and retire up the 
■\Vaikato among the Kingites, so that the Government might 
discover their friends from their enemies. It being evident to 
Major Speedy, as to all who knew the natives, that they would 
never give up their arms and leave their land, he instructed j\Iajor 
Lusk to enrol and organise all the able-bodied settlers of Mauku, 
Waiuku, and Pukekohe into three volunteer companies, and for 
some time Maoris and settlers watched each other with the utmost 
suspicion, the former firmly believing that the pakehas would soon 
become so alarmed as to leave the country. But, as the day 
mentioned in the proclamation arrived, both parties began to 
entrench themselves, and, just before the volunteers were prepared 
to look up the Maori quarters, the natives suddenly deserted their 
settlements and defences, and fled up the Waikato. 

Major Speedy, in discharge of his duties, had frequently to 
travel over dangerous ground with a very slight escort, and at 
times ran great risk of his life from ambuscades. On many of 
the journeys made by him to Waiuku and back he was accom- 
panied by his daughter, a brave and intrepid girl, who would never 
leave her father while danger threatened. On one occasion his 
party had reached the VVaitangi Bridge, Lieutenant Melsopp, who 
was accompanied by IMiss Speedy, being the advanced guard. 
They had just crossed the bric'ge, within thirty yards of an ambush 
often natives of the Ngatiruanui tribe, who were concealed in the 
flax bushes half a chain from the bridge, when, luckily for the 
Major, a 3^oung Maori named Honi Ropea, one of the ambush, 
whom the Major had cured of a cutaneous disease, saw him 
amongst the party, and immediately exclaimed, " There is my 
friend ; don't fire. Major Speedy is amongst then." And, 
although his party was most indignant at being baulked of their 
prey, Ropea, being a chiefs son, prevailed, and the party passed 
on in ignorance of the ambuscade, unmolested. Some years after 
the war was over, Ropea met the ISIajor and asked him if he 
remembered the day, while riding to Waiuku, his dropping his 
handkerchief and riding back to pick it up. The IMajor remem- 
bered the circumstance. Then Ropea told him of the ambuscade, 
and the difficulty he had in saving him and his party's lives. 



124 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR HEAPHY. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



1^5 



MAJOPy 



H 



EAPHY. 



His early mililarv experiences — Ho'u he won the Victoria Cross. 




jAJOR HEAPHY'S name is well known throughout 
New Zealand as the only colonist on whom the Victoria 
Cross was conferred. As a young man, he studied 
painting in the Royal Academy, and before the age 
of seventeen had gained both the bronze and silver medals and 
had entered as a competitor for the gold medal, from which he was 
obliged to witlidraw on his appointment as draughtsman to the 
New Zealand Company. He left England for this colony in the 
ship Tory, in ]\[ay, 1839. The sketches of many of the New 
Zealand views which adorn our early publications were by him. 
During the first ten or twelve years of his sojourn in the colony 
he employed his spare time in studying surveying, and in exploring 
the country, eventually settling- in Auckland, where he married a 
daughter of the Rev. J. Y . Churton, Colonial Chaplain. In 1852, 
he was located at the Coromandel goldfields, and in 1855 was 
appointed District Surveyor at Mahurangi. At the commence- 
ment of the volunteer movement, in 1859, he joined the city 
company, commanded by Captain Steward, Aide-de-Camp to 
Governor Gore Browne. He rose to be lieutenant of this company, 
and was afterwards elected captain of No. 3 (Parnell) company 
Auckland Rifle Volunteers. 

When the first three detachments of volunteers were marched 
from Auckland to the front in July, 1863, Lieutenant Heaphy 
was with the detachment which erected St. John's Redoubt at 
Papatoitoi. In November, he was attached to the flying column, 
as guide, his intimate knowledge of the country rendering his 
services of great value. About the 20th December, 1863, some 
murders were committed near Kaipara, and it being feared that 
there was some political significance in them, a detachment of 
militia and volunteers was sent from Auckland. On their way 
they met Captain Heaphy, who had already, as a justice of the 
peace, held an inquest on the bodies, and committed the murderers 
for trial. 

Being again attached to the flying column. Captain Heaphy 
was with Colonel Sir H. Havelock, V.C., on the nth Februar}% 
1864, reconnoitring the country near Waiari, in the Waikato, 
when a party of the 40th Regiment, who were bathing, were fired 



126 THE DEFENDERS 

upon. A number of soldiers from the adjoining camp appeared 
on the scene as quickly as possible, but in some disorder, and 
Colonel Havelock placed Captain Heaphy in charge of the 
detachment. A soldier was seen lying near the edge of the 
creek, wounded and bleeding to death, an artery having been 
severed. Captain Heaphy, having some knowledge of surgery, 
voluntered to go to his assistance, and, having reached him, 
was engaged in taking up the artery when he was fired at by 
a body of natives, who were concealed in the fern close by. 
He was struck and slightly wounded in three places, but 
nevertheless succeeded in completing his work of humanity 
and, with the assistance of some soldiers, in carrying off the 
man. For this brave action he received the New Zealand 
medal and the rank of major in the New Zealand Militia, and 
was recommended for the Victoria Cross. The warrant at that 
time, however, did not permit of its being awarded to any but 
regulars, and it was not until after considerable delay and special 
legislation in the Imperial Parliament that it was awaided to 
him in 1867. 

On the termination of the war in the Waikato he held office as 
Chief Surveyor of Auckland. From 1869 to 1872 he represented 
Parnell in the House of Representatives, and in the latter year 
was appointed Commissioner of Native Reserves, and a trustee 
under the Native Lands Frauds Prevention Act. In 1877 he 
was further appointed Commissioner of Annuities, and shortly 
after received a judgeship in the Native Lands Court. At the 
end of 1880, finding his health failing, he applied for his pension, 
which w^as granted in 1881 ; and, in very feeble health, he left 
"Wellington for Brisbane, to try the effect of a warmer climate. 
He gradually sank, however, _ and died in Brisbane on 3rd 
August, 1881. Thus ended the useful career of a man who, 
in private life and in every public position he occupied, won 
the esteem and respect of all with whom he came in contact. 



128 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR M A I R 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 129 



Major Maip^ 




Bravery at Orakau — Narrozu escape from death — His interview "with the 
Maori King — Services in command of the Araivas — Attack on Te Teko 
pit — Capture of the murderers of Fnlloon and Volkner — Graphic account 
of the incident at Orakau — Assault on Te Ponga — Subsequent services. 

lAJOR ]\[AIR, the son of an old colonist and a proficient 
]\raori scholar, was attached to General Cameron's staff 
as interpreter, at the commencement of the Maori war, 
and served through that campaign. At the famous 
siege of Orakau Sir Duncan Cameron selected the Major for the 
first post of honour when he opened communication with the brave 
defenders of the Orakau Pa to propose an honourable capitulation. 
The interpreter was' ordered to advance to the extreme limits of 
the sap, and there to call upon the JVIaori warriors either to 
surrender or to send out their women and children. After deliver- 
ing the ultimation, to which the reply from the pa was " We 
shall fight for ever and ever," Mair was suddenly fired upon by a 
native named Wereta, the bullet tearing open his tunic as it passed 
over his shoulder, yet leaving him unhurt. 

At the end of the Waikato campaign the Major was appointed 
Native Resident Magistrate, and was located some time at Taupo. 
When the war broke out on the East Coast, Mair was gazetted a 
major in the New- Zealand Militia, and entrusted with the command 
of the Arawas. After this he was constantly in action, and did 
good service to the State. Sir William Fox, in his '* War in New 
Zealand," gives a graphic account of Major Mairs capture of Te 
Teko Pa in the Bay of Plenty, taking upwards of eighty prisoners, 
including the prophet Te Ua, and eight of James Fulloon's 
murderers. The INIajor on several occasions received the thanks 
of the Government for military services, and when the campaign 
on the East Coast was ended, he again settled down to the duties 
of Resident Magistrate in the Upper Waikato. 

Years after he was mainly instrumental in bringing in the Maori 
King. The story is told by Rusden in his " History of New Zea- 
land" in the following spirited manner: — "It was during the debates 
on the Native Lands Rating Bill that an event occurred which 
created surprise, both amongst the- friends and opponents of the 
Government. Tawhaio had visited the European settlements in 



130 THE DEFENDERS 

Waikato, and in token of friendship had laid down before Major 
Mair, the resident officer of the district, about eighty guns. To 
IVIajor Mair (whom the Native iMinister, Mr. Sheehan, had so 
slighted) was due the token of reconciliation which Ministry after 
Ministry had laboured long and vainly to obtain." 

Tawhiao met Major ]\Iair at Alexandra, where the Waipa River 
divides the township from the mountains of Pirongia, and close to 
]\Iatakitaki, where the firearms of Hongi, in years past, had laid 
low the flower of the Waikato, A\hen the father of Tawhiao was 
young. Desiring ^lajor Mair to stand back, Tawhiao laid his own 
gun on the ground, while at his gesture eighty of his people followed 
his example. " Do you know what this means ? " he said to ]Mair. 
" It is the first of what I told you, that there should be no more 
trouble. It means peace." The telegraph flashed the information 
to all parts of New Zealand, and Major Mair, whom the Grey 
Government had not been sagacious enough to employ, had done 
more for the ^Ministry of the day than Donald AIcLean, or any of 
his successors. 

The following is a sketch taken from the Waikato Times of 
1 8th October, 1881 : — . 

MAJOR ^I AIR'S SERVICES. 

" At a time when both races are reaping the benefit of the 
successful negotiations of Major Mair with Tawhiao and his 
people, and when the question of fitly recognising his efforts 
in this direction is before the Government, the following account 
of some of the services which that gallant officer rendered his 
country in the trying days of the Maori war will not be inappro- 
priate. The e tracts are from a very interesting work by 
Lieutenant the Hon. Herbert Mead, R.N., entitled ' A Ride 
through the Disturbed Districts of New Zealand ' : 

CAPTURE OF TE TEKO PA, 1 865. 

" After the murder of Mr, Volkner (four months later) came the 
murder of Mr, Fulloon, Government Interpreter, and the crew 
of the Kate, by the Hau Haus, at Whakatane, both on the East 
Coast. By this time the whole country-side, from Taupo to the 
East Cape, was one seething hotbed of fanaticism, encouraged 
by the impunity which followed the murder of Volkner. The 
Government had avowed their inability to assist the plucky little 
band of loyal natives who yet remained at Taupo, and advised 
them to fall back on Rotorua, which they did. When Fulloon 
was killed, Mair was at Rotorua, organising an expedition 
against Kereopa, in the Uriwera country, and as soon as he heard 
of it he took measures to avenge his death. In about a week 
he collected and equipped a sufficient force, and at the end of 
that time he started from the lower end of Lake Tarawera with 
200 Arawas, having sent about one hundred and fifty more to 
march down the coast from Maketu. On the i6th of August, the 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 131 

coast party attacked the Pai-JMarire Pa, at the confluence of the 
Awa-o-te-Atua (river of the spirit) and the Rangitaiki, without 
success, having- no boats or canoes. On the same day, Mair's 
party attacked Parawi, a very strong position on the same river, 
about seven miles from ]\Iount Edgcumbe, but met with no better 
luck, and for the same reason. He then effected a junction with 
the coast pariy, which the enemy tried to prevent, but failed, 
losing a chief in the attempt. There were three pas near the 
sea, but all too strong to be taken without artillery and boats. 
Several days were spent in skirmishing, usually picking off 
one or two Hau Haus, and waiting in hopes of assistance from 
the Opotiki expedition (English troops which landed the 8th 
September) ; in this, however, they were disappointed. He then 
detached a party, who seized all the canoes at Whakatane (the 
scene of the murder), and got them by fresh water to the rear 
of the enemy, while the remainder dragged others overland into 
the lake behind the pas, and thus cut off their supplies. The 
Hau Haus evacuated all the pas during the night of the loth 
October, and retreated up the intricate channels of the delta, 
leaving no traces of their route. But, on the i5tli, Mair learnt 
that they had thrown themselves into the Te Teko Pa, and 
following them up, he captured all their canoes, with eleven 
barrels of powder, and lead for bullets. On the 17th, travelling 
by land and water, with 500 Arawas, he reached ihe pa. The 
place was very strong, having in its rear on one side the 
Rangitaiki — swift, broad, and deep — and on the other three sides 
three hundred yards smooth glacis, three lines of palisading, 
with flanking angles, and three rows of rifle-pits and breast- 
works. The pa itself was go yards long by 45 broad, and every 
hut within it was separately fortified. There was, moreover, 
a covered way communicating with the landing place of the 
river. Sapping was the only way to take such a place. Mair, 
who was present at Orakau when that place was sapped under 
the direction of Captain Hurst, R.E., seems to have made good 
use of his eyes. He started three saps under cover of a slight 
undulation of the ground, and, in spite of a heavy fire, made such 
good progress that, on the 19th, the Hau Haus craved a truce 
to arrange terms. Firing was suspended for twenty-four hours, 
but the saps were kept driving, and the only terms Alair would 
accept were unconditional surrender. By 2 a.m. on the 20th 
the Arawas had cut off the covered way and got close up to 
the southern angle. Mair then, for the last time, summoned 
Te Hura to surrender, assuring him that, if forced to carry the 
place by assault, no quarter would be given. They saw that 
the case was hopeless, and at sunrise the whole garrison marched 
out and laid down their arms. As they came out, each hapu 
of the Arawa sprang from their trenches with a yell, and 
im«iediately had as fine a war dance as ever was seen, old Pohipi 
and three or four other hoary old, sinners giving the time. It 
must, indeed, have been a stirring sight — the long column of 



1.^2 



THE DEFENDERS 



prisoners standing with drooping heads, while their captors 
danced the wild war dance with all the fury of excitement and 
success ; the war cry of the Arawas echoing from hill top to hill 
top, while the earth trembled under the stamp of a thousand feet. 
]\Iair then placed the murderers under the special charge of the 
native police, and the remainder became prisoners of war to the 
tribe of Arawa. The murderers were first tried by court-martial 
and convicted, but the court being afterwards deemed informal, 
they were tried again by civil law in Auckland, and the sentences 
carried into effect. Thus ended one of the most completely 
successful campaigns that was ever organised and carried through 
during the Xew Zealand war, every one of the murderers having 
been brought to justice, besides the capture of a large quantity 
of amimunition and arms. Amongst them were some of the most 
rabid of fanatics, who carried with them the baked heads of 
Mr. Volkner and that of a soldier wherever they went, for the 
purpose of exciting other tribes." 

Before the advance on Orakau, Major Mair obtained, through 
native sources, full information about the country, and had a 
map prepared showing tracks, swamps, etc. This enabled General 
Carey to send a force to the rear of the pa during the night, Alajor 
Mair acting as interpreter and intelligence officer. 

The Waikato Jimcsoi i8th October, 1881, says (in reference to 
Major ]\Iair's services at Orakau, already referred to) : — " The 
troops moved up to Orakau from Te Awamutu about the 31st 
]\Iarch, 1864, halted at Kihikihi, and arrived about five in the 
morning. The cavalry were ordered to advance under Lieutenant 
Rait, and were met by a few skirmishers from the pa. Shots were 
exchanged, but nothing serious occurred till the pa was attacked, 
when Captain Ring (i8th Royal Irish) was mortally wounded, 
and Captain Fisher badly wounded, with eleven men killed and 
wounded ; later on, two more officers (Captain Herford, 3rd 
Waikato Regiment, and Ensign Chaytor, 65th Regiment, the 
latter being buried at Te Awamutu). Sapping had been kept 
up steadily for three days, and had reached within five or six 
yards of the pa, when General Cameron sent Mair to communicate 
with the garrison of the pa, for which purpose he went to the 
end of the sap, which was then close to the native entrenchment, 
and, having called for a cessation of firing, stood up on a 
banquette within the sap and held a korero with the besieged. 
But he had scarcely finished the ultimatum which he had to 
deliver when one of the men within the pa fired at him. The 
Maoris concluded that Mair had been killed, and vehemently 
condemned the treachery of the man (Wereta) who had fired. 
However, he escaped, and received no further injury than having 
the shoulder of his tunic torn open. (From his coolness on this, 
as well as other occasions, some of the officers christened him 
Julius Placidus.) The message from General Cameron was to 
this effect : ' That he admired their pluck, but did not wish to see 
so many brave men die ; that if they came out their lives would be 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 133 

spared;' but the reply from the Maoris was, 'We will fight you 
for ever and ever.' They ^vere then appealed to to allow the 
women and children to come out, but they still said, ' No ; if the 
men arc to die, tJu: ivoiiieii can die too.' About 3 p.m. of the same 
day they bolted out of one end of the pa, surprising everybody, 
and commenced to tight their way desperately through a detach- 
ment of the 40th Regiment, but in this last struggle they lost about 
fifty in the pa, and about eighty lay thick about the fern and 
swamp. Te Karamoa, minister (or something of that kind) to 
Potatau, surrendered at ths storming of Orakau, meeting the 
attacking party with a white flag in his hand, but was near being 
bayoneted, when Alair came to the rescue and saved him from the 
excited soldiery, who were jostling each other in their frantic 
efforts to get at him. Several months afterwards the part Mair 
had taken at Orakau, was very nearly bringing him to grief. 
Some Hauhaus at Taupo determined to take vengeance on him 
for having led the troops to Orakau, and laid an ambuscade 
for him on the road to the pa at Oruanui, where he was expected, 
but luckily he had gone off the road to examine a new steam jet ; 
this brought him out on anothei track, and by this he escaped his 
assailants, little knowing the certain death he had accidentally 
avoided." 

jNIajor Alair also tried to save a woman who was kneeling by 
the side of her dead husband. She was attacked by the soldiers, 
and threatened with their rifles. He had succeeded in knocking 
down one man when the poor woman was bayoneted in the 
uiclcc. Her name was Hineiturama, mother of the well-known 
Tapsell family, of Maketu. Von Temp.-5ky made a sketch of this 
incident, and gave it to the Governor, who, it was said, sent it 
to the then Secretary of State for the Colonies. 

During the operations on the East Coast and raids into the 
Uriwera jNIountains, the native scouts repeatedly refused to 
advance unless led by Alair. In one of the late Colonel St. 
John's expeditions, with European and native troops, up the 
Waimana Gorge, with hij subalterns Pitt, Hunter, and Goring, 
Mair led the natives to the assault of Te Ponga, and carried it ; 
but the Arawas were so impressed with the difficulties and risks 
attending a further advance with an ill-prepared force that they 
refused to go on, when the impetuous St. John said, " Then I 
will go on with my Europeans." The native troops retorted, 
''It is folly to attempt to advance on Aloungapohatu ; but if ]\Iair 
persists in going with you, we will carry him off by force, and 
you will soon turn back then." Major Mair has been under fire 
upon more than thirty different occasions, and took an active 
part in the following engagements : — Paterangi, Rangiaohia, 
Haerini, and Orakau, in Waikato campaign ; Ta Awa-a-te-Atua, 
Te Teko, and Whakatane, in East Coast campaign ; Te Ake 
Ake and Whakamarama, in Tauranga campaign ; Waimana, 
Omaruteangi, Hukanui, Ruatahuna, and Tatahuata, in the 
Uriwera campaign. Yet he never received any special reward 

1* 



134 THE DEFENDERS 

for his military services. In fact, it may be said that amongst 
the leading spirits of the war, he and his brother. Captain Gilbert 
Mair, are the only officers who did not get a portion of the 
confiscated lands they had fought so hard to obtain for the colony. 
^Major jMair became a judge of Native Lands Court in 1882, 
and still holds that office. In 1886, he adjudicated upon the whole 
of the lands comprised in the King Country, the parties concerned 
having such confidence in him that they came forward to establish 
their conflicting claims. 



T 



OF NE W ZEALAND. 135 



OKIHA TaPvANUI. 



A remarkable incident — A run for life under a galling fire — How Pokiha 
saved 3TcDonnell and his men. 

N the 22nd of April, 1864, the Hauhaus, about eight 
hundred strong, were entrenched on the sand hills 
on the opposite side of the river Waihi, near Maketu, 
in the Bay of Plenty. The cliffs on this side, rising 




perpendicularly from eighty to ninety feet high above the flat on 
the river bank, were occupied by 200 men of Her Majesty's 43rd 
Regiment, under Major Colville, and about six hundred Arawas, 
under their old chief Pokiha. Considerable firing had taken 
place on both sides, when Major Colville ordered Colonel 
McDonnell, with nine men of the defence force, who had accom- 
panied him from Waikato, to take possession of a rifle-pit 
immediately under the cliffs on the flat, on our side of the river, 
and opposite the enemy's rifle-pits on the other side, who were 
posted within 350 yards of the position. To reach this rifle-pit 
McDonnell and his men had to traverse about five hundred yards 
exposed to a raking fire, although the fire from the cliff poured 
down upon the enemy to cover the movement. Captain William 
McDonnell (the Colonel's brother) was the first in the pit, followed 
by the other eight, who all arrived safely. It was intended 
to make a general attack upon the enemy's rifle - pits at 
low water, when the river would be fordable. After the 
men were safely ensconced in their position the fire from the 
main body on the cliff ceased, the enemy only continuing a brisk 
rolling fire, principally directed on those in the pit, Vvhich was twenty 
feet long, six feet broad, and three feet deep, and had been dug by 
the men of the 43rd Regiment the day previous. McDonnell 
returned their fire with interest, as many were seen to fall. About 
noon the fire slackened, and for a few moments ceased, and as no 
support had as yet been given, the men in the rifle-pit, whose 
ammunition was getting low, began to consider their position. 
No good result had as yet been effected, and the Hauhaus had 
by that time got their range, which caused our men to crouch 
down and husband their own ammunition by only firing at 
intervals. In this dilemma, the bugle sounded the recall ; but 
the sun was yet above the cliffs, affording a splendid light for the 
enemy's marksmen had IMcDonnell's party attempted to run the 



136 THE DEFENDERS 

gauntlet over the 500 yards of space within rifle range of the 
enemy, so they turned a deaf ear to the bugle, more particularly as 
the main body had taken no precaution to cover their retreat. 
The bugle sounded again and again, but no one moved ; and as 
the enemy fully understood what the bugle meant, thsy prepared, 
by a heavier fire than before, to cut them off from the main body, 
should they attempt to leave. On a sudden the whole fire of the 
enemy, from right to left, and from cliff to cliif, opened upon them, 
when, in the midst of the uproar, the old chief Pokiha suddenly 
leaped into the rifle-pit, saying, as he did so, " That fire was 
meant for me." Pokiha had seen their danger, and leaving his 
men on the cliff, had traversed the 500 yards, exposed to their fire 
to save the pakeha. This devotion and gallantry of the old chief 
was one of the bravest acts performed by either jMaori or pakeha 
during that campaign. McDonnell asked him why he had run 
such a risk. "It was to save you," he answered; " do not obey 
the people on the clifl^, but wait until the sun goes down. If you 
had left you would have lost half your men. Your brave fellows 
have been fighting all day the whole of the Bay of Plenty men. 
Let them bugle away ; we will stay here, and I will take 3'ou out of 
it after dusk," which he did safely, for AIcDonnell and Pokiha were 
the last to leave, and as they flew over the five hundred yards the 
bullets snipped off" the tops of the toi-toi all along the route, but 
the darkness saved them. Pokiha was afterwards recommended 
for the New Zealand Cross, but it was not bestowed on him. 
Soon after IMajor Jackson of the Waikato having to present a 
repeating rifle to the bravest man of the force, it w^as awarded to 
old Pokiha without a dissenting voice, a prize the old chief greatly 
preferred to the decoration. 



138 



IHE DEFENDERS 




OF NEW ZEALAND, 139 



/ 



J. p, Y. 



ON. tJ . L. tvlCHMOND. 



Early Taranaki troubles — Destruction of his bush farm — Native Minister 
iti the Stafford Administration — The Poverty Bay tnassacre — Expe- 
ditions in pursuit. 




OHN C. RICHMOND'S relations with the Maori wars 
in New Zealand began with the formation of the 
Taranaki Volunteer Rifle Company, commanded by 
Captain C. Brown (now Major Brown), in 1858. He 
was absent from the colony during the feuds which broke out 
among the local tribes, and which led to the quartering at New 
Plymouth of a detachment of the 65th Regiment, under Major 
(afterwards Lieut. -Colonel) Murray, and his name does not appear 
in the absurdly abused memorials sent to Governor Gore Browne 
by the Taranaki settlers, previous to the arrival of that force. 
He became a member of the volunteer corps as a priv^ate, and 
studied rifle shooting with some success, ranking second after Mr. 
Messenger as a marksman. 

It was as Provincial Secretary that he first took any part 
deserving of record in the troubles of the province. Mr. Cutfield 
was Superintendent, and Mr. Thomas King and Mr. Richmond 
were h:s executive officers, responsible to the Provincial Council. 
Governor Gore Browne, having agreed to purchase the Teira 
block at Waitara, subject to survey and detailed inquiry, wrote in 
i860 a semi-official letter to the Superintendent, informing him of 
his intention of g'oing forward with the transaction, and asking him 
to furnish surveyors for setting out the land offered, who, if 
necessary, would have military support. This letter was placed in 
the hands of Mr. King and Mr. Richmond, and they at once stated 
their opinion that it w^ould be right, in assenting to furnish the 
professional help required, to state fully to his Excellency the 
views of the local government as to the probable issue of the 
attempt to survey. Mr. Cutfield did not agree with them, and 
considered that the letter, being only half official, did not require or 
justify any further answer than a simple assent to furnish the 
assistance it asked. Mr. King and Mr. Richmond adhered to 
their opinion, and Mr. Richmond drafted a letter, which appears 
on the Parliamentary Blue Book of i860, and in which the readiness 
of the settlers to support the Governor's policy was affirmed. 
It went on to state that the survey would certainly be opposed by 



I40 THE DEFENDERS 

force, and that not only the non-selling party at Waitara, but their 
sympathisers among the local tribes, would join ; and that it was 
to be expected there would be wide-spreading excitement and 
succour to the opponents of the Government from other distant 
tribes. It pointed out that the weakness of the Taranaki settlers 
was their scattered condition, their families, and their property ; 
and suggested the erection of block-houses in the several districts. 
After a short " ministerial crisis," Mr. Cutfield accepted the draft, 
and it was despatched. This letter, which showed a clear foresight 
of the events that followed, was of special importance to the 
settlers of the day, and became a powerful support to their prayer 
to the Legislature to consider the ruin of their prospects and 
property. In particular, it gained the somewhat tardy assent of 
the late Mr. Sewell and Mr. J. £. Fitzgerald, C.M.G., to the 
provision honourably made by the New Zealand Parliament for 
compensating the local losses. 

]\Ir. Richmond's share in the active operations which followed 
was small. He was at the Ratapihipihi fiasco, but not with the 
gallant combatants of Waireka, except in a night expedition after 
the fight to search for stragglers. 

His bush farm having been destroyed, cattle driven off, and 
house burnt, he was obliged, with a growing family, to remove to 
Nelson; to which place he had been invited to take charge of the 
Nelson Examiner newspaper. He had been a frequent corres- 
pondent of the paper during the disturbances, and had made 
Iriends there in connection with the Taranaki refugees. It may 
not be out of place here to state that the large expenditure for the 
housing and maintenance of these refugees, as well as in housing 
and rationing the helpless non-combatants at New Plymouth, was 
incurred at the sole risk and responsibility of Messrs. T. King and 
Richmond ; and that Mr. Richmond had, as a private member of 
the General Assembly, to ask for votes for these and other public 
local matters — the boating service for the troops among the rest — 
carried on and expended on their own risk and authority. 

Living at Nelson Mr. Richmond continued to be honoured for 
ten years with the confidence of the constituencies of Grey, and 
Bell, and Omata ; the latter place re-electing him in 1 866, after 
four years' residence in Nelson. In 1865 he joined the Government 
of Mr. F. A. Weld, and held for a few months the portfolio of 
Native Minister. During this time he drafted the Order in Council 
confiscating the Ngatiawa Taranaki Ngatiruanui Block, under the 
*' New Zealand Settlements Act, 1862." 

In 1867-9 ^Ir. Richmond became a member of Mr. Stafford's 
Government, holding the portfolio of Native Affairs ; Colonel 
Haultain being Minister for Defence. There was some difficulty 
in forming that Ministry, not merely owing to the peculiar position 
of the Prime Minister with relation to the former government of 
iMr. Weld and his colleagues, but chiefly owing to the jealousy 
of all expenditure on defence and native affairs which then 
animated the Assembly. Mr. Stafford had pledged himself to 



OF NE TV ZEA L AND. i ^ i 

large reductions and Colonel Haultain declined to accept office on 
the proposed votes. In this Mr. Richmond seconded him, and was 
prepared to support him to the full. The negotiations were on the 
point of falling through, when a proposal by Sir George Grey, 
then Governor, satisfied Colonel Haultain, and avoided the dead- 
lock. Sir Georg-e undertook to place the troops remaining in the 
colony in the towns of Napier, \Vanganui, and New Plymouth ; 
and thus to set free all the colonial militia and levies for any 
necessary active operations ; the Imperial Government and the 
General Assembly alike objecting to any further active employment 
of the Queen's troops. This arrangement was deferred from time 
to time, and never fully carried into effect, — a failure which in no 
small degree aggravated the difficulty which fell on Colonel 
Haultain's shoulders in the troubles of the next three years. 

Not very long after Mr. Richmond had charge of the Native Office 
a deputation from the Ngatiruanui tribe came to Wellington to 
ask if their submission Avas accepted, and where they would be 
allowed to live in peace, all their land having gone from them. 
Mr. Richmond explained that the Governor had full power to 
return part of their land, and appointed to visit the tribe at once. 
Summoning j\Ir. Parris, they proceeded to Patea, and after a tribal 
meeting, headed by Hone Pihama, the head ot the Ngatiruanui 
tribe, five considerable reserves were made and promptly gazetted, 
upon which these hapus still live and from which they receive rents. 
Pihama, under all the difficulties of his position arising out of the 
pilgrimages to Te Whiti, at Parahaka, has remained orderly, and 
peacefully farms at Oeo in partnership with an experienced Euro- 
pean, Mr Good. 

With respect to the part of his public life in which alone he has 
any distinct claim to be remembered as one of the list of defenders 
of New Zealand, he was not personally responsible for the 
removal of Te Kooti and his party to the Chatham Islands. This 
took place during the government of Mr., now Sir F. A. Weld ; 
but he was responsible for their continued detention. The Bay of 
Plenty w^as still disturbed ; Kereopa, the murderer of Mr. Volkner 
at Opotiki, was yet at liberty and actively hostile. Mr. Rolleston, 
the Under-Secretary for Native Affairs, was sent to the Islands to 
visit the prisoners and report on their condition. On his report 
Mr. Richmond advised the prolongation of their exile, though 
not without promise of immediate release when the native affairs 
of New Zealand were quiet. Meanwhile Colonel Haultain was in 
personal command of the defence forces at and around Tauranga, 
until attacked by rheumatic fever, and incapacitated for service in 
the field and travelling for many months. Kereopa was taken, but 
the weakness of the guard at the Chathams let loose on the colony 
a more dangerous and able opponent, whom the bold and confident 
action of Major Biggs converted into our most active enemy. 

During the Tauranga campaign ]\Ir. Richmond had inspected 
the posts on the West Coast on behalf of Colonel Haultain. He 
found the military settlers had vanished, and that whilst the prospect 



142 THE DEFENDERS 

of peace was yet remote the only real force under arms on the coast 
was the native contingent under Colonel McDonnell. The 
Defence Minister had asked him to send this force to his assistance 
at Tauranga, but he could not undertake that responsibility ; instead 
of which he dispatched ils commander, Colonel McDonnell. On 
the resignation of Colonel McDonnell Colonel Haultain did 
Mr. Richmond the honour to ask his advice as to the selection of a 
successor for the retiring officer. He named to him two, either of 
them, in his opinion, competent to take active command of our 
forces, Major Atkinson and Major, now Sir G. S. Whitmore. By 
Colonel Hau'.tain's request he spoke to both. The former gentleman 
had a most imperious call to visit Engla*:d, but Colonel Whitmore 
was able to undertake the anxious work. It was towards the end 
of the session of 1868, shortly after the affair of Ngutu-o-te-manu,, 
that news "reached Wellington of the landing of Te Kooti a few 
miles to the south of Poverty Bay, and that the gallant Major Biggs 
had thrown himself between the returning party and the interior. 
Before the prorogation, Mr. Richmond set out in the Government 
steamer Start, at the request of Colonel Haultain, to see the East 
Coast in a state of defence. Mr., afterwards Sir Donald McLean, 
Agent of the Government at Napier, accompanied him. 

After calling at Napier, they went to Waiapu to procure 
auxiliaries from the Ngatiporou. Along the coast they picked 
up Major Biggs, who had not thought the escape inland of Te 
Kooti a sufficiently serious danger to prevent him carrying on 
his ordinary visits as Resident Magistrate. A force of 170, or 
thereabouts, from the hapu of Mokena, Hotene, and Ropata, was 
obtained, and made for Poverty Bay. As they approached, they 
noticed considerable smoke up the Te Arai valley. No boat 
came off, and the tide did not serve for entering the river. A 
schooner at anchor was boarded, and from her people they learned 
that the idea had been entertained that the smoke was from the 
approaching party of Te Kooti. Mr. Richmond's mind hardly 
hesitated about it, and he desired Major Biggs to say what he 
required to put the settlers on the plain of Tauranga in safety. 
He asked for means to put a redoubt at the port in order, and a 
native force of 100 men to garrison it. On Mr. Richmond pointing 
out the scattered and scanty population on and round the plain 
he added to his demand mouL)^ for a stockade near the few houses 
in the centre of the plain, amongst which was his own. All 
these things were agreed to and set about immediately, and 
the native force arrived in less than two days. Mr. Richmond's 
last words to Major Biggs were: "Do not let any loyal natives, 
Major Westrupp, or any outlying settlers sleep outside a stockade 
after this day." Biggs assented, but did not act on this caution, 
and ten days later was, with his whole family, among the victims 
of the massacre. Mr. Richmond then returned south to bring 
up the European forces, and returned with about 200 men, under 
Colonel Whitmore, but too late to prevent the disaster. At this 
time the total European force on foot did not exceed 500, probably 



OF NE J V ZEA L A ND. i , , 

not more than 400 men ; and this was divided between the west and 
the east coasts of the island. On arrival at Poverty Bay, they 
learned that Ropata's Ngatiporou, along- with a party of llawke's 
Bay natives, under Tareha te Moananui, were following- Te Kooti. 
Colonel Whitmore and Mr. Richmond rode up the Arai Valley, 
and found that they had abandoned operations, luther the two 
tribes had disagreed, or they were tired, or did not like the look 
of the stronghold ; and both tribes were sent home, but the Ngati- 
porou were engaged to return after a rest. Colonel Whitmore 
arranged deliberately all his plans for the attack of the pa, 
which was undergoing improvements. In a few days Mr. Rich- 
mond brought back the Ngatiporou, and the siege proceeded. 
The place was most formidable to approach ; situated on a peak 
I, coo to 1,200 feet high, bush covered, the top rendered more 
defencible by low, natural cliffs on one side. The approach on 
the easier side was by a narrow track, which a few resolute bush- 
men could hold against half a regiment. In the interval, Mr. 
Richmond had been to Maketu and Rotoiti and got from the 
Arawa a reinforcement of 120 young men, who arrived in time 
for the latter part of the operations, and had the honour of being 
first to enter the fortress. Ropata and his Ngatiporous also 
rendered magnificent service, for which the brave chief was 
awarded the New Zealand Cross, as narrated elsewhere in the 
biography of Major Ropata. The siege occupied about six days. 
The defenders were reduced to great straits The water, which 
curiously was found near the top of this isolated peak, was cut 
off by our lines of approach. Te Kooti and his body-guard 
escaped. Few prisoners capable of bearing arms were tak;n. 
The old men, the women and children were removed to AVaiapu, 
where they have taken root among JMokena's people. 

The geography of the East Coast and Hawke's Bay is favourable 
to a Maori general, and Te Kooti did his best to use it. After 
recovering from the affair of Ngatapa, he descended from his 
central position at Maungapohatu, on Mohaka in Hawke's Bay, 
and on Whakctane, Bay of Plenty. Our little European force had 
been meanwhile round to the Waitotata, and, in order to give Te 
Kooti a new lesson, we had to bring a body of men back by way 
of Waitara, Manukau, and Tauranga. The geography above 
referred to was not unknown to the Defence Minister. Colonel 
Whitmore had talked of a triple concentrating expedition by way 
cf Wairoa, Poverty Bay, and Whakatane ; and it was resolved to 
carry something of the kind out, omitting the Wairoa, and sub- 
stituting Matata for Poverty Bay. Mr. Richmond assisted the 
commander in collecting his forces, which included a considerable 
number of Europeans, with Arawa and Whakatane (Ngatiawa) 
natives. These were divided into two parties, one, under Colonel 
Whitmore, starting from Matata by the Rangitaheke, the other, 
under Colonel St. John, striking at once into the bush by the 
ragnes. Mr. Richmond was with Colonel Whitmore at Matata, 
bar-bound on board the Sf//rf, up to the day before his setting cut 



144 THE DEFENDERS 

At the last moment he was asked to organise a third expedition, 
via Wairoa and Waikara Moana, and to lead it up himself. He 
agreed to assist but not to command such an expedition, but 
pointed out that it could not possibly form a junction with the 
others, as it must take ten days or a fortnight to get it on foot. 
He consequently handed it over to Major Herrick, of Hawke's 
Bay, telling him that the march of a colonial force by that route, 
if conducted with forethought and prudence, would be worth the 
expense in prestige and in exploring the fables about the diffi- 
culties of the country. A force was collected, a sledge track made 
up to the lake, boats built, and pontoon made ; but the expedition 
did not start, the order having been countermanded the very day 
it was ready to march, and a Maori expedition was substituted. 

This country is now explored in all directions. The mystery of 
Waikari Moana is now fully dissipated, and railways have 
penetrated, and are penetrating, the dark wildernesses behind 
]\Iount Egmont, and up to the foot of Ruapehu ; but even now 
the peaceful tourist may look about him with a little surprise, and 
some respect for those earlier visitors, who, carrying their food, 
ammunition, and lives in their hands, threaded them in spite of an 
enemy, equal in bravery, superior in local knowledge and in the 
habits of life in the wilderness. 



K 



146 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN NOBTHCROFT 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 1^7 



APT. 



N 



ORTHCROFT. 



j\[ore than fifty times under fire — Services ineriting the Ahw Zealand 
Cross — Carrying a wounded comrade off under heavy fire — Dangerous 
exploit at Ketemarae — A ivounded man shot in Not thcro/l's arms — 
Swimming a flooded river for provisiotis. 




lAPTAIN NORTHCROFT, one of the bravest of our 
colonial defenders, joined in Taranaki at the very outset 
of the rebellion, taking a prominent part, although 
Uj quite a boy, in the defence of that district. He was always 
to be found where danger threatened, and as the war extended 
itself to Wanganui, he was despatched there with the Taranaki 
Military Settlers, and took part in all the engagements and perils 
of a guerilla war. H^ was seldom out of the field, yet fortunately 
escaped even a wound. He gradually rose to a Sub-Inspectorship 
of Armed Constabulary, and received a commission as Captain of 
Militia. After the war he was made Resident Magistrate of the 
Waikato district, which position he holds to this day. During 
his sixteen years' of military life, he participated in no less than 
forty-nine engagements with the enemy, not to mention the daily 
skirmishes incidental to guerilla warfare, his services fully entitling 
him to the decoration of the New Zealand Cross, and which his 
modesty alone, one would be inclined to think, could have kept 
him from obtaining ; as his bravery, while under fire, was men- 
tioned in despatches so often as to occasion surprise that he could 
have been passed over, while so many possessing only a tithe of 
his colness in action, and his indomitable pluck and determina- 
tion, were favoured with this distinction. The following (compiled 
by Mr. J. H. Wilkes) are a few only of the many acts of bravery 
this young officer was known to perform, any one of which would 
have entitled a soldier of the Imperial army to the decoration of the 
Victoria Cross : — 

CAPTAIN NORTHCROFT'S RESCUE OF FARRIER- 
MAJOR DUFF. 

On the ist October, 1866, Colonel McDonnell made one of his 
favourite night attacks on the enemy. We had left the Waihi 
Redoubt about 10 p.m., and, crossing the Waingongoro near the 
mouth, came on to the Waimate Plains. From here we struck 



148 THE DEFENDERS 

inland for the bush, and, following up a track for the best part of 
the night, we at last were rew^arded wnth the sound of a cock 
crowing. This was just at day dawn. We continued in the 
direction of the sound, and, coming to the edge of a clearing, saw 
immediately before us a IMaori village, which we rushed before the 
natives had time to escape from their whares. Ensign Northcroft, 
with two of his company — viz,, Foley and Lufton — were, as usual, 
leading, and while in the ' act of getting over a fence into the 
clearing a IMaori saw them, and attempted to run the gauntlet, but 
was immediately dropped by one of the three ; I could not say 
which, as they all fired simultaneously. Ensign Northcroft on this 
day performed an act of bravery I had ample opportunity of 
witnessing. One of our best men on this expedition — Farrier- 
Major Duff —fell mortally wounded, and was carried and laid down 
under cover of a fence, so that Dr, Suther could attend to him. 
The natives of a neighbouring settlement, having heard the firing, 
came down in great force, and soon made it so hot for us that an 
order to retire was given. This was now^ somewhat difficult to 
obey, as the Hauhaus w^ere pressing us very hard, and had already 
gained possession of the track by which we had entered the clear- 
ing. In the hurry of getting off the wounded, poor Duff was for 
the moment forgotten, the part of the clearing where he was lying 
being almost in the hands of the enemy ; but to have left him co 
his fate w^ould have disgraced the colonial forces for ever. 
Ensign Noithcroft volunteered to bring him off. It was almost 
certain death to any one w^ho should attempt it, as the natives held 
possession of the edge of the clearing within fifteen }'ards of where 
poor Duff lay, and to have endeavoured to dislodge them would have 
meant still greater loss of life, and almost certain failure, for the 
enemy by this time had considerably outnumbered us, and were 
under cover of the bush, Northcroft, at a glance, took in the 
situation, and said to me, as I stood beside him, " Take this rifle " 
(a rifle he had taken from another wounded man) ; and, without 
saying another word, he dashed off in the direction of where Duff 
was laid. We watched him eagerly as he ran, for no one expected 
to see him return. He had lost his cap in the early part of the 
fight, and had tied his white pocket handkerchief around his head, 
so that his men could distinguish him. I never shall forget the 
scene as long as I live — this brave, determined young officer, with 
the white band round his head, running, as it were, into the very 
jaws of death. The natives themselves did not ^eem to compre- 
hend what it meant — what he was about to do — for on his first 
appearance they fired fifteen to twenty shots at him, and then for a 
time ceased altogether. But, nothing daunted, on ran Northcroft 
— the distance being from sixty to eighty yards — took up poor Duff 
in his arms, and ran as swiftly back again as he could with such a 
burden. Then, and then only, did the Maoris seem to realise what 
was happening, and two natives rushed out of the bush into the 
open, and deliberately took a pot-shot at Northcroft within a 
distance of twenty yards; but one of these fired for the last time, 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 149 

as Sergeant White (who fell some few months after) dropped him 
before he could re-load. The other native turned and fled into the 
bush. By this time Northcroft was safe, having escaped without a 
scratch ; and as he laid his burden down, poor Duff, with his 
parting breath, paid him the highest compliment one brave man 
could pay another, as, while looking up into Northcroft's face, he 
in a whisper said, "I all along knew you would never leave me to 
be tomahawked." 

CAPTAIN NORTHCROFT'S SPIRITED BEHAVIOUR AT 
THE DEATH OF ECONOMEDES. 

Once again during the month of November, 1866, Colonel 
McDonnell left Waihi camp for another forage in the bush, hoping 
to catch or come across some of the broken parties of natives who 
had escaped from Te Umu, Popoia, and other places McDonnell 
had taken, and with the further object of getting to the rear of 
Tiritiri Moana, where the Hauhaus were supposed to be strongly 
posted. The force, consisting of Maoris and Europeans, started 
inland from the Ketemarae clearing, the Wanganui native scouts 
leading the way up to 2 p.m., when they came across two of the 
enemy, whom they foolishly fired at, the result being that they escaped 
and raised the alarm. Soon after we came to a deep and dangerous- 
looking ravine, with a creek running through, when our native 
scouts refused to lead further, and McDonnell called for volunteers, 
sixteen presenting themselves. Ensign Northcroft, Privates John 
Hall, Wilkes, Economedes, Lufton, and a very brave native named 
Tonihi were chosen as the advance guard, to be supported by 
Lieutenant Gudgeon with his Native Contingent, who would be 
followed by Captain Morrison and Lieutenant OCallaghan, with 
their company of Taranaki Military Settlers. As the advanced 
party crossed the creek it was evident from the footprints that a 
strong party of Hauhaus had crossed it but a short time before, 
for though the stream was clear in the middle it w^as still muddy 
on each side, which fact was reported to McDonnell, and all felt 
assured that the advance under Northcote would soon be ambus- 
caded. Those who know anything of JMaori warfare are aware 
that there is no greater trial of cool courage than leading in a bush 
track with the certain knowledge that before you have gone much 
further you will be fired into by an unseen enemy. Northcroft 
knew the danger he had before him well enough as he filed up the 
opposite side of the steep ravine at the head of his small party. 
When this party arrived at the top they found the track wound 
round to the right for some fifteen yards and then crossed a email 
karaka grove before entering some dense bush. At the edge of the 
grove Northcote held up his hand to indicate caution, ordering us 
to halt a few minutes while he and Economedes first crocsed it. 
This they did with great caution, and were about to enter the 
thicket on the opposite side when Northcroft suddenly cried out, 
" Take cover," and sprang behind a karaka tree, none too soon, as 



150 THE DEFENDERS 

a volley was fired from within a few yards in front of him, and poor 
Economedes, who was close behind him, was shot through the hips 
and mortally wounded. The rest of the party for the moment fell 
back, and so left Northcroft with his wounded comrade alone 
within a few yards of a lot of fanatical Hauhaus. We could hear 
them shouting "Kokiritia" (Charge), "Whakawaria" (Close in), 
and other cries used in Maori warfare. Gudgeon tried his utmost 
to get his Native Contingent to charge, but one of his fighting men 
having had a bad dream that foretold evil to come on that day, none 
would move. He consequently passed word to Lieutenant 
O'Callaghan to come up with his men, and as Gudgeon, O'Callaghan, 
the scouts, and No. 5 Taranaki Settlers dashed down the track we 
never thought to see either Northcroft or Economedes other than 
tomahawked corpses. But when we came to the karaka grove we 
found Northcroft kneeling down by the side of his brave Greek 
comrade behind a karaka tree, where he had drawn him for safety 
before the poor fellow died. By this act Ensign Northcroft saved 
Economedes from being tomahawked while he lay wounded, besides 
preventing his arms and ammunition from falling into the hands 
of the enemy, as woll as a considerable sum of money he had on 
his person. 

PRIVATE WATT SHOT WHILE IN NORTHCROFT'S 

ARMS. 

On the 12th March, 1869, a column under Colonel Whitmore left 
the Patea township, crossed the river, and marched inland, between 
the Whenuakura and Patea rivers, in the direction of a place called 
Otauto, where the Hauhaus, under the redoubtable Titokowaru, 
were supposed to be strongly posted. On the following morning 
about dawn the Arawas, who were in the advance, stumbled across 
an outlying picket of the enemy. The morning being so misty we 
did not see them until we were fired into. Colonel Whitmore im- 
mediately ordered the advance division to extend and feel their 
way carefully, as the fog was very dense. We cautiously advanced 
through a small piece of bush, and entering an old cultivation 
continued on to the edge of a gentle slope, when we received 
another sharp volley, apparently only from a few yards' distance, 
which killed one man and wounded several others. The officers 
ordered us to take cover, as it was impossible to see what was in 
front. Colonel Whitmore then came up and tried to ascertain 
what was over the slope, but was received with a volley that 
convinced him that the enemy could cee us, and to advance in that 
direction would be only useless waste of life. The Colonel 
very narrowly escaped death. He ordered Major Kemp to work 
round to the right flank of the enemy, and Sub-Inspector Scannell, 
with No. 2 division Armed Constabulary and the Arawa contingent 
under Sub-Inspector Gundry, to do the same on the left. I was 
with the party on the left, and it was soon apparent the Hauhaus 
intended to make it warrn for us, as we soon had several men killed 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 151 

and wounded, while as yet we could not see further than the 
muzzles of our gun. Some of our men had at first taken cover 
under a row of flax bushes, which ran down the clearing in a direct 
line to where the enemy were posted. These poured in a raking 
fire on our fellows, killing and wounding many. A man of No. 2 
division named Watt had, in his eagerness to find out the position 
of the enemy, crawled to within a few yards of them, when he 
suddenly called out that he was hit on the leg, the bone being 
broken. Although we were within a few yards of the Hauhaus, 
and could hear every word they said, we could not discover whether 
they were entrenched or under cover of their pa, the fog still 
continued so dense. It appeared almost certain death to advance 
to where poor Watt lay wounded, but Sub- Inspector Northcroft, 
sticking his sword into the ground, proceeded to pick Watt up. 
He had hardly got him fairly in his arms when the enemy fired a 
volley of five or six shots within a few yards' range, mortally 
wounding the man he had in his arms, while Northcroft himself 
escaped. Poor Watt exclaiming, " Oh, I am hit again," soon after 
expired. The whole of these circumstances I can vouch for, having 
been an eye-witness. 

MAJOR SCANNELL'S ACCOUNT. 

During the attack on Otauto a man named Watt, of No. 2 divi- 
sion Armed Constabulary, was severely wounded, and was lying 
amongst some flax bushes in a place much exposed to the enemy's 
fire. Sub-Inspector Northcroft, of that division, went forward, and 
taking the wounded man in his arms brought him from under 
fire, but while in the act of doing so Watt was again wounded 
whilst in Northcroft's arms, and died shortly after. The Victoria 
Cross has been granted in the Imperial army over and over 
again for such actions as this. The same officer marched with his 
division from Wairoa, Hawke's Bay, to Lake Waikaremoana. On 
the arrival of the division at the Waikare Taheke River, which it 
was necessary to cross, it was found impossible to do so owing 
to the heavy flood and rapid current. The division were out of 
provisions, and although every effort was made to attract the 
attention of the party in the Kewi Redoubt, about two miles' 
distant, it was found impossible to do so. The situation was 
becoming very critical, as the men were then two days without 
food. Under these circumstances Sub-Inspector Northcroft and 
one of the constables volunteered to endeavour to swim the river 
in company, and communicate with those stationed in the 
Redoubt. The river was swollen, the current strong, aud the bed 
covered with huge boulders, against which the rapid current 
foamed and dashed in a most fearful manner, and to attempt 
swimming seemed certain death. At the last moment the 
constable declined the venture, and Sub-Inspector Northcroft, 
despite all opposition, jumped in alone. Before he rose to the 
surface he was carried fully twenty, yards down the river, and after 
a desperate struggle with the current, succeeded in gaining the 



152 THE DEFENDERS 

opposite bank, quite exhausted. After a short rest for recovery, 
he set off to the redoubt with only a shawl round his waist, and 
succeeded in procuring for his starved comrades all the provisions 
that could be spared, viz., a 5olb. bag of flour, which had to be 
dragged bodily through the river. Only those who witnessed the 
exploit could form an adequate idea of the danger he had passed 
through. 

[letter of recommendation from colonel m'donnell.] 

"Wanganui, March soth, iSyi. 

" Sir, — For the consideration of the Honourable the Defence Minister I have 
the honour to state, that at the attack on Fungarehu in October, 1866, Ensign 
Northcroft, of the Patea Rangers, and now a Sub-Inspector of the Armed 
Constabulary, did with great bravery and at the risk of his life, rescue Sergt.- 
INIajor Duff, who laid mortally wounded and helpless, from the enemy. 

" Also, at the attack upon Tiritiri Moana, in November of the same year, Mr. 
Northcroft, being on that occasion in front in the bush, with Private 
Economedes, were mst by the enemy, who fired and killed the latter. Mr. 
Northcroft held his ground until assistance came up, preventing mutilation of 
the body and the capture of his arms and ammunition, besides a considerable 
sum of money the man had on his person. 

"This officer would have been recommended by me for the above to the 
Honourable Colonel Haultain as deserving of the Victoria Cross could it have 
been conferred on a colonial soldier. — I have, etc., 

"Thomas McDonnell, Lieut.-Colonel. 

"To G. S. Cooper, Esq., 

"Under-Secretary, Defence Office." 



OF NEW ZEALAND, i^. 




IREMU KaTENE. 




IREMU KATENE, rebel, friendly, and friendly rebel, 
is now no more. At the begining of the war, 
he was one of our most powerful foes ; but after a 
time, he brought in a portion of his hapu and, 
delivering them up, said he was tired of leading men who 
deserted him in the moment of danger, and for the future 
he would fight for the pakeha. He was given over to the 
custody of Major "W. E. Gudgeon, who then had charge of 
the native contingent, with orders to keep a sharp look-out 
on his actions. The information he gave us, and his earnestness 
in the cause of the paheka, soon induced Colonel McDonnell 
to use him as his guide, and faithfully did he perform this 
duty. Katene was one of the bravest of Maoris, and the 
best cf scouts, and would have remained true to us to the 
end had he not been imprisoned by the Resident Magistrate 
at Patea for some trifling peccadilloes. 

One evening, while sitting round the camp fire, he suddenly 
placed his hand on Captain Gudgeon's knee, and, looking up 
in his face, asked him a question so full of meaning, and so 
illustrative of the Maori character, that the Captain never forgot 
it — " Do you believe in me now r " The Captain replied, "Yes, 
Katene, I do." "Well," said Katene, "you are right and you 
are wrong. You are right to trust me now, for I mean you 
well ; but never trust a Maori, for soms day I may remember 
that I have lost my land, and that the power and influence 
of my tribe has departed, and that you are the cause ; at 
that moment I shall be your enemy. Do not forget what I 
say." 

It was Katene who warned the force that in future they would 
have to meet the Hauhaus in the bush, as they did not intend to 
fight again in their pas, which they had come to regard as traps 
to be caught in, but that they would make the most of their 
knowledge of the country, surprising smaP parties, and only 



154 THE DEFENDERS 

meeting the pakeha in the forest. He also warned us to be 
specially careful of the small redoubts, and see that they were 
well fortified, " For, mark me, " he said, " their intention is to 
surprise and storm some of them immediately." The truth of 
these utterances was soon felt, both at Te Ngutu-o-te-manu 
and Turi-turi Mokai. Katene remained with us for some time 
after receiving repeated warnings from the rebels, and only 
left us in the quiet of one night to save his young daughter, 
whom the rebels had got possession of, and had sent him 
word they would destroy if he did not leave us immediately. 
He died only a few months ago, respected by both Maori and 
pakeha. 



^56 



JHE DEFENDERS 




LIEUT-COLONEL NIXON 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 157 



y 



lEUT. -LOL 



N 



IXON. 



; 




Early viilitary services — Training the Neiv Zealand Volunleers — For- 
mation of Mounted Defence Corts — His great popularity and sad 
death. 

lEUT.-COLONEL NIXON retired from the Imperial 
service with the rank of major, having served in the 
39th Regiment in India ; was present at the Battles of 
yi Gwalior and Alaharajapore ; and was considered by the 
authorities to be one of the most promising soldiers of the day ; 
receiving the Bronze Star for those actions. He settled in New 
Zealand, having reached this colony in June, 1852 ; and, on the 
first rumours of war, the' settlers in his immediate neighbourhood 
looked to him as their leader in any defence they might be called 
upon to make ; while he, on his part, as readily responded with all 
the energy and promptitude of his nature to their appeal. He 
quickly embodied and trained two troops of volunteer yeomanry 
cavalry, composed principally of the sons of country settlers, who 
were soon in a high state of efficiency ; proud of their corps, and of 
their commanding officer. When hostilities in the Waikato district 
seemed inevitable Colonel Nixon, who was a Member of the House 
of Representatives, was entrusted by the Government to enrol a 
cavalry force of a somewhat different character, to be henceforth 
called the Mounted Defence Force of the Colony ; and many of the 
officers and men of the volunteer yeomanry cavalry at once joined 
the new force, rather than be separated from their commanding 
officer, who at that moment was the most beloved, popular, and 
prominent man in the Auckland district. From the commencement 
of the Waikato campaign to the action at Rangiaohia, Colonel 
Nixon may be said to have lived in his saddle, and no affair of any 
importance occurred at which he was not present. He fell on the 
23rd February, 1864, being shot by a ISIaori from a whare the 
natives had taken shelter in after the skirmish at Rangiaohia, while 
trying to induce them to surrender. His fate was more deeply 



158 THE DEFENDERS 

felt, and more sincerely mourned, than that of any man who fell 
during the war. The whole country was in mourning, proving 
more real sympathy than even the stone monument raised by the 
colony to his memory, and showing how deeply the settlers valued 
his unblemished character, his high military talents, and his 
fearless bravery. 

It is told of Major Nixon that, as a boy, he was so full of fun 
and devilment, that the authorities at Sandhurst told his widowed 
mother that she had better take him away, as he could never pass 
the examination. The lad, seeing the disappointment of his 
mother, begged hard for one more chance, which, in deference to 
his parent, was given him ; and from that moment, long after the 
lights were supposed to be extinguished, he was seen with a candle 
under his table (which he had covered over with his blanket to hide 
the light), pursuing his studies half the night through ; the con- 
sequence being, that he passed a brilliant examination, to the 
surprise of all who knew him. 

He was adjudged a public funeral, and was buried in the 
Symonds-street cemetery. A monument has been erected to his 
memory at the junction of the Great South and Mangere Roads. 



i6o 



THE DEFENDERS 




LIEUT-COLONEL ROBERTS 



OF NEW ZEALAND. i6i 



"LlEUT-CoL. RoBEf^TS. 



Services with Forest Rangers — Gallant behaviour at Ngutu-o-le-Manu — 
Cut off from the main force — Bravery at Moturoa — Command at Pari- 
haka — 2he iVeiu Zealand Cross. 




OHN MACKINTOSH ROBERTS, in August, 1863, 
joined Major Jackson's company of Forest Rangers, 
and in the following November was appointed ensign 
in Von Tempsky's company, and finally promoted to 
lieutenant in j\Iarch, 1864. From the first, he took a most active 
part in the war, was present at Rangiaohia and Haerini, and, 
on the day prior to the attack on Orakau, was ordered from Te 
Awamutu to Kihikihi, wjth 20 Forest Rangers, to join Captain 
Ring's Company (i8th Regiment), which company, with the 
Forest Rangers, formed the advance guard to, and the storming 
party afterwards, on the Orakau Pa. In this attack the gallant 
Ring fell mortally wounded. In March, 1868, Captain Roberts 
was made sub-inspector of Armed Constabulary, and on the 
outbreak of hostilities in the Wanganui district, was transferred 
from the Waikato to Patea, with Von Tempsky's division of 
Armed Constabulary. He was present at the relief of Turi-turi 
IMokai, and was left in command of the redoubt. He took part 
in both attacks on Te Ngutu-o-te-]\Ianu, and was the officer who, 
on the second attack, was cut off from the main body with 58 
men and eleven wounded, and who, after so gallantly beating off 
the enemy, got benighted in the dense bush. Here he anxiously 
awaited the first streak of daylight to try and feel his way out to 
the open country, which was at last successfully accomplished, 
and Captain Roberts had the satisfaction of seeing his party in 
safety at Waihi Redoubt, about nine the following morning, 
thoroughly exhausted. (Vide his report attached, taken from the 
Gazette.) Captain Roberts with the 6th division of jVrmed 
Constabulary, was also present at the attack on IMotorua, and 
again distinguished himself in covering the retreat of our forces, 
for which service he received his majority and rank of inspector. 
He, soon after, took an active part in the siege and capture 
of Ngatapa ; was ai the taking of Tauranga-a-hika Pa, and 
at the defeat of Titokowaru at Otauto and Te Whakamaru. 
He aftewards led the right column of the troops engaged in the 
pursuit of Te Kooti, in the Uriwera campaign, under Colonel 



1 62 THE DEFENDERS 

Whitmore, and was subsequently appointed to the command of 
the Taupo District. Here he remained until May, 187 1, when he 
was transferred to the district of Tauranga, and made Resident 
]\Iagistrate for the same. But, on the outbreak of active 
resistance and aggressive measures taken by the fanatics of the 
"West Coast, jNIajor Roberts' military services were again called 
into action, the Government conferring on him the rank of Lieut.- 
Colonel, and placing him in command of all the colonial forces 
gathered together at Parihaka on that memorable occasion. In 
1 886 he was removed to Auckland in command of the Armed Con- 
stabulary of that district. 

The Gazette, conferring on Lieut.-Colonel Roberts the decoration 
of the New Zealand Cross, says : — " This gallant officer was 
awarded the New Zealand Cross, by His Excellency the Governor, 
Sir George Grey, for his resolute bearing on the 6th September, 
1868, at Te Ngutu-o-te-manu, where, owing to a miscarriage of 
orders issued by Colonel IMcDonnell to retire, he and his men 
were left behind, and eventually had to fight their way back 
through the standing bush, closely pursued by the enemy. To 
Captain Roberts' coolness and determination on this occasion may 
be attributed the saving of the force under his command. And 
for the courage and judgment displayed by him at the battle of 
Moturca, on the 7th November, 1868, when, having only arrived 
during the night, he with his young and newly raised division 
succeeded in covering the retreat of Colonel Whitmore's force, 
although greatly outnumbered, and at one time nearly surrounded. 
To his fortitude as a soldier, and the confidence he inspired, was 
mainly due the discipline of his men, who kept their ranks in 
a dense bush in spite of the repeated efforts of the enemy to close 
with them, and so enabled the force, encumbered with the wounded, 
to draw off in good order." 



164 



THE DEFENDERS 




ENSIGN HUTCHINSON 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 



165 



NSIGN 



UTCHINSON. 



An incident at the White Cliffs — Deliveririg a proclamation to the rebels — 
Humane behaviour of the chief Wetere. 




N September, 1865, the chief Wetere, in defiance of the 
Colonial force stationed at Pukearuhe, encamped his 
followers at the White Cliffs, the boundary line between 
Mokau and Taranaki, his main object being the plunder 
of the steamship Alexandra^ as she then lay wrecked on the sands. 
His followers made continued raids during low water, carrying off 
everything they could lay hands upon This was the state of things 
at Taranaki at the time the Governor (Sir George Grey) offered the 
natives terms of peace under certain conditions, and had sent copies 
of his manifesto to each officer in command of a district, with 
instructions to havs the same distributed amongst the rebels in 
their immediate neighbourhood with the least possible delay and 
risk to the party delivering it. As the only attempts to distribute 
it yet made — one by Mr. Broughton and the other by a half-caste — 
having proved fatal to the bearers, it was looked upon as a very 
hazardous undertaking. Major Baddeley, the officer in command 
at Pukearuhe, having received the proclamation, called for volun- 
teers, whose duty it would be to go as far as prudence dictated 
towards Wetere's encampment, and after attracting the attention of 
the rebels to place the proclamation in a cleft stick, which they 
were to fix upright in the ground, so that the natives could see it. 
But Ensign Hutchinson, who had offered to conduct the party 
volunteering for the service, was anxious to do his errand effectually, 
and despite all previous warning he halted his men when within 
sight of the rebel camp, and, weaving his white handkerchief as a 
flag of truce, bravely rode forward alone. As he approached the 
encampment Wetere himself came forward, accompanied by thirty 
or forty armed men, and ordered him back, wondering how he 
dared come on to his land without permission, and wanted to know 
what the soldiers were doing on his land at Pukearuhe. Hutchinson 



1 66 THE DEFENDERS 

replied that, being only a junior officer, it was not for him to say, 
but he had brought a document from the Governor on the subject, 
and if after reading it he wished to reply and would display a white 
flag he would be sure of safety in approaching the camp and the 
officer in command would meet him. At this moment Wetere's 
men, who had aU along been clamorous to kill the pakeha, asked 
Wetsre and a chief, who were standing between them and 
Hutchinson, to move that they might shoot Hutchinson. Wetere, 
seeing the excited state of his men, cried out, " I am commander 
here ; put up your guns ; to kill him now would be murder, and I 
will only fight fairly." This speech somewhat pacified his followers, 
but it was as much as Wetere could do to control them, and taking 
the proclamation he hurried Hutchinson off, saying " Go back 
quickly, or I cannot answer for your life." This was the only 
instance of a proclamation being given into the hands of the rebels 
and the party delivering it escaping with his life ; and although it 
led to a suspension of hostilities for a time, during which Mr. Parris, 
the Native Commissioner, was sent for, and obtained the interview 
desired by Sir George Grey of discussing the question at issue, 
Hutchinson (whose daring all must admire), instead of getting 
the New Zealand Cross for his pluck, received the warm congratu- 
lations of his friends, but his commanding officer gave him a good 
wigging for exceeding his instructions. 

Wetere on another occasion saved the life of Mr. Wilkinson, the 
Government Native Agent, in defiance of his tribe, who had laid 
an ambush to destroy him. Wetere in this instance placed 
Wilkinson on his own horse behind him, and approaching the 
ambush called out, "If you want to kill Wilkinson you will have 
to shoot him through me, as I am much ths stouter of the two." 
At the present day Wetere speaks of these occurrences with great 
glee, and shows the rings both Hutchinson and Wilkinson gave 
him in thanksgiving for his services, saying that having saved the 
lives of these pakehas he will alv/ays love them. 



1 68 



THE DEFENDERS 




COLON E L ROOKES 



01' NEW ZEALAND. 169 



OLONEL tvOOKES. 




Imperial services — His command on the West Coast — The story of the 
Wereroa Pa — Sir George Grey's bravery and narrow escape — Adven- 
ture of Colonels Rookes and McDonnell and Major Von Tenipsky. 

N the year 1835, Colonel Rookes began his career as a 
midshipman in Her Majesty's Royal Navy on the 
China and West Indian stations, and from 1839 to 
1 84 1 was attached as a cadet, by special permission of 
the French Government, to the 6th Cuirassiers, at the Remount 
Military Riding School at St. Omer, eventually joining' the 2nd 
West Indian Regiment, wherein he served for upwards of sixteen 
years, being ensign by purchase in March, 1842, lieutenant in the 
following December, and captain in 1846. He sold out to settle 
in New Zealand, in which colony he arrived in 1858. As an 
Imperial officer, he had received the thanks of the English, 
French, and Dutch Governments, of the IMinister of War (Lord 
Panmure), the Commander-in-Chief (Lord Hardinge), and the 
Secretary of State (the Duke of Newcastle), for the able, judicious, 
and successful manner he had conducted the several military 
expeditions and operations entrusted to him, both in the field, on 
the Gold Coast, and in the Moriah country. On one of these 
expeditions he was placed in command of a combined naval and 
military, English and French, force, and captured the town of 
Malegeah, and severely defeated the rebels at Labadee. During 
this period of Imperial service, he was [vide Army List, 1846) 
selected as Aide-de-Camp and Private Secretary to the several 
Governors of the Bahamas and Trinidad, viz., Mr Mathew and 
the late Lord Harris, and for many years was a member of the 
Legislature of the former colony. He had also been repeatedly 
thanked by the Colonial Governments — by that of Gambia, in 
1843, for opening up the navigation of the river from Fort George 
to the Barraconda Lalls, and by that of the Bahamas, in 1846, for 
successfully negotiating with General O'Donnell, Governor of the 
Havannah, for the surrender of several British subjects held in 
slavery by the Spanish authorities. 

Soon after his arrival in Auckland, the Maori rebellion of i860 
broke out, and Colonel Rookes was employed by the Colonial 
Government in organising the War Branch (now the Defence 
Office), and in recognition of the able manner in which this duty 



170 THE DEFENDERS 

was performed, the Fox Ministry placed him by their recommend- 
ation in command of the Wanganui district as the deputy of the 
Governor. While holding this command, he raised, organised, 
and personally drilled seven separate troops of cavalry in the 
Rangitiki, Turakina, and Wangaehu districts so successfully that 
these forces were repeatedly thanked on the field and in general 
orders by Generals Cameron and Waddy. The latter officer, a 
veteran of considerable experience in India and the Crimea, 
remarked *'that he considered these troopers, in physique and 
fearless riding, the beau ideal of what irregular cavalry should be." 
Colonel Rookes, in 1865, further received the thanks of the Colonial 
Government of New Zealand for the successful manner in which, 
under that distinguished Governor and statesman (Sir George 
Grey) he led the colonial forces at the capture of the Wereroa Pa, 
completely nullifying the assertion made in General Cameron's 
despatches, " that it would require a large addition of Imperial 
troops to reduce that stronghold of the natives." 

The following account of the events leading up to the fall of the 
pa and Colonel Rookes' connection therewith will be of interest : — 
In the early par: of 1863, when in command of the Wanganui 
district, natives brought in word that the heights above Perikama, 
at the embouchure of the Kiwi stream, were being fortified by 
three hapus or tribes — Xgatiruanui, Taranaki, and Waikato. 
Dr. Featherston, who was vSuperintendent of Wellington, asked 
Rookes to accompany him with his interpreter to the spot, situated 
about twenty-five miles from Wanganui. During this visit he 
obtained valuable information concern'ng this position. On this 
occasion, just before Dr. Hope's and Lieutenant Tragett's murder 
at Taranaki, the natives offered no obstacle to ths crossing or 
re-crossing of the river, but would allow no one to enter their 
works, which were in course of construction. The position then 
might have been taken by a handful of men, the works destroyed, 
and a redoubt erected and garrisoned, which would undoubtedly 
have altered matters and obliged the natives to abandon a site 
which General Cameron estimated as something more than strong. 
(See correspondence with Sir George Grey, published in the 
ex-Governor's biography.) 

The second time Rookes visited the place, 1865, was in com- 
mand of a scratch force of volunteer cavalry from the Rangitiki, 
Turakina, and Wanganui districts. They preceded a force of 
800 regular troops with three guns, and with a brilliant dash up to 
the pas by the cavalry (which they all wished to try) might have 
taken the three pas before their defenders could have climbed up 
from the Perikama flats, where they were planting potatoes. 
General Waddy, who was in general command, would not permit 
it, however, as General Cameron had given him strict orders not 
to attempt the capture. About a month after a messenger came in 
from one of the pas, saying if a force of natives and settlers were 
sent they would surrender to them, but that they declined to do so 
to the regular troops. Colonel Rookes went out with 250 natives 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 171 

and a few cavalry, and the natives again agreed to give up the pas. 
At this juncture Colonel Logan made his appearance on the ground 
and took command, and the natives declined further negotiating 
and ordered the force to retire. To ride into Wanganui, charter a 
steamer and send the friendly chiefs to Wellington, with instructions 
to see and explain matters to the Governor, Sir George Grey, did 
not take long ; and Colonel Rookes, acting on the encouragement 
given to him by the Premier, Mr. Weld, who approved of his 
action, again, on the invitation of a well-affected portion of 
the Wereroa garrison, marched a mixed force of natives, Wanga- 
nui Cavalry, Von Tempsky's Rangers, and McDonnell's Con- 
tingent to the pa. On arrival he camped the force about eight 
hundred yards in front of the pa, at an opening in the forest that 
commanded the approaches from Wanganui. He was anxious that 
the natives should not surrender the pas except to Sir George Grey, 
who had through Mr. Weld loyally supported the Colonel's action, 
and he communicated with Sir George to that effect. In the mean- 
time, leavingthe force in front of the pas in command of Major Von 
Tempsky and Captain George, he accepted an invitation from the 
chiefs to come inside their works and arrange for a surrender ; 
Captain McDonnell volunteered to accompany him and act as 
interpreter. They remained inside negotiating for three days, when 
suddenly, just after Captain jMcDonnell's return from Putahi, which 
he had most gallanth' visited at the risk of his life, the natives 
broke off the negotiations, and Colonel Rookes and his companion 
returned to the camp disgusted. It was then that Sir G. Grey, who 
had arrived during the parley, rode up, accompanied by Mr. Parris, 
Hori King, and another chief, to within ten feet of the pa, the rifle- 
pits of which were lined with a lot of howling fanatics armed to 
the teeth, with their passions inflamed by the exhortations of their 
chiefs ; and had it not been that one of the Hauhau chiefs came out 
and placed his mat before Sir George, the brave Europeans and 
native chiefs would all have blown into eternity. As it was. 
Sir George and the others rode back to the camp safely, when he 
planned the advance, which took place next morning, and led to the 
fall of the position. The legislature of the Colony (both Houses) 
voted thanks to Colonel Rookes and the men under him, which he 
got from the Upper House twenty-one years after they were voted. 
It was the fall of this position which first gave rise to the policy of 
self-reliance soon after inaugurated by the Weld Government, and 
which enabled General Chute so successfully to march (with his 
rear and flank free) through the forest at the back of Mount Egmont 
to New Plymouth, reducing on his route the various pas in the 
neighbourhood, and for which he received the honour of knighthood. 
On the day of Major ^'"on Tempsky's arrival at Wanganui a large 
picnic party was being held at Alexander's farm, the boundary line 
at that moment of the contending parties, when Colonel Rookes 
persuaded the Major and Colonel Nixon to accompany him on a 
reconnoitring expedition to the enemy's country. They conse- 
quently rode away from the picnic in the direction of the Waitotara, 



172 THE DEFENDERS 

and arriving at a gully some miles inland they dismounted to water 
their horses. While doing so a mounted native appeared on the 
opposite bank, and looking down upon them quickly disappeared. 
A short council of war was held, and they determined to make for 
the beach and return that way. When returning they had again to 
dismount to lead their horses over some rocks on the way, and 
Colonel Rookes, in dismounting, sprained his ankle, just as a 
volley was fired at them from an ambuscade amongst the high cliffs 
overlooking the beach, which caused Von Tempsky and Nixon to 
remount and ride away. Finding that Rookes did not follow them, 
being unable by his sprain to remount, they returned to his 
assistance, and, defending themselves with their revolvers, got him 
with some difficulty upon his horse and rode away under a heavy 
fire, but it was a narrow escape for all concerned. 

Colonel Rookes, who was one of the bravest and most experienced 
officers, was superseded before the end of the war, the authorities 
regarding his outspoken advice on military matters as somewhat 
dictatorial. 



174 



THE DEFENDERS 




C A PTA IN W I LSO N 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 175 



Captain Wilson. 




The fight at Rangiaohia — How Colonel Nixon fell — Another of Riisdens 

stateiiienls refuted. 

'APTAIN WILSON, who came out to this colony in 
1832, first served as a trooper in the Otahuhu \'olun- 
teer Cavalry, under Colonel Nixon, and in July, 
1863, was made Sub-inspector of the Government 
Mounted Defence Force. He was one of our most active officers. 
He accompanied the Thames expedition, and was present at 
the actions of Paterangi, Rangiaohia, and Hiarini ; was close 
to Colonel Nixon when he fell mortally w^ounded, and one of 
the first to render him any assistance. In 1865, the war having 
moved from the Waikato district and broken out at "Wanganui, 
Captain Wilson resigned his commission, and was made captain 
of militia. The appended account of the fight at Rangiaohia, by 
an eye-witness, narrates very graphically the services rendered by 
Captain Wilson and the troops who participated in that engage- 
ment : — 

THE FIGHT AT RANGIAOHIA. 

(by one who was there.) 

"The picture of the fight at Rangiaohia, lately presented to 
the Auckland Free Library, is so vigorous and life-like that 
it carries me back to the Sunday morning (the 21st February 
1864) when our colonel (Nixon) fell mortally wounded, and two 
of our corporals were killed — McHale, inside the whare, and 
Alexander, at the door. Corporal Dunn received a bullet, which 
I believe he carries to this day. Two of the 65th Regiment were 
wounded, one mortally, and one of the Forest Rangers. The 
night before, we paraded at 1 1 o'clock at Te Rore, and then 
moved off quietly. We knew that something- was to be attempted, 
as we were ordered to get round the enemy and take him in rear, 
or something of that sort. The way was led by \on Tempsky's 
Forest Rangers, followed by the 65th and 70th Regiments, the 
Naval Brigade, the Mounted Artillery, and the Defence Force, 
while Jackson's company of Rangers brought up the rear. The 
night was dark, and we groped cur way along a Maori track, 
passing pretty close to the enemy's position at Pikopiko. At 
cock-crow we entered Te Awamutu. The bridge had been 



176 THE DEFENDERS 

destroyed, but the planks were there, and to relay them was but 
the work of a few minutes. This done, the order was given 
* Forward, the cavalry, ' and away we went, the Defence Force 
and Rait's mounted artillerymen following. It did not take long 
for the cavalry to clear the enemy out of Rangiaohia, our infantry 
being far in the rear. Having accomplished our work, we had 
turned about and were taking prisoners as we came along, when 
Captain Wilson's attention was drawn to a whare, near which 
a struggle was going on between Corporal Little, of ours, and 
a huge Maori. Little having secured his man. Captain Wilson 
ordered Corporal McHale to make prisoners of the other Maoris 
inside the whare, who we could hear talking, McHale entered 
the hut, but no sooner had he passed the door than two shots were 
fired, apparently from the Corporal's revolver, when Captain 

Wilson called out, " What the are you shooting the Maoris 

for r " and jumping from his horse was into the hut in a moment. 
The door was so low he had to stoop to get inside. The place was 
full of smoke, and as Captain Wilson entered he found under him 
McHale's body, his feet towards the door, and face down. The 
captain could not see anyone else for the darkness and smoke, 
consequently he soon backed out, calling out that McHale had been 
shot, which the men no sooner heard than with their carbines they 
commenced to riddle the house, which was built of slabs. The 
firing soon brought together the whole of the cavalry, and after a 
while some of the 65th and Forest Rangers, also the general and 
staff, came up. It was after General Cameron's arrival that 
Colonel Nixon was shot from the door of the whare. Then, as the 
Maoris did not surrender when challenged for the second time, the 
infantry fired the house. I saw one Maori walk out of the blazing 
hut, his blanket singed on his back. Poor fellow ! he fell within 
ten paces of the door whence he and his compatriots had so 
wantonly shot our colonel and many other good men. There was 
nothing now to prevent us from recovering McHale's body, but 
its condition was such that we could hardly distinguish it from the 
IMaoris around him. We succeeded in identifying it, however, and 
bore it away. 

"The sun was overhead and baking hot as we moved slowly with 
our dead and wounded back to Te Awamutu. The wounded 
suffered much from fatigue and heat, and the enemy followed us up 
and fired at us along the way. I may mention that, in the pursuit 
before the whare was attacked, the Maoris, men and women, were 
jumbled together running away, and, being so much alike, the 
women were in danger of being killed. Captain Wilson, who had 
command of the advance guard, called to the women, telling them 
to sit down, ' E kotou, e nga wahine e noho ki raro, kei mate 
kotou.' They obeyed, and we passed them ; they then got up and 
ran on. I heard some days afterwards that the big Maori, whom 
I mentioned before as having been taken prisoner, had said that 
his life was saved by a man who wore a silver band round his cap, 
meaning Captain Wilson. X write this simply to show that we did 



THE DEFENDERS X 




MCDONNELL COL. NIXON 

COLONIAL DEFENCE FORCE 



WILSON ALEXANDER 



THE FIGHT AT RANGIAOHIA FORTHt 

FicBiaiY 2i 



VEW ZEALAND. 




GEN. CAMERON ANO STAFF 



65^" BFGIMENT 



iCOVERY OF McHALE'S BODY. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. , 77 

try to save the natives. It was a sad day, of course, for all 
concerned ; but, as they have asserted that we kohuru (murdered) 
them, I have endeavoured to show how they brought about their 
own destruction by wantonly killing our men at a time they were 
surrounded and had no chance of escape. At the great Maori 
meeting- at Kopua, twelve months last May, Captain Wilson met 
two gentlemen — Wesleyan ministers — who informed him that there 
was but one thing the natives were sore about ; namely, the kohuru 
at Rangiaohia. The captain replied, ' I can explain all about that 
affair, for I was present. It was I who sent the man whom the 
Maoris shot into the hut to make prisoners. Our man was dead 
inside the hut before the attack commenced.' After the action at 
Hairini, Captain Wilson made a rough sketch of the ground where 
Colonel Nixon had fallen, showing the position of the huts there ; 
and the picture of the fight at Rangiaohia is based upon this 
sketch. Our old colonel's revolver is now the property oi Captain 
Wilson, while he slumbers in the cemetery at Auckland, awaiting 
the great reveille, when those who fell in that hut will bear witness 
to the truth of this statement. 

"21st February, 1864. — After the skirmish at Rangiaohia, the 
troops returned and camped at Otawhao, the Rev. John Morgan's 
missionary station (now known as Te Awamutu), bringing with 
them their dead, wounded, and prisoners. It was slow work 
carrying them under a broiling sun ; no refreshment had been 
allowed since leaving Te Rore the night before. The wounded 
suffered much from heat and dust, and were glad to get the 
shelter of the mission station. Here the troops refreshed them- 
selves with a bath in the stream, and the food given them. Then, 
as it was Sunday, they paraded and attended divine service at the 
mission church to hear Bishop Selwyn, who preached an appropriate 
sermon. The sermon and chanting of the service seemed rather 
a contrast to our morning's work. The slain were buried ; the 
Maori wounded and prisoners kindly cared for, having tents pitched 
for their use." 



MR. RUSDEN'S ACCOUNT OF THE RANGIAOHIA 

AFFAIR. 

WITH THE MAORI CONTRADICTION. 

The Statements made in Rusden's " History of New Zealand," 
that women and children were wantonly shot and burned in their 
houses at Rangiaohia when that place was surprised by the 
iroops, having been told to the Kingites, one of them, named 
Potatau, who is at present residing at Korokonui, has sent a 
statement of the facts as they came under his own observation. 
He was a little boy at the time of the Rangiaohia affair. The 
statement was written down in the presence of Potatau, and the 
translation was made by a half-caste who lives with the natives. 

ISI 



178 THE DEFENDERS 

The translation is rough, but accurate, and it is given as it was 
received. First, I quote from the second volume of Rusden's 
history, page 199, his account of the Rangiaohia affair. He 
says : — 

"At daybreak the general pushed on from Te Awamutu to 
Rangiaohia. ' The few natives who were found in the place 
were quickly dispersed, and the greater part escaped, but 
a few of them taking shelter in a whare made a desperate 
resistance until the Forest Rangers and a company of the 65th 
Regiment surrounded the whare, which was set on fire, and the 
defenders either killed or taken prisoners.' This was the official 
method of telling, or concealing, that women or children were 
burned to death. For the credit of General Cameron it may be 
hoped that when he thus wrote, four days after the occurrence, he 
did not know the truth, which was subsequently notorious. Of 
what avail was it to preach peace to the Maoris, and tell them to 
be merciful when a British force, commanded by a general and 
accompanied by a bishop, burned women and children in a Maori 
house r Was it to be wondered at that a grief came upon the bishop 
when he heard afterwards that a plot was laid by the enemy to take 
his life ? The successful general returned to Te Awamutu with 

twenty-one women and children, who were not burned 

The Maoris had not dreamed that heavy guns and a large body of 
troojas would be turned aside against women and children. Their 
rage at being outwitted by the flank movement which left them 
idle, and destroyed their food and plantations, was exagg-erated 
by the burning of their wives and children." 

Potatau's statement : — " It took place on Sunday morning. 
Early in the morning I had reason to g'o outside the house. I then 
saw some troopers passing behind the house. I at once ran to my 
father's house. I had not been long there when my grandfather 
came to the same house. His name was Hoani. It was because 
he knew we were there that he came, so that he might die with us 
— Ihaia, Rawiri, and his son. At this time myself and my mother 
went outside the house, and sat at the door of the house. I heard 
my father say to my grandfather : ' Let us lay down our guns and 
give ourselves up as prisoners.' INIy grandfather said : * Am I 
greater than your uncles who were taken at Rangiriri r' My 
father again said to my grandfather : ' Let us go in peace, and 
according to law.' My grandfather would not agree. At this time 
the soldiers came to us, and asked my mother in Maori : ' Are there 
any Maoris in the house r' She replied : * No, there are no Maoris 
in the house.' My father at once said : ' Yes, there are Maoris 
here.' The European who spoke Maori came to the door of the 
house, and caught hold of my father, and handed him over to the 
soldiers. The European went inside of the house. My grand- 
father shot him and killed him. Some of the others dragged the 
body in the house. At this time my mother and self arose and 
went through the soldiers and between the troopers. They did not 
interfere with us, but allowed us to pass. We went to the house of 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 179 

Thomas Power, who had a Maori woman to wife. After we left 
we heard the soldiers firing. Whilst we were at the house of 
Thomas Power, the Government interpreter came there. I may 
say that by this time a large number of women and children of 
our people had come to Thomas Power's house. What the 
interpreter said to us was that the general would have to deal with 
us. If he would allow us to take our departure it would be well ; 
we could do so ; if he sent us to Te Awamutu it would have to be 
so ; but he told us to remain at this house. After this the 
interpreter left us. At this time the firing had ceased. We at 
once left the place and ran off to the bush, and made for 
Rangitoto." 

The object of the march to Rangiaohia was to cut off the 
supplies which maintained the natives in the great pa at Paterangi. 
The above narrative (by one who was then a boy) shows that the 
Europeans desired to save all who were at Rangiaohia, and would 
have done so, but that one of the Maoris shot a man who was 
endangering himself to save life and opened fire on our forces. 
Not a shot was fired by the troops until this European was killed. 
The woman and children were protected, as far as possible, and 
some of them, like Potatau and his mother, got away and rejoined 
their friends. 



i8o THE DEFENDERS 



Sll\ R. DoUGL/VS, Ba^T. 




IR ROBERT DOUGLAS was born in July, 1837. He 
was educated at first in Jersey, completing his studies in 
Hampshire. He was gazetted into the 57th Regiment in 
1854, and very quickly entered on active service in the 
Crimean war. He was present at the storming of Sebastopol, and 
the capture of Kinburn, receiving the Crimean medal and clasp, 
and the Turkish war medal. He next served against the Arabs at 
Aden, and was present at the capture of Sheikothman. From 
Arabia to India was but a short step, and the young officer took 
part in the suppression of the terrible Indian mutiny. The 57th 
were afterwards despatched to New Zealand, and Sir Robert 
served in the campaign on the West Coast, being present at 
various skirmishes, and at Nukumaru, receiving the honour of 
mention in general orders. For ten years he commanded a 
company of the old " Die Hards, " finally retiring by sale of 
commission to settle in this colony. He was exceedingly popular 
in the regiment, the men looking upon him as a fearless leader 
and a considerate and liberal officer. From his residence in the 
North Island during a stirring period, he naturally made many 
warm friends. 

Sir Robert Douglas was also a public man, well known in 
political circles. For many years he was a member of the 
Auckland Provincial Council, and at the general election of 1876, 
he was returned to the House of Representatives for the district 
of Marsden, which he represented until 1879. During this time he 
distinguished himself by great activity and energy, and perhaps 
did more than any other man in the House to keep the Opposition 
from falling to pieces during the ascendancy of Sir George Grey. 
He was never disheartened, and fought a losing battle perhaps 
better than any man in the House. He was a man of the most 
generous and kindly disposition, sparing no exertions to serve 
his party or his friends. The news of his death, which took 
place at Wanganui recently, was a source of deep regret to all, 
while the members of his old regiment, who had settled in New 
Zealand, testified their sincere sorrow at the early death of their 
late commander. 



M» 



l82 



THE DEFENDERS 




LIEUT. -COL. McDonnell. 



OF NE W ZEALAND, 1 83 



Lieut. -Col. A/LcPonnell. 



Services m the Waikato and East and West Coast wars — Pursuit oj 
Kereopa — Attack on Ngutu-o-te-]\Ianu — Engagement with Te Kooti — 
Forty times under fire and four times ivounded — Letter from General 
Camero7i — Story of Ngutu-o-te-Manu by eye-witnesses. 




lEUT.-COLONEL THOMAS MCDONNELL, eldest son 
of Captain McDonnell, of the Royal Navy, immigrated 
to this country about the year 1840, He received 
his first commission in August, 1863, as Sub-Inspector 
of the New Zealand Defence Force, under Colonel Nixon. Served 
in the' flying column at Drury, Burt's Farm, Mauku, and Queen's 
Redoubt. Volunteered with Major Von Tempsky in the recon- 
naissance of Paparata, returning successful after a narrow and 
providential escape from the enemy, for which service he received 
letters of thanks in general orders, both from General Cameron 
(the Commander-in-Chief) and Colonel Nixon. . Accompanied the 
Thames expedition, under Brigadier-General Carey. Was present 
at the taking of Rangiaohia on the 2nd February, 1864 (where 
Colonel Nixon fell mortally wounded), and in the action fought on 
the following day. Received his captaincy in 1864, and soon after 
was appointed Resident Magistrate for Upper Waikato. Was 
sent to the East Coast as second in command of the friendly 
Arawa tribes (being a good Maori linguist), where he encountered 
the enemy in several severe skirmishes, in one of which he was 
slightly wounded. Promoted to the rank of Brevet-major in July, 
1865. Soon after received orders to take the command of a native 
contingent at Wanganui ; became the moving spirit in the capture 
of the Wereroa Pa, under Major (now Colonel) Rookes ; and 
accompanied the force in the relief of Peperiki on the following 
day. Was sent to Opotiki, under Major Brassey, where he 
defeated the Hauhaus, inflicting severe punishment on them by 
capturing their settlement and destroying their stronghold of 
Kiore Kino, with a loss to the enemy of thirty killed. Was in 
command of the force at Waimana, and in the pursuit of Kereopa, 
taking his village and killing seven of hns men. Captured the 
Pua Pa, and defeated the enemy at the fight that took place at the 
gorge. Recalled to Wanganui with the Native Contingent, and 
served as advance guide to Brigadier-General Sir Trevor Chute, 
K.C.B., throughout his campaign ; taking part in the actions at 



1 84 THE DEFENDERS 

Moturoa, Putahi, etc., where he was again wounded. Was made 
Colonel in April, 1867; and was at the taking of Ketemarae and 
Keteonetea, under Colonel Butler of the 57th Regiment. While 
protecting the surveying parties in the Patea district, he defeated 
the Hauhaus at Pokaikai, Pungarehu, Ketemarae, Waihi, Te 
Umu, Keteonetea, Tirotiro, Moana, Ahipaipa, and other places, at 
times against great odds, and always with many difficulties to 
contend against. He embarked again for the East Coast, and with 
the valuable assistance of Henry Tacey Clark, Esq., Civil 
Commissioner, succeeded in inflicting a heavy blow on the rebels 
at Hiria, above Lake Rotorua. 

He was recalled to Patea, en route for Hokitika, on the West 
Coast of the Middle Island with 100 men to quell a political 
disturbance amongst the mining community. In July, 1868, he 
received his commission as Inspector of Armed Constabulary, and 
in the following August made his first successful attack on Te 
Ngutu-o-te-Manu. The second attack, made a few weeks later, 
was not so successful, he having been overpowered, with a loss 
of 50 killed and wounded, including five officers. This failure 
led to his resignation, which he was induced soon after to recall, 
and serve under Colonel Whitmore, who succeeded him. He fell 
into an ambush, and was again wounded. After taking part in 
the operations against Titokowaru, at Tauranga-ika and the 
Karaka Flats, he again resigned. 

In July, 1869, he was requested by the Government to take 
command of the forces against Te Kooti, in the Taupo and 
Uriwera country, where, after enduring many privations from cold 
and hunger, through want of 'provisions in an unexplored and 
nearly impenetrable country, he was successful in defeating the 
rebel chief at Tokano, and at his favourite position at Porere, 
where he stormed the pa, and killed 40 of Te Kooti's best men. 
He afterwards continued the pursuit to Patetere and Te Papa, 
when, after again defeating Te Kooti, with a further loss of seven 
men, the Government recalled the European force from the pursuing 
column, 

" To sum up these important services, we find that Colonel 
McDonnell was under fire upwards of forty times ; that he was 
wounded on four separate occasions ; that he risked his life 
continually in reconnoitring, and in conferences with the enemy, 
sometimes in the very heart of the Pauhau country, being subject 
to treachery and ambuscades, from the orders he had to carry out, 
and from the peculiar position he was so often placed in ; that, 
for these brilliant services, extending over a period of ten years, 
he repeatedly received the thanks of the Governor in Council, and 
of the Ministers of the day, of Sir Duncan Cameron, and Sir 
Trevor Chute (the generals commanding), and of the colonial 
officers he served under ; that these thanks were indeed well 
deserved, as he never shrank from danger or failed in any duty, 
however disagreeable, but performed the work entrusted to him to 
the best of his ability The colonial forces under his command 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 185 

materially aided in the restoration of peace to New Zealand. For 
his personal bravery Lieut. -Colonel McDonnell has been awarded 
the New Zealand Cross, and received the following congratulatory 
letter from Sir Duncan Cameron on the occasion : — 

Cambridge House, Kidbrook, Blackheath, 

nth May, 1886. 

Dear Colonel McDonnell, — I have to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 
20th March last, and I assure you that it gave me sincere pleasure to hear that 
the Minister of Defence had taken up your case, so long and so unaccountably 
neglected by his predecessors in office, and that on his recommendation the 
Government had decided that the Silver Cross should be conferred upon you 
in recognition of the act of bravery which you performed more than twenty 
years ago, when under my command in the New Zealand War. You have had 
to wait a very long time for it, and yet among all tho3e on whom that honour- 
able decoration has been bestowed, I cannot conceive that anyone can have 
been more justly entitled to it than yourself in undertaking a reconnaissance 
which took you into the midst of the Maoris, from whom, if you had been 
taken by them, you could expect no mercy. You and that gallant officer, 
Captain Von Tempsky, gave proof of that cool, deliberate kind of courage 
which is so mu:h more rare than the bravery displayed in the heat and 
excitement of an action, and for which such rewards as the Silver Cross are 
most frequently bestowed. I congratulate you most heartily on the occasion. 
— Believe me, very sincerely yours, 

D. A. Cameron. 

As some difference of opinion existed at the moment of the 
Colonel's defeat as to his judgment in conducting the retreat from 
Te Ngutu-o-te-Manu I give verbatiin the written statement of 
Adjutant Scannell, Lieutenant Hirtzel, and of the wounded he 
brought out : — 

CAPTAIN AND ADJUTANT SCANNELL'S STATEMENT. 

That, during the retreat from the second attack and repulse at 
Te Ngutu-o-te-Manu, on the 8th September, 1868, Lieut. -Colonel 
McDonnell, w^ho commanded the expedition, used the most heroic 
efforts to have all the wounded safely brought out of the bush. 
That he remained in the rear of the force the whole time, 
encouraging his men, and fighting his way. That, if it had not 
been for his exertions and the assistance given him by Father 
Roland (a Catholic priest from New Plymouth, who accompanied 
the party for the purpose of administering spiritual comfort and 
consolation to the wounded and dying of all denominations), 
Captain Rowan, who was dangerously wounded in the lower jaw, 
would have been abandoned. That he saw Colonel McDonnell 
when the retreating force had reached the first clearing, on their 
way out of the bush. That the Colonel had then only a few of the 
constabulary and volunteers acting as a rear-guard, and very few 
fatigue men to carry off the wounded ; while the hostile tribes were 
keeping up a heavy fire from every part of the surrounding bush. 
That, when the fatigued bearers, who could get no relief, and the 



1 86 THE DEFENDERS 

hard pressed rear-guard were for a moment inclined to waver, he 
again saw the Colonel (he was then on a high stump in the most 
conspicuous part of the clearing) calmly announcing to his men 
that, happen what would, he would not stir from that spot until 
every wounded man had passed on. That, how he escaped twenty 
deaths is more than the Adjutant could tell, for he was plainly 
visible to the enemy, being not more than fifty yards' distant, 
surrounded on every side as a clergyman in his pulpit is by his 
congregation. That his heroism and devotion were effectual, as 
the few brave fellows around him rallied, and checked the enemy, 
while the wounded were rapidly borne forward. That during the 
whole time occupied in the retreat along a bush track four miles in 
length, Colonel McDonnell remained altogether in the rear, killing 
several of the enemy with his own hand; the retreat lasting four 
hours. It is only fair, and no exaggeration to say, that it was 
mainly owing to Colonel McDonnell's exertions that so many of 
the wounded were brought off. That, near the edge of the bush, a 
few of the wounded were laid down, the carriers being fairly 
knocked up, and, to induce the men to persevere, Colonel 
McDonnell, the late Major Hunter, and many other officers placed 
themselves amongst the rank and file, to be told off as bearers in 
their turn. That the Colonel never left his post in the rear until 
long after the enemy had given up the pursuit ; and that he was 
the last man to cross over to the Waihi side of the Waingongoro 
River. 

TESTIMONY FROM THE WOUNDED. 

The wounded in the hospital wrote as follows to Lieut.-Colonel 
McDonnell, commanding Expeditionary force : — 

Sir, — We the undersigned officers and men, serving under your command 
at the front, but at present lying wounded in the Hospital at Wanganui, desire 
to express our sincere thanks for the kindness you have always endeavoured to 
show us, and to thank you for the support given us notwithstanding the 
difficulties and troubles by which you have been harassed. Having heard 
that a Court of Inquiry is to be held into the circumstances attending the fight 
at Ng-.itu-0-te-Manu, we wish to express our entire trust and confidence in you 
as a leader, aii^l to state our firm conviction that but for the courage and 
presence of mind displayed by you and your brother officers, the casualties 
must have been much grea';er, inasmuch as the wounded would have been left 
on the field to the mercy of the enemy. We request you to forward this 
document to Colonel Haultam, and with respectful sympathy we beg to 
subscribe ourselves, 

William G. Best, Assistant Surgeon, and eight others. 



1 88 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR NEWALL. 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 189 




AJOR N EWALL. 




pAJOR STUART NEAVALL enrolled for the Waikato 
militia, at Dunedin, in December, 1863, and joined 
Colonel Lyon's regiment, the 3rd Waikatos, on the 
1 8th of the same month, at St. John's Redoubt, 
Papatoitoi. He did garrison duty at Drury, Papakura, and 
Queen's Redoubt with portions of the various Imperial regiments 
stationed there, and was appointed Colour-sergeant, in July of 
the following year, and in 1865 became Regimental Orderly- 
room Clerk, and so remained till the 9th March, 1868, when 
the regimental records were wound up. He afterwards joined 
the Armed Constabulary, No. 4 division, as a sergeant, and 
proceeded to Wanganui in February, 1869. He took part in 
Colonel Whitmore's West Coast campaign against Titokowaru; 
was present at the engagements at Otauto, Whakamaru, and Te 
Ngaire, thence through the bush from Ketemarae to Waitara, on 
to the East Coast, with Colonel Whitmore's expedition into the 
Uriwera country. He was present at the taking of Ahikeruru, 
and was on the following day with the column when Taranaki Jim, 
the half-cast, received his mortal wound from the ambuscade. He 
joined the force under Colonel St. John, at Tata-hoato, in the 
Ruatahuna valley, and took part in the various skirmishes of the 
next few days. He received his commission as Sub-Inspector in 
June, 1869, at Fort Galatea, after his return from the Uriwera 
country, and was ordered to Waikato in August, and, in January, 
1870, accompanied Colonel Herrick's expedition to reinforce 
Colonel McDonnell, at Tapapa, where Te Kooti had shown himself 
with the intention of a descent upon Waikato. In 187 1, he 
received a valuable gold watch from the Government in recogni- 
tion of a military report and sketch map of the Waikato district. 
He was in charge of a party of Armed Constabulary at the 
opening of the Ohinemuri goldfields, where he remained for nearly 
a year, and with his party did good work in the formation of 
tracks and roads to Whaitekauri and Owharoa, as also towards 



I90 THE DEFENDERS 

Kati Kati across the Waihi plains. He received a valedictory 
address of a highly flattering character on leaving from the 
miners, settlers, and others. 

On recall to the Waikato, he was employed with a party of 
Armed Constabulary on the construction of bridges and the 
formation of roads towards Taupo, and continued at this work 
until June, 1880, when he took a party of men to Taranaki, Te 
Whiti having commenced his trouble at Parihaka. He, in 
command of the 4th company of Armed Constabulary, and Captain 
Gudgeon, of the A company, were the two officers selected to go 
in and take Te Whiti, Tohu, and Hiroki prisoners. After this 
he was constantly employed with his company road-making- 
between Stoney River and Opunake until 1S82, when he received 
the appointment of District Adjutant of Volunteers in Canterbury, 
which appointment he holds at the present time. 



192 



2HE DEFENDERS 




COLONEL KENNY 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 193 



Colonel [\_enny. 



The old Fencihhs — ThreateJicd invasion of Auckland — Services in Taranahi 

and Waikalo. 




^HE HON. COLONEL WILLIAM HENRY KENNY, 
M.L.C., came of a race of soldiers. He was the son of 
Major W. Crowe Kenny, of Her Majesty's 73rd Regiment, 
who carried one of the colours of that corps at the 



storming of Seringapatam, and grandson of Lieut.-Colonel Kenny, 
of the nth Regiment, who was mortally wounded leading the 
storming party at the siege of Gawilghur under Sir Arthur Wellesley, 
The subject of this memoir entered the 2nd battalion of " The 
Black Watch" (then the 73rd Regiment) in 1828, at the age of 
sixteen, and, after doing duty in the Mediterranean for nine years, 
proceeded with his regiment to Canada, where he served during 
the rebellion in the Dominion, being part of the time on the staff 
of General Sir John Colborne, the commander of the forces, and 
being present at Colonel Wetherall's brilliant combat at St. 
Eustache and in some minor affairs at Napierville and elsewhere. 
Colonel Kenny returned to England with the 73rd at the conclusion 
of the rebellion, and served in the northern district and Wales 
during the Chartist disturbances in those localities. In 1844 he 
became Staff Officer of Pensioners at Sheffield and he brought the 
first detachment of New Zealand Fencibles to this country in 1847. 
In 1 849 he succeeded to the command of that force, and, after the 
threatened invasion of Auckland by the Ngatipoua in 1851, he 
received the thanks of Governor wSir George Grey and of Colonel 
Wynyard, the officer commanding the forces, for the prompt manner 
in which he concentrated and led the Fencibles to Auckland for the 
protection of the town. The war of 1860-61 found him in command 
of the garrison of Auckland, which at first consisted, besides the 
militia and volunteers, of only a few sailors from the Ins and recruits 
from the 65th, together wath small detachments ot Artillery and 

Engineers ; but, in consequence of the threatening attitude of 

N 



194 THE DEFENDERS 

Waikato after the battle of Mahoetahi at Taranaki, it was reinforced 
by two companies of the 40th and three companies of the 65th from 
New Plymouth. In 1863 Colonel Kenny again commanded the 
Auckland garrison until relieved by Colonel Carey, i8th Royal 
Irish. In August, 1863, Colonel Kenny sold out with the rank of 
Regimental Major and Brevet Lieut. -Colonel, and being then a 
Lieut. -Colonel in the New Zealand Militia, he was appointed 
Quartermaster-General to the colonial forces, in which capacity 
he served on the staff of Major-General Galloway until the con- 
clusion of the war of 1863-64. In 1867 he was appointed Colonel 
of the New Zealand Militia and Inspector of Volunteers for the 
North Island. Colonel Kenny died suddenly at Ponsonby 
Auckland, on the 17th August, 1880. At the time of his death he 
was the oldest member of the Legislative Council, his warrant of 
appointment bearing date 26th March, 1853. Colonel Kenny was 
a stern old soldier, of commanding" appearance, a fine drill, and a 
strict disciplinarian. 



196 



J HE DEFENDERS 




MR. G. T. WILKIN SON 



OF NE W ZEA L A ND. i ^ ^ 




Y 



ILKINSON. 




Surveying under arms — Baptism of fire at Orakau — Attack on settlers at 
Opotiki — Hunting the rebels down — Services in the Native Depart- 
?ne)it. 

R. WILKINSON arrived in New Zealand in 1864, and, 
having joined JMajor Heaphy's staff, who had received 
orders to make a survey of the confiscated lands, started 
at once for the Waikato ; and it was while marking out 
the boundaries of the township of Kihikihi, that the natives were 
discovered erecting their memorable pa at Orakau. Here it was 
Wilkinson received his " baptism of fire." Surveyors in those 
days, for their own defence, armed them.selves with breech- 
loading carbines and revolvers ; and, as Major Jackson's Bush 
Rangers, with Captain Ring's company of the i8th Royal Irish, 
marched to the assault of the pa, they having had conceded to 
them the post of honour, J\Ir. Wilkinson joined them as a volunteer, 
and during the melee which followed the rushing of the pa he had 
a lively time of it. Mr. Wilkinson continued with the surv^eying 
party on the frontier for some time, assisting in the surveys, and at 
times making raids into the enemy's country as far as Kopua, and 
even beyond, at great personal risk. He went from Waikato to 
Tauranga, and, v.dth ]Mr. F. J. Utting, assisted in laying off the 
township of Te Papa ; but soon after settled down on land at 
AVaioeka, near Opotiki, with Messrs. Livingstone, Moore, and 
Biggs, where he had the most wonderful escape of his life possible 
from a sudden attack of Maoris, two of the party (viz., Moore and 
Biggs) falling victims to the attack. He returned to Tauranga. 
The surveyors being stopped in their work by hostile natives, 
formed themselves into an engineering company, with Skeet 
as their captain, and Gundry their lieutenant ; and. smarting 
under the massacre of his two companions, Wilkinson joined 
forthwith, and was present at the engagements which took place 
at Te Akeake and Taumata, beyond Pye's Pa, some sixteen miles 
from Tauranga. It was all bush fighting, the natives having 
given up the foolish idea of meeting the pakeha on open ground. 
Being well and suitably armed, the engineer company generally led 
the van, and were left to discover and dislodge the enemy, who were 
always well planted, and who would allow our force to get pretty 
near to them before they discovered their presence by a volley. 



198 THE DEFENDERS 

At Te Akeake Mr. Woolley was shot in the groin, and Mr Wilkin- 
son had to defend him from being tomahawked until assistance 
arrived. He was also present at the skirmishes at Te Irihanga and 
Te Whakamarama ; at the latter place they lost Mx. Jordan, who 
was shot in the groin, and died a few minutes after. The firing was 
very heavy for the first half-hour. The advance guard who sprang 
the ambush had a very narrow escape, more especially Mr. 
Goldsmith, of Tauranga ; their knowledge of how to spread and 
take cover alone saving them. 

The Hauraki goldfields having been discovered, Mr. Wilkinson 
proceeded to that district, and his knowledge of the Maori 
language gained him the appointment of interpreter to the 
Resident Magistrate's Court, where he was called upon to translate 
the goldfields deed of lease to the Ohinemuri natives, and he was 
complimented by the late Sir Donald McLean for so doing. The 
Government, wishing for correct information respecting the native 
feeling at Te Kuiti (the Maori king's headquarters), sent Mr. 
Wilkinson up soon after the outrage committed on Mr. Mackay, 
which service he performed very satisfactorily. In 1878 he was 
appointed Assistant Land Purchase Officer to the late J. W. 
Preece (who then held the districts of the Thames, Ohinemuri, and 
Coromandel), and was subsequently appointed principal Native 
Officer for the Waikato district. 



OF NEW ZEALAND, ^^g 



HREE /VilLITARY ChAPLAINS. 




Jllaori slaughter of the wounded — Resolution of the chaplains to inculcate 
humane principles among the rebel tribes — Dangerous missions for 
that purpose — Visiting hostile pas — Long and exciting koreros — The 
Maori forces reviewed — Incidents of the Taranaki engagements — Anec- 
dotes of Commodore Seymour — Success of the perilous clerical efforts to 
secure respect for the dead a)id zvounded. 




HE battle of Puketakauere was fought on the 27th June, 
i860, and was most disastrous to Her jMajesty's forces, 
inasmuch as Lieutenant Brooks and twenty non- 
commissioned officers and men were killed, while 
Com.modore Seymour and thirty-three non-commissioned officers 
and men were wounded. News of the success of this engagement 
on the part of the natives soon travelled the length and breadth of 
New Zealand, as part of the Grenadiers and light companies of the 
40th Regiment under Major Nelson, and a small naval force under 
Commodore Seymour, were obliged to retire, leaving their dead 
and wounded on the field. The Rev. Mr, Wilson and Father 
Garaval, the Protestant and Catholic missionaries then in the 
Waikato, hearing the native account related by Epiha (the chief 
who led the natives), and from other tribes engaged in the repulse, 
their sympathies were so far excited that they resolved to interpose 
on behalf of Her Majesty's subjects ; as, after the military had 
retreated, all the wounded were indiscriminately put to death. 
Some few spoke of the wounded who had survived a day or two 
before they were found, and even they were not spared. Epiha 
said that, on the morning after the fight, he sent natives to bury 
any of the dead unobserved the day before. That, when they came 
to the first body, the native who was about to dig the grave, sat 
down on the fern, and in doing so hurt a wounded man who was 
concealed beneath. The soldier instantly raised himself up, and 
drew his bayonet in defence, but was soon overpowered and killed 
by the native wath the spade he had in his hand. The party soon 
after found a second body, and at his back sat another wounded 
man, who had crept out of the scrub and was eating the rations of 
his dead comrade. The poor fellow had just sufficient strength 
left to wrest the weapon from the nativ^e who found him, but, being 
crippled and unable to rise, was shot dead by another Maori. ISIr. 
"Wilson inquired of the chief why his men behaved with such 



200 THE DEFENDERS 

cruelty and cowardice to men who could no longer resist them. 
He replied : " What else could we do ; if we had spared them we 
should ourselves have been killed r" He spoke with great praise 
of Lieutenant Brooks, of the 40th Regiment, who defended himself 
for some time against three Maoris, until a fourth, coming up, shot 
him. Mr. Wilson had spent many days amongst the natives who 
had just returned from the seat of war, and as they were busy 
preparing to return to Taranaki, he used every argument to try 
and influence them for the future to spare and treat the wounded and 
prisoners kindly. To this, however, they would not listen. "What 
do you think we are going to Taranaki for r" they asked. " Do you 
suppose we are going to save men's lives ? We ask no quarter, 
neither will we give any." However, frequent intercourse by 
degrees made some slight impression, and the night prior to their 
leaving Waikato for Taranaki, Wetene, Taiporutu, and the chief 
who was to lead them, said to ]\Ir. Wilson : " To-night we hold a 
runanga to consider your words, and I shall try and induce the 
tribes, if possible, to comply. We leave at daylight to-morrow ; 
return early and hear our decision." Early next morning the 
natives were under arms, and as they were leaving Mr. Wilson 
arrived. He found Wetene alone and pouri. His words were few, 
observing, " We held the runanga as I promised, but the tribe 
will not hear. Epiha, Tioriori, and myself were for mercy; all the 
rest against us. I now go to Taranaki, but should they persist and 
act as at Puketakauere, I shall return to Waikato. They agree to 
spare women and children, and " (after a pause) "perhaps they will." 
The result disappointed the Rev. ]\Ir. Wilson so much that, as a last 
resource, he said, " Well, Wetene, I will follow you to Taranaki ; 
perhaps when you are all assembled you may agree to act other- 
wise." The chief replied that the resolve was good. " Come and 
see us there, and hear our determination." Thus they parted : 
Wetene to fall only a few days after at Mahoetahi ; Mr. Wilson to 
carry his point, at which he pressed so persistently at his own 
great peril. In pursuance of his resolution he returned to 
Auckland, and at an interview he had with the Governor, Sir 
Gore Browne strongly commended his humane mission, tendered 
him his good wishes, aud provided him a free passage to 
Taranaki. He arrived there on the 27th December, i860. In the 
meantime, Father Garavel, with letters of introduction from the 
Governor to General Pratt, had left Auckland and landed in 
Taranaki the September previous, stating that the object of his 
visit was to try and lessen the ferocity of the rebels with respect to 
the wounded and prisoners, and to induce them to respect a flag of 
truce. 

On the loth of September a large expedition was organised under 
Major-General Pratt, having for its object an advance as far as 
possible into the interior of the North Island, towards Pukerangiora 
on the Waitara River. The force was told off in three divisions. 
No. I division consisted of 557 men, composed of a detachment of 
the 40th Regiment, under Major Nelson ; Naval Brigade from 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



20I 



Her Mcajesty's ship Iris, under Commodore Loring, C.B. ; and a 
Naval Brigade, under Commodore Seymour (now recovered from 
his wound). No. 2 division consisted of 464 men, being detachments 
of the 1 2th Regiment, under Major Hutchins ; of the 65th Regiment, 
under Major Turner ; the Royal Artillery, under Captain Strover ; 
the Royal Engineers, under Captain INIould ; and twenty men of 
the Mounted Escort, under Captain Desvoeux. No. 3 division of 
333 men contained a detachment of the 40th Regiment, under 
Colonel Leslie; Royal Artillery, under Lieutenant McNaughton ; 
and fifty Volunteer Rifles, under Captain Stapp. The whole force 
numbered upwards of 1,400 men, which with the guns and baggage 
waggons had a formidable appearance. 

The day prior to this force starting for the scene of action, viz., 
Huirangi, Wi Kingi's stronghold. Father Garavel arrived, and 
being intimately acquainted -with that portion of the Waikato 
INIaori contingent, which had already preceded him, expressed a 
wish to General Pratt to be allowed to confer with them, which 
after some consideration the General allowed, saying, " You may 
go, but I will not be answerable for your life." He accordingly 
set out for their scronghold, alone and on foot, travelling through 
high fern up to their rifle-pits, and narrowly escaped being shot from 
the sentries posted in the trees before his sacred calling was 
observed. One had raised his rifle to shoot him, when a chief 
suddenly shouted out that he was a clergyman with white bands 
on his hat. Father Garavel had now a long interview with the 
natives with respect to the wounded and prisoners, the result of 
which was evident hereafter. The natives wished him a kind 
farewell and escorted him part of the way back to the camp. 
Shortly after, active hostilities again commenced. 

On the Rev. Mr. Wilson's arrival, a day after an engagement, 
he rode into the enemy's country to ascertain the fate of a man of 
the 65th named MacKindry, whom the rebels had taken prisoner, 
and at the first rifle-pits the fighting captain of the Ngatiawas 
(Hapurona), a tall, rough, but honest-looking warrior, came out to 
meet him with a party of his people. They were not in a gcod 
temper, and said that MacKindry had died as they carried him off 
and that they had buried him near their flagstaff, the funeral service 
being read over his grave; Hapurona adding, "We are determined 
to fight to the last." 

During the operations of the sap at Pukerangiora the Rev. Mr. 
Wilson observed the Maoris watching it, and warned our people tc 
be on their guard. Luckily they took his advice, and were prepared 
for the attack made on the 23rd January, 1861, on No. 3 Redoubt, 
causing great loss to the natives. ]\Ir. Wilson was originally in 
the navy, but for thirty years had laboured with great zeal and 
success as a Church missionary among the natives of New Zealand, 
highly esteemed by them, and greatly respected by his own 
countrymen. 

When the Rev. Mr. Wilson first arrived at Taranaki, General 
Pratt was preparing to march into the interior of the country, with 



202 THE DEFENDERS 

the three divisions before stated, and said to Mr. Wilson, "We 
start at daylight to-morrow morning. There is not time for you 
to go to see the natives; it would place you in an awkward 
position. You should have come sooner, as the Catholic clergyman 
did." But, obtaining an unwilling consent from the General, he 
left on his errand of mercy. Wetene and most of his men, whom 
he had conversed with at Waikato, had succumbed to their fate 
at jSIahoetahi, and he had no supporters among the chiefs he was 
visiting. After three hours' ride through a beautiful country, 
descried by settlers and wasted by the natives, he arrived at a 
native pa, situate on an elevation commanding the principal part 
of the Waitara, where the natives were waiting the advance of the 
troops. Seeing two men gathering thistles, he called to them, 
and was soon surrounded by a number of armed men, who were 
surprised to see a stranger amongst them, and refused to let him 
go further. When the chief men had assembled, Mr. Wilson told 
them his errand, and proposed the following terms: — ist. That 
all the wounded shall be treated with humanity. 2nd. That the 
prisoners shall be uninjured and exchanged. 3rd. That the dead 
be unmolested, and buried by their people. 4th. That persons 
approaching under a flag of truce be respected. Mr. Wilson here 
reminded them of the Scripture doctrine of mercy, of the 
uncertainty of success in war, and their personal interest in these 
conditions ; but, being flushed with the events at Puketakauere, 
they were deaf to remonstrance, and refused to make any terms. 
Seeing Mr. Wilson smile, Hapurona said^ " Do you deride my 
words r" Mr. Wilson said, "Why should I not laugh r You think 
you have only to speak and I must obey you. I bring you a 
message from above and you reject it. What I offer is for your 
own good as well as for the Europeans." Henere, whom Mr. 
Wilson had known in better days, checked his more furious 
comrades, and they, savage as they were, ceased further to menace, 
and, strange to say, requested Mr. Wilson to hold prayers with 
them before leaving, which Mr. Wilson refused to do, because, he 
said, "You knowingly disobey the will of God — a God of mercy — 
and yet you refuse to show pity." 

On the following day, the natives were attacked at Matarikoriko, 
and Mr. Wilson again appeared amongst them on the second day 
of the encounter. It was Sunday, and the General consented to 
a truce, when Mr. Wilson walked over to their rifle-pits, little 
more than 130 yards from the troops. He was recognised by a 
Maori who had lived with him twenty years before at Matamata, 
and this native escorted him to the ^laori encampment. Mr. 
Wilson again addressed them, saying it was the sacred day, and 
that if they would remain quiet the soldiers would do the same. 
They replied : " Tell your chief we never fight on the sacred day. 
It is they and not ourselves who desecrate it. There shall be no 
firing on our part." After placing refreshments before Mr. 
Wilson, and Rewi, the principal chief of Ngatimaniapoto, being 
present, he again spoke of the object of his visit, when Rewi 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



20' 



replied: "It is well that you have come amongst us. Return 
to-morrow, and we will hear what you have to say." A chief then 
said : " We last night buried some of our men in the rifle-pits. 
Ask the chief of the soldiers to respect them ; let them remain 
undisturbed. The funeral service was read over them in the 
night, during the battle. The ground is sacred." Thus, under no 
ord'nary fire, and at a distance of from loo to 150 yards from the 
enemy, these people thoughtfully, and without confusion, interred 
their dead, an act perhaps that has no parallel in the annals of 
war, the honours being literally paid by the guns of the artillery 
and the volleys of the 40th and 65th Regiments. Sir John 
Moore's burial (the theme of song) is tame contrasted with this.* 

As the day advanced, IMr. Wilson moved into the woods, and 
found women weeping for the dead. AVith these were a few of 
Tarapipipi (William Thomson's) tribe. Mr. Wilson also visited 
them next day ; they had been worsted at Matarikoriko, and were 
now falling back on the woods. The next day (December 31st) 
Mr. Wilson obtained the General's permission and proceeded to 
Huirangi, and was received by three or four hundred men all fully 
armed. They led him further into the wood under some karaka 
groves, and then the whole people collecting and seating them- 
selves close together, desired him to speak. The arguments on 
this and on like occasions were drawn from Scripture,! and from 
the chivalrous usages of Christian nations in time of war. They 
approved, and even commended all this, but denied its application 
to themselves. One would observe, " We cannot reach so high." 
Another, " Our fathers taught us this mode of warfare, and we will 
adopt no other." A third, "Your customs are best for Europeans, 
ours for Maoris, " etc., etc. A pause now ensued, and Mr. Wilson 
thought all was gained, when a well-known leader from Kawhia, 
whose tribe had suffered at Matarikoriko, rose up, ana boiling with 
rage declared that in this matter he would listen to no one. He 
was armed with a short-handled hatchet, to which the natives, 
when roused by passion, give a tremulous or vibrating motion. 
Coming at last up to Mr. Wilson, with that fierce stare which is 
natural to the Maori when the passions have attained supreme 
control, he approached so near, that his face nearly touched ]\Ir. 
Wilson's, and in this menacing attitude declared, " he would never 
consent to such a contract ; that, whatever other chiefs might do, he 
would never spare a European, he would never give quarter, " etc. 
This gave great offence to many who were present. " Take out 
your book now, and record our protest against all that he has 
said," they called out. " We cannot interfere with him, but he 
stands alone ; do not be dark on account of what he says." 

After the confusion occasioned by this outbreak was over, they 
again requested that the graves might be respected. Mr. Wilson 

* The natives have a great dislike to remove the dead when once the burial service has 

been read over tliem. 

t Micah vi. 8 ; 2 Kings vi. 21, 22 ; Proverbs xxv. 21, 22 



204 THE DEFENDERS 

asked, " Who will go with me and point them out r " The object 
w^as to give them confidence in English honour, and the usages of 
humanity practised by civilised nations, even in war. Two young 
men shortly came forward to accompany him, but afterwards 
thought it safe to decline. Much talking ensued, and Mr. Wilson 
began to despair, till a man stood up and said, " I am the son of 
Te Karu, who is buried there ; I will go." The natives approved 
of this. He then laid aside his arms, put on his girdle, and foUow'ed 
Mr. Wilson. When they arrived, the Naval Brigade and 40th 
Regiment w^ere fast filling up the native pits, and Mr. Wilson 
led his companion through the midst of these, to give him some 
idea of the nature of " a safe conduct." As they passed to the 
extreme right, which the natives had occupied during the action, 
and w^here the troops were now at work, seeing the guide look 
anxiously about, Mr. Wilson asked whether " he feared anything." 
" No ! " he replied ; " not from 'the pakeha (white man), but from 
the Maoris who may be among them." Mr. Wilson said, " You 
have nothing to fear from them ; your life here is as safe as mine." 
They came at last to the spot where his father and some others were 
buried. The bodies, through a mistake, had already been disturbed 
by the Naval Brigade, but the graves were again covered before 
they arrived. The native immediately detected it and said, " Ths 
bodies have been disturbed, " and seemed displeased. He added, 
" There are ethers in the valley below." 

At this spot Commodore Seymour and a few officers who were 
amongst the men, inquired the object of the native's coming. It 
was explained that the General had given permission, in order to 
ascertain where the natives had been buried, that their graves 
might remain unmolested. The following conversation then 
occurred : — Commodore to Mr. Wilson : " What relation has he 
lost?" Mr. Wilson: "His father." Commodore: "Does he lie 
here?" Mr. Wilson: "Yes." Commodore: " Poor fellow ! Has 
he lost his father? Tell him I am sorry for him. Tell him we 
bear no malice. It is war." Native : " I am not dark (unhappy) 
on his account. He lell in open field — in battle. It was fairly 
done. He was not murdered." This he said gravely and coldly. 
Commodore : " Say that the graves shall not be injured ; tell him 
rriy carpenter shall fence them." In repeating this generous and 
manl}^ assurance, so characteristic of a seaman, Mr. Wilson said 
to the Maori: "This person who speaks to you is the chief of the 
English sailors." He looked satisfied, but made no reply. 

A few days after this occurrence, the chief Te AViona, who was 
wounded and taken prisoner at ]\Iahoetahi, was released from gaol 
at New Plymouth, and Mr. Wilson had the pleasure of returning 
him to the Waikato tribes. Arriving at Waitara, as Te Wiona 
could with difficulty sit on horseback, the commissariat officers 
(from whom Mr. Wilson and the Rev. ]\Ir. Tresalet, Catholic 
chaplain, had received many acts of kindness) immediately 
furnished a bullock-cart for his conveyance. In this the wounded 
chief, with his baggage, was placed, for, though taken all but 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 205 

naked on the field, he returned to his people well clothed, and in 
the possession of several presents. 

When Mr. Wilson arrived a mile from the woods he sent back 
the cart, put Wiona and some of the things on his horse and carried 
the rest himself. They were soon surrounded by natives, who 
crowded cut of their works and conducted them to the place where 
the prisoner's tribe was encamped. In a short time most of the 
principal chiefs were assembled. On solemn occasions the natives 
are very forma), and in this instance they placed the chief and 
Mr. Wilson (he still sitting on the horse and which Mr. Wilson 
was obliged to hold to prevent Te Wiona falling) in the centre of 
an open place in the wood, and commenced a wail for the dead 
who had fallen at Mahoetahi, addressing Te Wiona as their 
representative and fellow-sufferer, and which he by responsiv^e 
moans fully appreciated. When this was concluded Te Wiona* 
retired among his own people, and Mr. Wilson saw him no more 
till the close of the day. 

The chiefs now requested Mr. Wilson to remain till he heard the 
speeches and saw some of their tribes reviewed. The gathering 
was on elevated ground, where the flag was flying. On this occasion 
it was white. About a thousand men suddenly rushed down from 
the spot, throwing down several of their comrades as they advanced, 
and then with uncommon energy brandishing their arms and 
performing the war dance. Around stood the spectators, consisting' 
of men, women, and children. Mr. Wilson sat near the front, 
where he was joined by the chief from Kawhia who a few days 
before had so fiercely opposed him. It turned out that the young 
man who accompanied Mr. Wilson to Matarikoriko was his nephew, 
and what passed on that occasion had sensibly impressed him. 
The native phalanx opened a line through their centre, along which 
the speakers ran to and fro, till either their eloquence or passions 
were exhausted. Some few spoke with quiet dignity, but the rest, 
carried away by their feelings, denounced war and vengeance 
against their enemies. By some the spirits of Wetene and his 
friends who had fallen with him were addressed in sympathising 
accents, and by others the tribes were rashly exhorted to abandon 
the rifle-pits and throw themselves headlong on the military — to 
act as their fathers would have done. But the great orator of the 
day was Hapurona, William King's fighting chief. When he arose 
he first passed slowly through the phalanx, his loins only covered 
with a small piece of sackcloth, his head thrown back, and his face 
fi"ightfully distorted, turned upwards. His eyes were so con- 
torted in their sockets that the whites only could be seen, appearing 
like small balls of chalk. Thus he twice passed through the square 
of warriors in perfect silence, giving at the same time a quick and 
tremulous motion to his arms, which were extended at right angles 
from his body, and which agitated a native weapon, carried in his 
right hand. Then suddenly starting into violent energy, he used 

* This man never fought again, but nearly lost his life in an attempt to induce his own 
people to return to Waikato. 



2o6 THE DEFENDERS 

every possible argument to induce his countrymen to emulate the 
courage of their fathers and to annihilate their enemies. 

The action which he gave to his weapon (the hani, or spear), 
always violent, yet often graceful, called forth acclamations from 
the people, and would have done credit to any theatrical performer. 
Mr. Wilson's new friend would not allow him to withdraw his 
eyes from him ; and he observed, " That man's action is wonderful. 
He has not his equal." Hapurona and others, while speaking, 
sometimes broke out into traditional songs ; these the men under 
arms would take up in chorus with admirable effect, their voices 
marking that nicety of time as though it had been the voice of one 
man, and the exact motion of their limbs and bodies giving 
additional excitement to the concourse. To such a pitch of frenzy 
did these harangues influence the tribes that Mr. Wilson thought 
they would immediately make an attempt upon the sap, and the 
thought glanced through his mind whether he should ever again 
pass from among them. 

The principal chief of Mokau, Tekaka, after a long and furious 
declamation, sank to the ground from exhaustion ; and the energy 
and devotedness which this man displayed characterised the 
speeches of all the older men. But towards evening the more 
moderate addressed the assembly, and by degrees they cooled 
down to something like reason. When suffering under deep 
passions, the natives often regard the words of the dead more than 
those of the living. Therefore, when it at last came to Mr. Wilson's 
turn to speak, he reminded them of Wetene, and of what had pre- 
viously taken place at Waikato in reference to the wounded, etc. 
He spoke of their late chiefs (Wetene's) love of his countrymen, 
his humanity, and his desire that Mr. Wilson should meet them 
again at Taranaki to discuss again the question. He spoke of the 
praise the soldiers had expressed for his courage, and for those 
who fell with him, and the honourable interment his body had 
received at New Plymouth. He reminded them of the humanity 
of the General and troops to the native wounded and prisoners, 
and urged them by arguments to act as men who believed the 
words of God, and to follow in this respect the example the Euro- 
peans had set them.* Although only an hour before these men 
had wrought themselves into a delirium of passion, they answered 
all this with moderation and sense. " The works of the pakeha in 
this have been good ; for the future we will follow his example. 
The wounded and prisoners henceforth shall be treated with mercy. 
We will do as the European has done." Then Rewi, the leading 
chief of the Mgatimaniopoto, rose up and said, "Listen to me. 
These are the terms proposed ; say ' yes ' or ' no ' to them." He 

* At Malioetahi, before the struggle was over, a soldier of the 40th Regiment was observed 
to come up to a native who hr.d been mortally wounded, and seeing his tongue out of his 
mouth (as lie supposed from thiist), he placed his rifle on the ground, and ran with his 
canteen to the next swamp, and brought him water. This humane spirit characterised both 
officeis and men. General Pratt, on the same occasion, shook hands with a native lying in 
the field in order to restore his confidence. 



01' NEW ZEALAND. 207 

then with a loud voice repeated them twice ; at the conclusion, at 
the second recital, the woods rang with the shout, " Ae ! (yesj we 
consent ! " Shortly after the people dispersed themselves, and all 
was quiet. Te Wiona now sent for Mr. Wilson to visit his wife 
and friends, who treated him with much kindness ; but he re- 
minded them that it was more to his countrymen than to himself 
that these friendly feelings were due. 

Though the object which led Mr Wilson to Taranaki was now 
accomplished, and for which he felt sincerely grateful, he yet 
thought it right to remain some time longer on the spot, in order 
to see how far the natives would keep their promises. The contest 
was carried on nearly daily, and he was generally present on the 
field, wnth the object of being of use to the wounded ; or, in the 
event of their falling into the hands of the natives, to demand them 
according to previous arrangement. 

Mr. Wilson relates two original anecdotes of the Taranaki war, 
characteristic of the natives engaged; a fine race, enterprising and 
intelligent, in whom he took a particular interest. " Worthy of an 
ancient Roman was the conduct of the chief Mokau, at the close 
of the action of Mahoetahi in November, i860. When the Maoris 
were driven from the old pa on the hill by the spirited charge of 
the 65th, the Taranaki militia and volunteers, they became 
* whakawara, ' or dispersed, and took to the swamp below. Mokau, 
retreating, saw at the edge of it a friend lying mortally wounded ; 
he stopped, and though the avengers were close behind, he seized 
the hand of the dying man and stooped to say farewell, and to 
press noses in the native fashion. Raising himself up, he himself 
was shot through the heart, and fell across the body of his 
friend. His noble act of friendship had thus a fatal result. Of 
endurance and determination in a Maori, there was a remarkable 
instance at Huirangi in the summer of 1861. Natawa, a wild 
character, tired of firing away all day in his rifle-pit, got up into a 
tree, ten feet above the ground, to fire with better effect at the 12th, 
14th, and 40th skirmishers, but he was dropped by a ball in the 
forehead. Having, perhaps, a thick skull, the Enfield ball stuck 
fast over one eye, without passing into the brain ; and Natawa, 
recovering himself, went on fighting for two days after7vards. The 
second evening, some of his friends tried to get the ball out by 
moving it with their fingers, but perhaps a portion of bone was 
dislodged and touched the brain, and Natawa, after five days of 
raging madness, died." 

Mr. Wilson shortly after re-visited his native land, and those of 
the united service who have, or may, read what he endeavoured to 
do for the combatants in the Taranaki War, who may have met him, 
doubtless paid him every honour. Judge Wilson, of Tauranga, 
and Captain C. J. Wilson,- a gentleman residing at Howick, are 
sons of the Rev. Mr. Wilson, and served in the Defence Force in 
the Waikato. 

Shortly after hostilities commenced at Taranaki, the Rev. J. M. 
Tresalet, then stationed at Wanganui, proceeded overland from 



2o8 THE DEFENDERS 

there to the seat of war, for the purpose of ministering not only to 
the Catholic settlers at New Plymouth, but also to the Catholics in 
Her Majesty's Regiments there stationed. When he arrived, 
the Grenadier company of the 40th Regiment was encamped at 
the Henui, a mile outside of the township, and he was hospitably 
and kindly treated by the men of the 40th, until such time as he 
could conveniently be located at New Plymouth. The reverend 
gentleman, at that period, was entirely ignorant of the English 
language, having been located amongst the natives from his 
arrival in this colony ; but in less than two weeks, thanks to the 
military, who took him in hand and taught him to read and write 
English, he was capable of conversing on various topics, and gave 
religious instruction. He was wholly dependent upon the 
liberality of the soldiers, and members of all denominations, to 
their honour, vied with each other who should present him with 
the largest sum, every man agreeing to give from one shilling per 
month upward, towards his support in his travels from camp 
to camp, at all seasons of the year, and subject to ambush 
continually, though, like Mr. Wilson, he luckily escaped. 
Previous to the troops embarking for Auckland, the men of 
the 12th, 14th, 4cth, 57th, and 65 th Regiments presented the 
reverend gentleman with an illuminated address, accompanied by 
a purse of sovereigns. Colonel Nelson and the officers of the 40th, 
whose wounded he had attended after the battle of Puketakaure, 
presented him with a cheque for twenty pounds, in token of the 
esteem in which he was held. The money was given on the 
understanding that it should be devoted entirely to his own 
private use, which he very reluctantly received, saying : " I want 
no money. You have done everything. Any man would ieel 
a sacred pride in your benevolence since I came amongst you. 
I will never forget you." He afterwards erected a wooden church 
on which he expended the money they had given him. In it he 
had two stained windows in commemoration of the two special 
corps, the 40th and 65th. 



210 



2HE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR C. DEAN PITT 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



21 I 



Major Pitt. 




AJOR PITT was appointed to Pitt's :Militia (400 strong) 
as lieutenant in July, 1863. This force was raised by 
Lieut.-Colonel Pitt (his father) for active service at the 
request of the New Zealand Government, their head- 
quarters being at Otahuhu, and soon after joined Captains Stack 
and Moir's company at Drury. While at this station he took charge 
of the Maori prisoners, and escorted them to Otahuhu. He was 
then ordered to occupy the church at Mauku, relieving Lieutenant 
Norman, who was killed in an engagement with the natives soon 
after. He then moved up to Pukekohe with his company. No. 4 
of the I St Waikato Regiment, and was afterwards posted to 
Captain W. Eraser's company. No. i, stationed at Shepherd's 
Bush, doing escort duty until removed to Tauranga, a few days 
after the Gate Pa disaster. He was present at the fight at 
Whakamarama, and shortly after received orders to join Major 
Mair at Tauranga. From thence he proceeded to Ohinemutu, to 
augment the force under Colonel McDonnell, who had command of 
the Native Contingent, and took part in the numerous skirmishes 
in that district. He raised a native force of Arawas, and was 
despatched to Opotiki, joining his forces with those of Colonel St. 
John. Returning to Tauranga early in 1868, he joined No. 4 
company of Armed Constabulary, when orders were issued to 
unite his company with Colonel Whitmore's field force at 
Nukumaru, on the West Coast. He remained under Colonel 
Whitmore's orders to the end of the campaign, serving during this 
period also on the East Coast at ]\Iatata. The field force being 
now virtually broken up. Major Pitt was transferred, with his 
company, to the Waikato, and promoted to the rank of an 
Inspector of Armed Constabulary. From there he was ordered to 
Poverty Bay, as Commandant of the district, and of the Wairoa ; 
where he resided up to 1874, when he sent in his resignation, and 
retired from the sejvice. 



212 THE DEFENDERS 



f 



INIATA. 




INIATA, one of the bravest of the brave, volunteered 
with the Wanganui tribe, under General Mete Kingi, to 
assist in putting down the rebellion, and all through 
the campaign on the West and East Coasts made 
himself conspicuous for his pluck and determination. He always 
headed his tribe, and was the last to retire from the field* 
His individual acts of bravery were legion, yet he was super- 
stitious to a degree. On one occasion Winiata was seen in the 
rear of his company instead of leading it, and being asked the 
reason, said he had a dream on the previous night that as he was 
leading he was shot through the hip bone, and he felt all the pain 
in his dream as if it were true. This idea was soon forgotten on 
the march, until Economedes, who was leading, was shot down, 
when Winiata rushed forward, and examining the wound, said, 
" My dream has saved my life. See, he is hit just where I dreamed 
I was, and had he not taken my place I should have been a dead 
man." At the attack on the entrenched position of Te Kooti, at 
Porere, where our forces had been repulsed several times in their 
attempt to carry it by storm, Winiata on the last attempt climbed 
to the top of the parapet, some twelve feet high, and stood there 
loading and discharging his rifle, shouting out in Maori, " The pa 
is taken," when a shot penetrated his forehead, and he dropped 
dead, just at the moment of victory. McDonnell was near at the 
time and covered his face with his handkerchief, and his company 
buried him in the bed of a running stream, so that his remains 
should never be discovered or disturbed by the enemy. 



1/ 



2X4 



2HE DEFENDERS 




LIEUT. HI RTZ E L 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 215 



V 



lEUTENANT 



H 



IRTZEL. 



I 




lEUTENANT C. A. M. HIRTZEL joined the colonial 
forces in 1863, and served in the Defence Force Cavalry 
until 1866; during which time he took part in the 
principal engagements on the East Coast of the North 
Island. Being on active service he first distinguished himself when 
attached to the expedition under j\Iajor Brassey, who was sent to 
avenge the murder of the Rev. Mr. Volkner and settlers of the 
Bay of Plenty. In 1865 he rejoined his old corps in the Poverty 
Bay district, and was soon after engaged at the attack on the 
strongholds of the Hauhaus at Waerenga-a-hika ; and while 
repulsing a sortie of the enemy, received a serious wound in the 
leg. On the disbandment of the Defence Force, Lieutenant 
Hirtzel received a commission in the Wanganui Yeomanry 
Cavalry, and at the attack on Pungarehu by the force under the 
command of Lieut. -Colonel IvicDonnell, he was in charge of a 
detachment of dismounted men. In the middle of the engage- 
ment, during the heaviest of the fire, he was in the act of climbing 
over the palisading erected around the pa, when he was struck 
down by a bullet, which entered his body near to his spine, and 
lodged in his shoulder ; which wound nearly proved fatal. The 
ball was extracted with some difficulty by Dr. Spencer, at that 
time surgeon of the 1 8th Royal Irish, but now of Xapier. Soon 
after recovery he again presented himself for active service, and 
was present at the disastrous repulse of cur forces at the second 
attack on the village of Te Ngutu-o-te-Manu, where so many of 
our officers fell. Lieutenant Hirtzel was particularly commended 
for his conduct at Pungarehu during the action, and for saving the 
life of a Maori woman just before receiving his wound. 

LIEUTENANT HIRTZEL'S ACCOUNT OF TE NGUTU- 

O-TE-MANU. 

After Hunter and Palmer were shot jNIcDonnell gave the order 
for the retreat. Whether Von Tempsky ever knew of the order I 
cannot say, but I remained behind with Captains Buck and Hastings, 
some of the Wellington Rifles and Palmei^'s men being with us. 
Captain Roberts at this time was with Von Tempsky further in the 
bush ; and while Buck, Hastings, and myself were consulting as to 
what was to be done, Roberts came up and reported Von Tempsky's 



2i6 THE DEFENDERS 

death, and asked Captain Buck to send some men to bring the 
body out. Buck immsdiately started off with Roberts, but the 
latter returned after a while bringing in poor Buck's body. We 
then commenced a retreat through the bush, having with us soma 
of the Native Contingent (Von Tempsky's), Armed Constabulary, 
and the Wellington Rifles (I do not recollect how many of each), 
with Captains Roberts, Hastings, Livingstone, and myself. We 
marched through the bush for some distance, and could distinctly 
hear the firing and shouting of the rebels following up McDonnell's 
party, when, as well as I can recollect, the men composing the 
Native Contingent, with the exception of two, left us, and it was a 
little time after they had left us that our party was fired 
upon. It was at this time that Hastings fell and Russell and 
others were wounded. Poor Hastings happened to be close to me 
when hit, and telling me of it, begged me not to mention the 
circumstance to his men. Private Dore, who was shot through 
the arm, and another man, who was shot through the mouth, 
marched with us for some distance, but eventually fell out. 
Owing to his enfeebled condition at the time I do not think 
there is much dependence to be placed on Dore's statement " that 
he could hear the screams of the wounded being roasted alive." 
Darkness soon closed in, and we halted until the moon rose. I 
remember hearing several revolver shots fired by, I suppose, some 
of the poor fellows we had left behind; also that I had laid myself 
down by the side of Livingstone and had fallen asleep, but was 
awakened by Livingstone clutching me by the throat and telling 
me to shut up. I had been dreaming, and in my dream had yelled 
out. We started again as the moon rose, and reached camp the 
next morning. I have no recollection of the exact time, but met 
Major Hunter, with tears in his eyes, coming out to look for his 
brother. I also remember the squeeze McDonnell gave my hand 
while remarking, " Hirtzel, old fellow, I thought you were gone.'' 



2l8 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAI N H . H UTTON 



OF NE W ZEALAND, 2 1 9 



P 



APTAIN fluTTON. 




lAPTAIN HOWARD HUTTON joined the Otahuhu 
Volunteer Cavalry Troop in i860, and served in all the 
events of the war up to 1865, when he left for the Cape, 
and took service in the Frontier Light Horse, under 
Lord Chelmsford, against the Zulus. He was mentioned in general 
orders, at Kambula, for his pluck in going to the front in the 
pursuit, where he acted as adjutant, and was highly complimented 
by Lord Chelmsford, Colonel J. North Crealock (Commander 
95th Regiment), Brigadier-General Evelyn Wood, and Colonel 
Redvers Buller, who said in his despatches : " Captain Howard 
Hutton served under my command in the Frontier Light 
Horse from INIay, 1878, till August, 1879, during the latter part 
of the Kaffir war (1877-78), the operations against Sekukuni, in 
1878, and throughout the Zulu war (1879). He was for the greater 
part adjutant of the Frontier Horse ; but he latterly, at my request, 
undertook the duties of paymaster. In both positions, and 
throughout his service, he performed his duties thoroughly well." 
He is the possessor of the New Zealand and the South African 
medals and clasp. 

The following testimonials from his commanding officers show 
the estimation in which Captain Hutton was held by them : — 

[from lieutenant-colonel balneavis.] 

"Auckland, January gth, 1866. 
" My Dear Hutton, — As you are about to leave the colony, and have stated 
to me you might probably like to join some Vokinteer force at home, I think 
it but right to testify to your having been appointed Lieutenant in April, i860; 
Captain in July, 1863; and Acting Captain Commandant in January, 1864. 
We have had a good deal of official business to transact together, and I can 
state that I was always satisfied with the manner you conducted the duiics. 

" I have always considered you one of the best and most efficient officers in 



2 20 THE DEFENDERS 

our Volunteer force. In this opinion I am aware your late lamented Com- 
mandant, Colonel Nixon, coincided with me. — Believe me, etc. 

" H. C. Balneavis, Lieut. -Colonel, 
" Late Deputy Adjutant General of Militia and Volunteers, 
Auckland, New Zesland." 

[from major-general T. galloway, C.B.] 

" Cannamore, Ballina, February 23rd, 1868. 
" I had the pleasure of becoming acquainted with Captain Hutton in New 
Zealand in the early part of 1861, but when I was appointed to the command 
of the colonial forces in Auckland in July, 1863, I became more intimately 
acquainted with him. He was then a captain of the Otahuhu squadron of the 
Royal Cavalry Volunteers, an admirable force, in beautiful order, and which 
did good service in the field. 

" Captain Hutton was a good officer, well acquainted with his duties, and, 
very deservedly, was placed in command of the squadron previous to my 
leaving New Zealand in 1865. 

" I feel a great interest in this gentleman, and can honestly recommend him 
for any appointment he may solicit and for which he may be eligible. 

" J. T. Galloway, Major-General, 
" Late commanding the Colonial Forces in New Zealand," 



222 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN MAIR 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 223 



c 




APTAiN joT. yviAir^ 





H 


1 







Amhush in the East Coast campaign — The pursuit of Te Kooti — The rebel 
pas successfully stormed. 

'HIS distinguished young officer joined the first battalion 
i2tli Regiment, under Colonel Haultain, as interpreter, 
at Tauranga, about November, 1866, and was present 
at several skirmishes with rebel natives. He had 
his horse shot under him at Whakamarama, on January it^, 1867. 
He took part in subsequent skirmishes at Irihanga, Whaka- 
marama, Maeneene, Te Taumata, Oropi, Paengaroa, Pungarehu, 
and Te Kaki. At the kist-named place he fell into an ambuscade 
laid by sixty Piriakaus. All the friendly natives on that occasion 
ran, with the exception of Pani, who assisted his leader in killing 
two of the enemy, w^iile Mair and his brave companion also 
succeeded in rescuing their wounded comrade, Manparaoa. For 
these services. Colonel Haultain (then Defence Minister) promoted 
]\Ir. Mair on the field to the rank of lieutenant in the Auckland 
]\Iilitia, and praised him from personal observation, in his official 
despatch. 

In 1868-69, ^"6 took part in various skirmishes against the 
rebel natives in the Bay of Plenty. On May 6, by direction of 
Colonel Whitmore, Lieutenant ]\Iair led the attack on Harema 
Pa, Ahikereru. He was present in the fight at Tahoata, and in 
five or six other skirmishes in Ruatahuna ; and for these services 
was commended by Colonel Whitmore in his despatches, although 
erroneously described as " Major " J\Iair. On the 7th May, 

1870, with a small force he attacked Te Kooti, at Rotorua, 
pursued him all day, killing twenty of his men — Henare Rongo- 
whakaata, Timoti Te Kaka, and the notorious " Baker ^McPean " 
(Te Kooti's bugler) falling to his own rifle. For the last-mentioned 
services, he was promoted to the rank of captain, his commission 
dating from the engagement (7th February). On 19th August, 

187 1, Captain Mair led the Native Contingent into Te Kooti's 



224 THE DEFENDERS 

Te Kooti's pa, near Maungapohatu, inflicting great loss on the 
enemy, and with his own hand killing Patara and Wi Heretaunga, 
two notorious desperadoes. When the Hon. Mr. Bryce, as Defence 
Minister, made his famous march against Parihaka, in 1881, 
Captain IMair was appointed Aide-de-Camp to Colonel Roberts, 
who commanded the forces. Since that time he has continued to 
hold civil appointments in various districts as Native Resident 
Magistrate and Land Purchase Commissioner. 

I have seen a letter from the Hon. Sir George Whitmore, in 
which this gallant officer expresses his opinion that Sir Donald 
McLean should have recommended Captain Mair for the New 
Zealand Cross. Captain Mair has since obtained this distinction 
which he so bravely earned. 



Sei^geant JCai^keek. 




ERGE ANT CARKEEK obtained the New Zealand Cross 
for his conspicuous bravery at Ohinemutu on the 7th of 
February, 1870. While the force under Lieut.-Colonel 
McDonnell was serving in the Patetere country, Te Kooti 
with his force came out of the bush on the farther side of the ranges 
and attacked Ohinemutu, where Captain Mair and some Arawas 
were posted. It being of the utmost importance that immediate 
notice of the same should be despatched to Colonel McDonnell, 
Sergeant Carkeek used every exertion to get natives to convey a 
note to him at Tapapa through the bush, but as no one could be 
found to incur the risk. Sergeant Carkeek determined to carry the 
note himself, and finding a native who knew the road, started at 
daylight, and arrived safely at Tapapa about three o'clock p.m., 
having travelled upwards of thirty miles through dense bush 
known to be in the occupation of the enemy, with the danger of 
being surprised at any moment, when certain death would have 
been his fate. 



226 



THE DEFENDERS 




C A PTA IN CO R B ETT 



OF NEW ZEALAND. zi-j 



Captain Coi\bett. 




|OHN GLASFURD CORBETT, eldest son of IMajor- 
General Sir Stuart Corbett, K.C.B., of the Bengal Army, 
came out to the Antipodes and settled down in Taranaki, 
the Garden of New Zealand, where he purchased of the 
Government a bush section, close to the confines of sav^age 
Maoridom. For nearly four years he worked on his farm, having the 
assistance of two English farm labourers hehadbrought out with him 
from the old country, when, seized with a desire for fresh fields and 
pastures new, he left this country for Australia, where, after going 
through all the phases of colonial life, viz., gold-digging, bullock- 
driving, timber-felling, stock-riding, etc., he offered his services to 
accompany Burke and Wills on their exploring expedition to the 
interior of Australia. His services were accepted, but want of 
camels so delayed their starting that in the meantime he went 
across to Dunedin with a cargo of horses, and there hearing of the 
outbreak in Taranaki started for the scene of action, determined 
to take part in it. Nine days after the first shot was fired he 
enrolled himself as a volunteer in Taranaki. In 1861 he obtained 
his commission as ensign, in 1862 as lieutenant, and in 1863 he 
had gained his company, and was present at J\Iahoetahi and at all 
the skirmishes in that district. He with eighty men made a night 
march and attacked the right flank of Kaitake, and held the key of 
the position while the troops attacked in front. For this service he 
received the thanks of General Cameron. Captain Corbett was 
then placed in charge of eighty-five military settlers and natives 
and ordered to take up a position at Tipoka, to turn the enemy's 
flank at Waikoukou. This could only be done by two nights' 
march through the forest, which he and his men accomplished, and 
for which he again was highly commended by General Sir Trevor 
Chute. Captain Corbett was educated for the East India Military 
Service^ and while a member of the volunteer force of New Zealand, 
Colonel Gould, then commanding officer, offered to recommend him 
to the Horse Guards for a direct commission, which he declined. 
After the war terminated he met with an accident which deprived 
him of his right leg, and necessitated his retirement from military 
pursuits. 



228 



THE DEFENDERS 



Captain St. George. 




APTAIN ST. GEORGE, a very promising young 
officer, lost bis life at the battle of Porere, after 
doing good service, on the East Coast, under Major 
Biggs. His death was the cau^e of considerable 
grief in the camp, he being loved by both officers and men. 
It appears, from despatches received from Colonel McDonnell, 
that he met his death while gallantly leading on his men at 
the capture of the pa, having fallen mortally wounded on the 
plateau on which the pa was situated, in his attempt to reach 
it. He was buried in the pumice land, on the battle-field, 
wrapped in his blanket and waterproof sheet ; and the story 
goes that some four years afterwards, his friends, wishing to 
have him buried in consecrated ground, sent up some natives to 
remove his bones, supplying them with a small coffin to pack them 
in. To the surprise of the party sent, on uncovering the body, 
they found it fresh as on the day it was buried. 

The Maoris have a curious custom regarding their prisoners, 
which was carried out to the letter after the attack on Porere. 
In the engagement, several prisoners were taken, and all those 
belonging to tribes of any consequence were taken charge 
of by their nearest relations. But amongst the group was a 
very stout Maori woman, who had been severely wounded in 
the sole of her foot, and who could not lay claim to any tribe 
in particular ; so to settle the question of ownership^ she was 
put up to auction and knocked down to a native named Pokaika 
(Fox) for a horse valued at ;^io. When laughed at for his bargain 
and told that she would run away on the first chance given her, 
old Pokaika exclaimed, " Don't you see, she will never be able 
to run with that wounded foot. I wanted just such a one to 
cook my potatoes for me." And the old warrior was right in 
his conjectures, for she has remained a faithful servant to him 
up to the present time. 



2.^,0 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR VQN TEMPSKY 



OF NEW ZEALAND. i^^ 



M 



AJOPv Von Tempsky. 




Formation of fhe Forest Rangers — Aiiihiish at Manga pil;o river — Dis- 
tinguished service at Orakau — Badly treated by the Government — 
Subsequent services and death at Ngutu-o-te-Manu. 

|AJOR VON TEMPSKY arrived in this colony from 
Central America (where he had passed throug-h the 
eventful period consequent on civil warfare^ just 
as the war had reached the Waikato district, and 
Gene al Cameron, finding that the natives had established 
themselves in the wooded ranges between the Waikato and the 
settled districts south of Auckland, suggested to the Government 
the embodiment of a bush ranging force for Auckland similar to 
that so successfully employed at Taranaki, and the Government, 
in proceeding to raise this corps, accepted Major A^on Tempsky's 
services as an ensign in August, 1863. The natives were then 
plundering the out-settlers' houses, and committing murders and 
every other atrocity unchecked. Hitherto it was thought by many 
that Europeans would be no match for natives in the bush ; but 
these Maori advocates were soon silenced by the results, as 
the new force, the Forest Rangers, actually hunted the natives 
out of the unexplored and extensive forests. In this warfare 
Major Von Tempsky shone conspicuously. The Major's com- 
pany of Forest Rangers was raised principally at his own 
expense, and from that day to the end of the war, his men, 
influenced by the determined spirit of their leader, rendered 
services of the most important chraacter to the colony. The first 
act in which Ensign Von Tempsky distinguished himself 
personally was in the reconnaissance of the rebels' quarters at 
Paparata, which place he stole up to, with Sub-Inspector 110 w 
Lieut. -Colonel) JNIcDonnell, in the middle of the night, and 
remained concealed for nearly forty-eight hours in a flax 
swamp, without food or water, surrounded by the enemy. This 
was a voluntary act, but it resulted in giving General Cameron 
accurate information and greatly assisted his movements. This 
act won for him the respect of the commanding officer in New 
Zealand, and established him in public confidence. 

He continued to serve with credit to himself in the AVaikato 
campaign, principally in separate command, until the rebel 



232 THE DEFENDERS 

position of Paterangi was invested. Here he had an oppor- 
tunity of distinguishing himself. He had taught his company 
a drill suited to the warfare they were engaged in, and 
which he had learnt during his career in Central America. 
The natives had planted an ambush, and attacked a body of 
soldiers, who had gone down to bathe in the jSIangapiko River, 
a tributary of the Waipa, the result leading to one of the sharpest 
and best contested fights that had then taken place between the 
Imperial troops and the rebels, and in which encounter the rebels 
lost heavily. Reinforcements w^ere sent up on both sides, and 
what began as an ambush attack and skirmish ended in something 
like a pitched battle and a complete rout to the natives. It was 
here that ]\Iajor Heaphy so greatly distinguished himself, and on 
account of whose services the Premier urged his claims for the 
Victoria Cross. J\lajor Von Tempsky here added to his laurels. 
Whilst the troops were posted on the left bank of the river, firing 
at the natives, who lay under cover of the high fern on the opposite 
bank, and kept up a constant and destructive fire upon our men. 
Von Tempsky crossed the river with his men, in the teeth of the 
enemy and exposed to their fire, armed only with revolvers and 
bowie knives, charged through the fern, and for a time were com- 
pletely lost to sight ; but they soon dislodged the enemy and emerged 
from the scrub carrying out a good many dead bodies of Maoris. 

To Major Von Tempsky much of the success of that day 
was due, and his services were heartily acknowledged by Sir 
Henry Havelock and other Imperial officers. The next place W3 
find Von Tempsky is at Orakau, where the pa was defended with 
such heroism by Rewi and his followers. During the action, it 
was necessary for ]\Iajor Von Tempsky to take up a position 
commanding am angle of the works, to dislodge the natives. In 
doing so, he was compelled to lead his men between a heavy cross 
fire from the natives at almost point blank range. Exposed to a 
shower of bullets, he worked his way, now lying flat till the leaden 
shower passed over, now making a dash in advance, and again 
falling to avoid the jNIaori bullets. The point gained, and fire 
opened by the Rangers on the devoted garrison, the Maoris 
soon found their works untenable, and forthwith effected that 
brilliant retreat, glorious as sad in its consequences to the rebels. 
For his services on this occasion Von Tempsky received his 
majority. Major Von Tempsky was always sent on in advance of 
the troops in the Waikato, skirmishing and clearing away all 
obstacles ; and this he did to the satisfaction of all Imperial 
officers. 

The services of Von Tempsky, at Wanganui, and daring and 
successful expedition into the bush at Kakaramea, will not readily 
be forgotten. At a dinner given to him by the Premier, all 
there assembled endorsed the words of the head of Government : 
"That Major Von Tempsky had done more to raise the character 
of the colonial force than had been achieved by any officer during 
the war ; that he was the great bulwark of the self-reliant policy ; 



O/ NEIV ZEALAND. zy:, 

that he was the lion of the hour. " But, like all the actions of 
Democratic Governments to their servants, civil or military, 
it lasted but the hour, as the next day he received written 
instructions to proceed to Waiapu and place himself and men 
under the command of Lieut. -Colonel Fraser. This he considered 
unjust to himself. That a junior oificer, of but recent standing 
in the colonial force, should be promoted over his head, entirely 
overlooking his own individual services, was more than he could 
bear, and he immediately sent in his resignation, the effect of which 
action was that his men actually refused to proceed without him. 
The Government declined to accept his resignation, and as his 
men were fast drifting into open mutiny, sent Lieutenant Westrupp 
from the Defence Office with a request to the Major that he would 
proceed to the wharf and induce his men to go on board. This he 
declined to do, and Lieutenant Westrupp, wiiose conduct through- 
out was deserving of praise, obtained the command of the compan\', 
paraded the men, and called for volunteers, telling them that all 
those who remained behind would obtain their discharge. This 
appeal was not ineffectual, as about thirty-eight proceeded on 
board the Lord AsJiky,\\\\\Q\\ had been detained in harbour by 
order of the Government. In the meantime, Major Von Tempsky 
received a visit from one of the i\Iinistry, to try and alter liis 
determination, and being asked if he would proceed to Napier, 
without further delay, and report himself to his commanding 
officer, he further pressed his resignation on the Government, 
who immediately ordered him under close arrest, depriving him 
of his sword. This was his reward for nearly three years' service 
in the colony. 

Lieut. -Colonel Fraser was at that time a very young man who had 
held an ensign's commission in the Imperial army, and came out 
to New Zealand in 1864, bringing with him letters of introduction 
from influential people at home. He was in consequence gazetted 
to a command in the New Zealand Militia, and ordered to Napier. 
He was sent up to Waiapu, to assist the chief Morgan, who was 
fighting against odds on behalf of Her Majesty ; and at the head 
of a European detachment, aided by friendly natives, P'raser rushed 
a native pa in the most gallant style, and inflicted heavy loss on 
the enemy. This occurred about two months before, and was the 
chief service Fraser had then rendered, and for which he was made 
Lieut.-Colonel, while J\Iajor Von Tempsky, recollecting his own 
superior services, considered that he could not, wuth respect to 
himself and his brother officers of rank and long service, do other- 
wise than resign. Von Tempsky eventually withdrew his resigna- 
tion, and served at Wanganui, although he had little chance of 
further distinguishing himself, being- always under the orders of 
his superior officer, until he fell at Ruaruru, or Te Ngutu-o-te-IManu, 
lamented by all who knew him. The following was contributed by 
a friend of the late Major's : — 

"The late officer was by birth a Prussian, and descended from a 
noble family. His brother is a colonel in the Prussian army, and 



234 THE DEFENDERS 

was wounded in the campaign between Prussia and Denmark. 
]\Iajor Von Tempsky was a soldier born, and from his earliest 
youth was a wanderer over all nations. He was also a man of 
great literary attainments, and an expert linguist. His book of 
travels in South America is still read by the literati with intense 
interest. His youth, after service as an officer of Prussian Hussars, 
was spent chiefly in South America, and afterwards on the 
Californian and Melbourne goldfields ; and his adventures in these 
places, as told by himself, have beguiled many a weary hour with 
his comrades over the picquet fires, during the campaign in the 
North Island. 

" After the first advance of Her Majesty's troops beyond Drury, 
in 1863, the want of a body of bush-scourers was sadly felt, and 
Major Von Tempsky offered his services to raise a body of men, 
similar in equipment and tactics to those used by tiie South 
American Government against the Indians. His offer was 
accepted, and a reference to the files of the Auckland papers will 
show the immense service this corps, under his command, was to 
the Government. At Orakau, he was on the storming party, and 
the ready manner in which he brought his men into action to 
intercept the escape of the natives will never be forgotten by those 
engaged. After the suspension of hostilities in the Waikato 
district, Major Von Tempsky's services were again in requisition 
to accompany ]\Iajor-General Chute in his famous overland 
campaign to Taranaki. In this he was under fire two or three 
times. When Colonel Hassard fell. Von Tempsky was there, 
and our beloved and respected general's order, '57th, advance! 
Forest Rangers, clear the bush!' will never be forgotten. He, after 
the campaign was over, returned to Auckland to recruit, and 
passed a short time with his family. Having resided some little 
time in Coromandel, he returned to Auckland, and devoted his 
time to literature and painting. His pictures of some of the most 
exciting scenes in the Maori war have elicited the highest commen- 
dation. When the Armed Constabulary was formed he accepted 
an inspectorship ; how well he performed his duty, has been 
lately before us, and so fresh in our memory, that it is needless 
for me to comment on it. He is now gone and I will say no more. 
I see that the account of his death says, 'Von Tempsky is dead, 
but he nobly fell in battle.' I know all his old comrades will feel 
certain of this. His death is a national loss ; although an alien, 
he zealously fought for the British flag, and, whether as a soldier 
or citizen, was universally beloved and respected. He has left a 
widow and three infant children as a legacy to his adopted country. 
As a husband and father, no man could have been more anxious 
and solicitous for the welfare of his wife and children, or more 
domestic in his habits; and to have seen him playing with his little 
ones at home, or attending to his flower garden, or paincing, no 
one would have guessed him to be the terrible Von Tempsky, the 
terror of the Maori warriors of the Waikato, East Coast, and 
Taranaki." 



2Z^ 



THE DEFEND^KS 




CO LO N E L OORTON 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 2x 



J/ 



c 



OLONEL UORTON. 




OLONEL GORTON joined Her ^Majesty's 29th Regiment 
as ensign in July, 1855, obtained his lieutenancy in 
November of that year, and his company in i860. 
During this period he served in Burmah and India. 
He exchanged as a captain in i860 to Her Majesty's 57th 
Regiment, and joined it at Taranaki in June, i86i, and served 
till June, 1863. While in the 57th Regiment he was appointed 
extra Aide-de-Camp to Lieut. -General Sir Duncan Cameron, and 
was present with the General at the action of Katikare on 4th 
June, 1863 ; and his services were mentioned in despatches. In 
July, 1863, at twenty-five years of age, he was appointed a major 
in the New Zealand Militia, and to the command of the Wellington 
militia district, to which were subsequently added the AVairarapa 
and Castle Point districts; the strength of the militia and 
volunteers under his command being nearly 1600. He was 
specially thanked for his services when accompanying Dr. 
Featherston to the Wairarapa in August, 1863; the prompt 
arming and equipping of volunteers on that occasion having 
prevented the breaking out of hostilities in the district. In 
September, 1865, he was promoted to the rank of lieut. -colonel, 
and was sent to command the Wanganui district, to which was 
shortly added that of Rangitikei ; and, on the departure of the 
Imperial forces from the West Coast, the supplying and equipping 
of the colonial troops came also under his control. For his 
services in connection with these duties he repeatedly received the 
thanks of the Government. In January, 1869, he took the field 
with Colonel Sir George Whitmore, as his acting quarter-master- 
general ; and, to ensure the field force receiving rations while 
marching [via the back of Mount Egmont), he rode tlie whole 
coast from Keteonetea to New Plymouth, a journey of eighty to 
iiinety miles, much of the distance being through the enemy's 
country, accompanied by only two native guides, thus completing 
the contract to supply the force from New Plymojith, and returned 
to camp in four days. In April, 1869, he took up his appointment 
as inspector of the Government stores of the colony, but resigned 
his public duties in January, 1878, for colonial pursuits of a much 
more profitable nature. 



2^8 THE DEFENDERS 



^ 



ORNET fi.. Smith. 




ORNET SMITH obtained the decoration of the New 
Zealand Cross for his bravery and great endurance 
at Opepe. On the 7th June, 1871, when the party 
of the Bay of Plenty Cavalry in charge of Cornet 
Smith was surprised at Opepe, by Te Kooti's band, and nine 
men out of thirteen killed, Cornet Smith, though suffering agonies 
from a desperate wound in his foot, received during his escape, 
set out with the object of finding the tracks of his commanding 
officer, and apprising him and his party of their danger, when 
a less brave or thoughtful man would have proceeded straight 
to Fort Galatea, which post he could have reached in forty-eight 
hours with comparatively little risk, and with the certainty of 
getting immediate medical assistance. 

On his road, Cor/iet Smith was captured by the rebels, stripped 
of all his clothing, firmly bound to a tree, and left to his fate. 
He was in this position for four days, without either food or water, 
when he managed to release himself and proceed to Fort Galatea, 
which he reached on the 17th, being ten days without food or 
clothing, being, on account of the wound in his foot, obliged to 
crawl for a considerable distance on his hands and knees, and 
further had to risk his life twice by swimming the rivers. He 
is an old Crimean veteran, and had his medals on when captured. 



240 



IHE DEFENDERS 




M AJ OR BRASSEY, 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 2^1 



Majo^ Brassey. 



t y 



Defence of the post at Peperiki — Bottles asking reinforcements floated doivn 
the river — Ingenious fortification of the canvas camp with timber. 

AJOR BRASSEY as a young man entered the British 
navy, and served therein up to the year 1839. He then 
joined the East India Company's service, being present 
and taking part in all the operations in Scinde and 
Afghanistan, and subsequently in the Southern Mahratta campaign. 
He was acting Assistant Field Engineer at the siege of Panalla, 
Powenghur, Managhur, Mansingtosh, and Samunghur. He was 
five years adjutant of the regiment, and retired from the service on 
half pay, through ill health, with the rank of captain. 

Being in New Zealand in the year 1865 the Government secured 
his services, and, with the rank of major, sent him in command of 
400 Taranaki military settlers to take charge of the post of 
Peperiki, a native settlement sixty miles up the Wanganui river. 
Here the rebels tried to cut him off by taking possession in the 
night of the rising ground commanding his camp on the town side. 
He despatched a portion of his men under Lieutenant Cleary, and 
by a gallant dash they cleared the hill and rifle-pits, before the 
relief arrived from Wanganui, the garrison of that town having 
been apprised of Brassey's position by some bottles floating down 
the river from his camp, the writing inside asking for assistance. 
He was afterw^ards sent in command to the East Coast to avenge 
the murder of the Rev. Mr. Volkner, but being suddenly recallerl 
to England on important private business, he on his return 
resigned his command. From the experience he had gained in 
India he was reckoned to be one of the best military officers, 

RELIEF OF PEPERIKI. 

[by an EYE-AVITNESS.] 

On the evening of the 17th July, 1865, when the Colonial troops 
under Sir George Grey were before the Wereroa Pa, a messenger 
arrived from Major Brassey, stationed at Peperiki, stating that the 
rebel natives had completely surrounded him, and that his post, 
being commanded on all sides, was in considerable danger. This 
circumstance hurried on the capture of the AVereroa, and on the 
return of the Colonial forces to Wanganui, they were ordered at 

Q 



242 THE DEFENDERS 

once to proceed to raise the siege at Peperiki. The Commissariat 
officer had previously received instructions from Major Atkinson to 
keep the garrison rationed three months in advance, in case of 
extremities, which had been done. But as all the points of defence 
were now in the hands of the enemy, the relief was a work of some 
danger. Nevertheless, in spite of all difficulties, canoes alone being 
available for the expedition, the force started, and on the sscond 
day relieved the post, the corpses of several of the enemy half 
buried giving evidence of the gallantry of the attack and defence. 
AVhen the enemy were first discovered firing down from the hills 
commanding the camp, which was in the valley, Major Brassey 
took measures for his defence, and ordered the church to be taken 
to pieces in sections. With this material he barricaded the tents, 
the tops only showing. The portions of canvas exposed were 
literally riddled with bullets. Having provided this temporary 
shelter, he ordered Lieutenant Cleary with a part of his force to 
clear the Cemetery Hill 2,nd rifle-pits, which they did in gallant 
style, losing only one man. Lieutenant Cleary was wounded. Had 
the natives held their ground the loss would have been very great, 
but they fortunately took fright and bolted before our men were 
halfway up the hill. 



244 



THE DEFENDERS 




GENERAL CH UTE 



OJb NEW ZEALAND. 245 



ENERAL LHUTE. 



The famous march from Wanganui/o Taranaki — Narrow escape; a button 
shot off the General's coat. 




ENERAL CHUTE, who assumed the command after 
the retirement of General Cameron, was a man eminently 
fitted for ]\Iaori warfare, owing to his great energy and 
decision of character. He never saw or made a difficulty, 
neither did he allow a few lives to stand between him and his object. 
His memorable march from Wanganui to Taranaki by the back of 
Mount Egmont through the dense bush, and his return by the coast 
line, carrying by assault every obstacle before him, was the greatest 
success of the war, and something so new in European tactics to 
the natives that, towards the finish of his campaign, the mere 
knowledge of his presence in the neighbourhood was the signal for 
a general stampede of Maoris from the district. The force he took 
with him was three companies of Her Majesty's 14th Regiment, 
two companies of Her Majesty's 57th Regiment, under Colonels 
Butler and Hassard, 200 friendly natives, under Colonel and Ensign 
McDonnell and Lieutenant W. E. Gudgeon, and a company of 
Bush Rangers, under Von Tempsky. The fortified pasofOkotuko, 
Te Putahi, Otapawa, Warea and Waikoko were carried by assault, 
his only word of command being " Go on, boys." He was after- 
wards knighted, and most deservedly so. At Okotuku Lieutenant 
Keogh and several of his men were wounded; at Putahi he had 
two killed and twelve wounded, amongst them Colonel McDonnell, 
a bullet having entered the muscles of his foot ; a friendly native 
was shot through the chest, the bullet sticking in the muscles of 
his back, just under the skin (when it was removed by the doctor 
the native took no further notice of the wound) ; Lieutenant (xudgeon 
through the thigh, as he was in the act of picking off the wax from 
around the nipples of his revolver while preparing for the attack. 
At Otapawa were eleven killed and twenty wounded, amongst 
them Lieut. -Colonel Hassard mortally and Lieutenant Swanson 
slightly. Here it was that General Chute had a narrow escape of 
his life, a bullet cutting away the one breast-button of his coat. 
His only exclamation was, " The niggers seem to have found me 
out." 



246 THE DEFENDERS 



f 



H 



AOI\A riAPE. 




AORA HAPE was a chief of Taupo, who had assisted 
us throughout the war, and in 1870, when Colonel 
]\IcDonnell was in pursuit of Te Kooti, the tribes under 
Paora Hape rendered every assistance, and showed 
their loyalty to the last. Shortly after the engagement at Porere, 
Hape, with his tribe, crossed the Taupo lake for the purpose of 
making a raid on some of the rebel settlements in that quarter, and 
were so successful in killing and looting, that on their return they 
celebrated the event by a grand war dance. In the height of the 
dance, a brother-in-law of Paora Hape, who was in the front rank, 
by some mischance discharged his rifle, the ball lodging in the 
spine of Hape. Dr. Walker was immediately sent for from the 
camp, and on his arrival pronounced the wound fatal, the spine 
being nearly severed, although he lingered on for two or three 
days. This accident produced a great sensation amongst his 
followers, and there was an immediate gathering of all the tribes 
to hear the chief's last words. Paora Hape, as he laid on a 
stretcher under a flax awning, the tribes squatted all around him, 
began by saying " That his first words would be his last, which 
was to be strong, as he was strong in battle." (Here he mentioned 
the several events of his life, in which he had showed his strength, 
and continued :) " Be true to the pakeha. No good had ever come 
or ever would come, by fighting against the pakeha. In the old 
days they were all strong, he was strong, but the strength only 
showed itself in the fighting Maoris. If any inferior pakchas 
come amongst you, you had better take no notice of them, but if 
they do wrong report them to the Government, who have good 
and righteous laws. The day of the Maori law had passed away 
— the pakehas and the Maoris could not live under two laws. 
The laws cf the pakeha, being the best, must always be the 
law of the country," and repeating again his first words, "Be 
strong and be true to the pakeha," he turned over and died. He 
was afterwards buried with great ceremony on Moutiti Island, 
regretted as much by the pakeha as by his own tribe. 



!48 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR-GENERAL SIR G. S. W H I T M O R E 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 249 




Y 



HITMOP^E. 



Services at the Cape and in the Crimea — Arrival in Nciv Zealand ivith 
General Cameron — Pursuit of Te Kooti — J he disaster at Motiiroa — • 
Capture of Ngalipa — Successful campaign on the West Coast — Tito- 
kowariis forces dispersed — Te Kooti defeated and pursued. 




IR GEORGE STODDART WHITMORE came to 
this colony as military secretary to Eieut. -General Sir 
Duncan Cameron, then in command of the Imperial 
troops in New Zealand. Prior to this he had served in 
the Cape Mounted Rifles, and held a position on the staff during 
the Kaffir wars of 1847 ^"^3 1 851-1853, and also at the Boer insur- 
rection of 1848. During these campaigns he had been repeatedly 
thanked in general orders and despatches, and was ultimately 
promoted when a junior lieutenant of his corps to a captaincy in 
the 62nd Regiment. He returned to England to join that 
regiment, in 1854, and finding himself attached to the depot, with 
little prospect of getting out to the Crimea, he accepted the appoint- 
ment of Aide-de-Camp to Sir H. Stork, at vScutari, and subsequently 
took command of a regiment of cavalry in the Turkish contingent, 
and served in the Crimea and at Kertch until sent on special 
service, to procure cavalry, artillery, and train horses and material, 
in Austria and the Principalities. At the termination of the war, 
he was one of the officers chosen to wind up the affairs of the army 
in the Crimea, and, as in these capacities, great financial and 
administrative responsibilities were thrown upon him, he was 
gratified by the Auditor-General, in a special report, certifying that 
although his accounts were the last rendered they were the first and 
easiest audited of any that had reached the department, being so 
thoroughly satisfactory that no objection was taken. He then 
assumed command of his depot in Ireland, where he remained until 
his admission to the Staff College, where, during the Christmas 
of i860, he passed first, after a brilliant examination. 

In the following January, he left England for New Zealand with 
Sir Duncan Cameron, and served under him for two years, when 
Sir Duncan, feeling dissatisfied with the control placed over him, 
sent in his resignation, and Whitmore resigned with his chief. 
The Horse Guards declined to accept Cameron's resignation, but 
having no power to refuse the Colonel's, he, in December, 1862, 



2 50 THE DEFENDERS 

became a settler in Hawke's Bay. In March, he was appointed 
Civil Commissioner for the East Coast, and on the murder of Hope 
and Traggett rejoined his old commander, as a volunteer, in the 
operations ending in the successful action of Katikare. Being 
appointed to the command of the militia and volunteers at 
Hawke's Bay, he returned to that district. He once more rejoined 
Cameron in the Waikato, and was with him at the taking of 
Orakau. In 1868, Colonel Whitmore was appointed to the Legis- 
lative Council, and has held a seat in that body ever since. 

Being in England in 1865, he missed the operations on the East 
Coast, carried out by Colonel Eraser; but, in 1866, he commanded 
the force which completely defeated the rebels, under their prophet 
Panapa, at the Omaranui Pa, probably the most complete success 
obtained by our forces during the war, all the natives in the pa, 
to the number of no, being either taken prisoners or killed. Our 
force, on that occasion, numbered 160, but many of them had little 
or no knowledge of the use of the rifle. His next military service 
was after Te Kooti's escape from the Chatham Islands, when the 
settlers of Poverty Bay applied to their fellow-settlers at Napier 
for help. Colonel Whitmore obtained the Government's per- 
mission to raise a small force of paid volunteers at Napier, 
altogether about thirty men, who with some friends were taken 
by Her Majesty's steamship Rosario to what is now Gisborne, 
but arrived too late to prevent the defeat at Paparata. 
Te Ivooti, having on that occasion won a signal success, had 
pushed on to the Uriwera country with all the horses and camp 
equipage he had taken. Whitmore followed in pursuit, but could 
not induce the local settlers to join in the expedition until rein- 
forced by No. I division of Armed Constabulary. 

In the meantime, Te Kooti had achieved a second success over 
the Wairoa contingent, which attempted to bar his progress, and 
the rebels had six days' start. However, the Colonel pushed on, 
and after great difficulty, owing to the inclement weather, and the 
refusal of the Poverty Bay settlers to go further than the 
Whangaroa River, the boundary of their district, he overtook Te 
Kooti two days later, in the bush, and at once attacked him. 
The action began about three o'clock, in the bed of a stream, which 
had to be crossed seven or eight times, breast high, it being 
winter time and swollen with snow. Daylight was failing when 
the Colonel drew off his men, and at the same moment Te Kooti 
was being carried off into the bush, severely wounded. The 
colonial force had then been forty-eight hours without food, and 
to reach their enemy had been marching night and day, enduring 
hardship from hunger and cold unknown in any other incident 
of the war. Colonel Whitmore, being a man of iron constitution, 
could endure any amount of fatigue himself, and, unfortunately 
for his men, considered that they should all be made of the same 
metal. Consequently, in his anxiety to come up with the enemy, 
he often overtaxed their endurance, which at times led to a little 
grumbling, as Englishmen cannot keep their tempers on an empty 



0I< NEW ZEALAND. ~ 251 

stomach. The Colonel, much against his will, had now to retire, 
or rather retrace his steps, to cave his men from actual famine, 
as supplies had not come up ; and leaving his dead behind, but 
carrj'-ing his wounded, he did not meet the convoy until the 
following day. 

The news of the disaster at Ngutu-o-te-Manu, on the East 
Coast, having now reached the ears of Colonel Whitmore, he 
hastened to the assistance of Colonel McDonnell, offering to serve 
under him as a volunteer. The force, by their defeat, was so 
diminished and demoralised that Colonel Haultain, the Minister 
of Defence, considered it necessary to order them back to Patea,* 
and Colonel McDonnell tendering his resignation, the Government 
asked Colonel Whitmore to take the command. This he did at 
once, and proceeding to Patea, applied himself to reorganising 
the force, which was in a sad condition, both as to number and 
morale — one whole division of Armed Constabulary having 
mutinied had been disbanded, while the other two companies 
comprised few more men than were needed to tend the sick and 
wounded. The only division in number and discipline fit for 
service was the Hawke's Bay corps, which Colonel Whitmore 
brought from Napier with him, though at the cost of great 
unpopularity with the Hawke's Bay settlers for removing them. The 
Government now began to enlist recruits, both in New Zealand 
and the neighbouring colonies, while Titokow^aru moved gradually 
forward, passing Patea in the bush on towards Wanganui. 

Strictly speaking, Colonel Whitmore's command did not extend 
beyond the Patea district ; but he threw himself with every 
available man between Titokowaru and Wanganui, and being 
joined that night by his first batch of recruits, namely, the 
No. 6 division of Armed Constabulary, he attacked the enemy 
at Moturoa. The natives were between six and seven hundred 
strong, entrenched in a formidable pa, so formidable that the 
Colonel was unable with his force to carry the works, which, being 
in the middle of a dense bush, and erected w'ithin the last few 
days, were not know^n to exist. The action was well sustained 
and very obstinate while it lasted; but, after three houis, the 
Colonel having personally examined the position, and finding no 
available point to force an entrance, drew off his men in excellent 
order, though with heavy loss. All the wounded were safely 
removed, though the dead had to be left on the ground. The 
retreat was conducted so as to leave no opening for attack, and 
the force fell back on Wairoa safely. Under the circumstances 
Colonel Whitmore resolved to fall back on Nukumaru, covering 
Wanganui, and strengthening Patea and Wairoa. This was soon 
accomplished, and a position taken up and fortified, where the 
expected recruits might be organised. But the massacre at 
Poverty Bay occurring in the meantime, the Government ordered 
him to fall back still closer to the township of Wanganui, namely, 
to the Kai-iwi River, and to proceed to Poverty Bay with the most 
reliable of his men. 



252 THE DEFENDERS 

This he accordingly did, and after some delay in waiting for 
native auxiliaries he invested Ngatipa, Te Kooti's stronghold, on 
the I St January, 1869. This unusually inaccessible and almost 
impregnable work was taken on the 5th January, and the loss 
during the operations was so heavy on the rebels as to intimidate 
Te Kooti from ever again making a raid on Poverty Bay. 

Ngatipa being taken, Colonel Whitmore hurried back to the 
West Coast, where meanwhile a considerable number of recruits 
had assemblea, thanks to the energetic exertions of the Government, 
and although this force was thoroughly undisciplined and hardly 
trustworthy, Colonel Whitmore resolved on an immediate advance, 
trusting to train his men as he marched forward. Great caution 
was used to prevent any possibility of another reverse, which for 
the time would have resulted in retarding the prosperity of the 
West Coast. Although urged by the local Press to action of the 
most reckless nature, he moved slowly on for the first fortnight, 
discharging men unfit for the duty, and gradually teaching the rest 
the use of their arms in the field. 

Taurangahika Pa was taken after a feeble resistance, and 
Titokowarii driven across the Waitotara ; and Colonel Whitmore, 
satisfied that his force might now with safety be actively employed, 
threw a flying bridge across the Waitotara and marched to Patea, 
where, having rested two days, he moved off in the night, and at 
dawn next morning attacked Titokowaru's position at Otautu, 
which he surprised and took with some loss. 

Having removed his wounded to Patea, he followed up his 
success, pressing the enemy by bush paths, while supplies followed 
by the coast road. He surprised the settlement of Whakamara, 
the enemy beating a precipitate retreat, closely followed by the 
bush column, which several times overtook the rearguard and 
inflicted some loss upon them. 

Following on northward, Titokowaru's retreat became a flight, 
and when the column emerged from the bush at Taiporohenui, all 
traces of him were lost. Colonel Whitmore, relying on information 
received from Major Kemp, resolved to push on to Nga re, a post 
eight miles in the bush, surrounded by a swamp, almost impassable 
to strangers. Having arrived opposite the position, the force 
was set to work to construct hurdles of supple-jack, on which 
they crossed over the treacherous swamp, and succeeded in 
surprising the settlement the following morning. It was 
here that the Wanganui natives prevented the destruction 
of the enemy by running into the native camp declaring the 
occupants were friendly people. Meanwhile Titokowaru and the 
remnant of his force escaped before the ruse was discovered, but 
so panic-stricken and demoralised that they did not again pause 
in their retreat until they had found shelter far inland of Taranaki, 
at the Upper Waitara. This concluded the campaign. The troops, 
marching by the inland route round Mount Egmont, now reached 
the Waitara, where they were shipped to Auckland, en route to the 
Uriwera country. 




NGATAPA FR M 




HE EAST. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 253 

The operations on the West Coast were so successful that the war 
has never been resumed, nor a single shot fired since in the whole 
district, whereas settlements soon followed in the wake of the 
troops, and the coast was re-occupied by Europeans. So subdued 
were the natives at this time, that had the whole of the confiscated 
land been then offered by auction and occupied, no further trouble 
would have ensued. 

The Uriwera expedition concluded the operations conducted by 
Colonel Whitmore. Finding Te Kooti established among the 
wooded mountains, from which apparent safe refuge he was making 
murderous forays on neighbouring districts, having just destroyed 
the Mohaka settlement, and murdered many settlers, the colonel 
resolved to follow him up. The countrv was then unknown. 
Provisions could only be carried on men's backs. It was dead 
winter, and the cold extreme. Nevertheless, he succeeded in 
reaching Ruatahuna with two columns from the north and east, 
jointly six hundred men, and in devastating the cultivations and 
stores of food collected. 

Both columns engaged the enemy on several occasions, and 
caused, as well as suffered, considerable loss. But the expedition 
was otherwise eminently successful, by showing the natives that 
where they could go we could follow them, and the troops were 
withdrawn to Fort Galatea to await events. Colonel Whitmore 
confidently relied upon the retreat of Te Kooti to the open country 
of the interior through want of food; but unhappily the Colonels 
iron constitution at last broke down, and he had to be carried to 
the sea, prostrated by dysentery. A few weeks later, having 
somewhat recovered, he returned to the field to hand over the 
command to Colonel St. John, and was directed by a medical 
board to seek rest and change of climate. On his recovery from 
dysentery, he found himself overtaken by rheumatism, and remained 
for several years in a crippled state. 

A change of Government now occurred, and the policy of the 
former one reversed, their first step being to remove the Colonel 
from the command, he, notwithstanding his condition, being then 
about to proceed to Taupo to give Te Kooti the coup de grace, 
which in that open country could not have been doubtful, since, 
as the Colonel predicted, he had emerged from the mountains with 
a very reduced force. Unfortunately, the time was lost, and the 
policy of inertia and conciliation failed to restore peace, so nearly 
won by force of arms. This policy was adopted for eighteen 
months before operations ceased, and ended in Te Kooti taking 
rjfuge in the King Country. In six months Colonel Whitmoie 
restored peace to the West Coast and Poverty Bay, never since 
broken, with a force hurriedly collected while the operations were 
proceeding. His services have been recognised by the Crown, 
the Queen having conferred on him the C.M.G. in 1869, and 
the K. C.M.G. in 1882. Of his further services in the Legislative 
Council it is unnecessary to speak. He was made Colonial 
Secretary and Defence Minister in 1877. On the resignation of 



254 THE DEFENDERS 

the Grey Ministry in 1879, Colonel Whitmore resigned with his 
colleagues. On Mr. Stout's Government taking office in 1885, he 
was a Minister without portfolio for a few days only. On the 
accession to power of the Stout-Yogel Administration, he was 
appointed Commandant of the Colonial Forces and Commissioner 
of the Armed Constabulary, an office which he at present holds 
with the rank Major-General, conferred for the first time in New 
Zealand upon an officer of the colonial forces. 



Xnf 



UIA. 




TE PUIA was Native Orderly, attached to the Native Con- 
tingent, then at Taupo, in 1869. Colonel McDonnell, 
having an important dispatch to send to Sir William 
Fox, who was then in Wanganui, organising an expedi- 
tion of natives to co-operate with the forces under McDonnell at 
Taupo, was for the moment at a loss who to entrust it to, as no 
pakeha could be found who knew the road, the distance being up- 
wards of one hundred miles, thirty of which would be through the 
enemy's country. Puia, seeing McDonnell's difficulty, volunteered 
to go. He knew it was important he should go by Hiruharema, 
on the Wanganui river, as being the shortest route, although the 
last thirty miles would take him through the country occupied by 
the enemy, where his life would be in peril every step he advanced. 
But, nothing daunted, the brave old man started on his journey, 
and got through unmolested. This is only one of the many brave 
acts Te Puia did while with us which equally deserve recording. 



256 



2HE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN w. McDonnell, 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 25! 



Captain McDonnell. 




f[APTAIN WILLIAM McDONNELL, a younger brother 
of Colonel McDonnell, was appointed to the Native 
Contingent, and served throughout the war, both on the 
East and West Coasts. He was always the first to 
volunteer for any undertaking of danger; and acted as guide to 
Sir Trevor Chute all through his campaign. He was severely 
wounded in the groin while leading his men at a night atrack on 
Popoia, and probably never would have recovered from the injury, 
had not his native company carried him on a stretcher to the hot 
sulphur springs, a distance of at least one hundred miles, and 
immersing him therein for several hours each day brought him 
back perfectly healed. He was at both the attacks on Te 
Ngulu-o-'.e-Manu, and was the officer sent round to the other side 
of the pa, during the action, with orders for Von Tempsky and his 
men to retire. He was under fire so often, and behaved so 
courageously, that his company would have followed him anywhere. 
He had a narrow escape of his life during the skirmishing that 
took place in the clearings around Putahi, after the pa had been 
taken. A rather grandly dressed Hauhau had shot a corporal of 
the 50th Regiment, who had been standing only a few paces in 
front of jMcDonnell, just as the captain had fired at a Hauhau a 
little to the right. As the corporal fell shot through the heart, it 
brought the captain and his adversary face to face, and it new 
became a simple question of life or death between them, as neither 
would retire, and he who could load first would be nearly certain 
to kill the other. Both commenced to load at the same moment, 
and a strange and exciting race it was, for both were men of strong 
nerve and determination. jNIcDonnell first fitted the cap on his 
rifle. It was a happy thought, though contrary to all rules of 
musketry. The Hauhau commenced to load, keeping the capping 
for the last. Both ramrods worked freely, and, as the native was 
in the act of capping, jMcDonnell felt he had no time to lose ; 
so, leaving his ramrod in his gun, he took a snap shot at his 
adversary from the hip, just as the Hauhau was in the act of 
raising his rifle to his shoulder, and fortunately succeeded in hitting 
him, as both ramrod and bullet passed through his chest, and he 
dropped where he stood. It was a race for lif?, and only won by 
half-a-second. 



258 THE DEFENDERS 




f-f 



AND 10. lOIDDLE. 




HESE two men, privates in the Armed Constabulary of 
New Zealand, were rewarded with the New Zealand 
Cross for their brave and gallant conduct during the 
siege of Ngatipa, in June, 1869. During the attack on 
Ngatipa, under Colonel Whitmore, the rear of the enemy's position 
was assigned to the custody of Major Eraser, who commanded 
Nos. I and 3 companies of Armed Constabulary and Hotene's 
Ngatiporous. The extreme right — a scarped stony ridge — was 
commanded from the enemy's rifle-pits, and a lodgment could 
only be effected by cutting out steps in the cliff for the attacking 
party to ascend. Knowing this, the enemy made several deter- 
mined sorties to try and dislodge our men, so much so that it 
became extremely difficult to hold the position so essential to the 
success of the operation. But a party of twelve determined men, 
having volunteered for the duty, continued the work in spite of all 
opposition ; and, although suffering considerable loss during their 
operations, they continued to hold their ground (after repelling 
some most resolute attacks) to the end of the siege. The most 
conspicuous for their bravery were the two men above mentioned, 
and were rewarded accordingly. 

Captain Scannell also reports that, on the morning succeeding 
the partial investment of the Taurangaika Pa, and while 
preparations were being made for the attack. Constable Solomon 
Black, of No. i division of the Armed Constabulary, noticing the 
unusual silence that prevailed about the pa, which was partially 
hidden from view by a small scattered bit of bush, declared it was 
his opinion the natives had bolted, and, in spite of all opposition, 
jumped over the ditch and bank fence, walked through the piece of 
bush, and straight up to the pa, Vv^here he had the satisfaction of 
verifying his statement. Had any natives been concealed in the 
pa — and there were no sufficient reasons to suppose the contrary 
at the moment — Black, as well as several others of Nos. i and 2 
divisions who rushed after him, would certainly have lost their 
lives. This, although exhibiting Black's natural bravery, being 
regarded as somewhat foolhardy, was not considered when recom- 
mended for the New Zealand Cross. 



26o 



THE DEFENDERS 




M AJ OR HUNTER, 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 261 






MaJOI^ fluNTEI^. 



The aitack 07i Turi Ttiri — ISIajor Hunter ivr on g fully charged and honourably 
acquitted — Gallant lead at Moturoa — His life sacrificed to disprove a 
false imputation — Colonel Whitmores testimo7iy to Hunter' s bravery — 
Two courageous brothers ivho died in the war. 

jAJOR HUNTER served through a portion of the war in 
command of a troop of the Defence Force Cavalry, and 
on the evening before the attack on Turi Turi Mokai 
(where Captain Frederick Ross and seventeen out of 
his force of twenty-five men were either killed or wounded), was 
stationed at Waihi, a post about two and a-half miles distant, 
where Major Von Tempsky was in command. Early in the 
morning of the 15th July the sentry on duty gave the alarm. He 
could not hear any report of firearms, but from the flashes around 
the Redoubt he could see that Turi Turi was attacked. Von 
Tempsky, being senior in command, immediately ordered his 
company (No 5 of Armed Constabulary) to stand to their arms, 
and marched them off to the rescue, leaving Major Hunter without 
orders. In the meantime Troop Sergeant-Major Anderson had got 
his men in their saddles and drawn up before Major Hunter's tent, 
expecting orders to follow. When the Major made his appearance 
he ordered them to dismount and feed their horses. 

The circumstances which led to this order on the part of the 
Major have puzzled many to this day. Evidently, however, 
the Major thought his services were not required, and that had 
Von Tempsky wanted him he would have left orders to that 
effect, and under these circumstances he felt he could not risk 
the safety of his post by leaving it unprotected. The affair 
led to his being charged with having caused the destruction 
of fully half of the force at Turi Turi Mokai by not hurrying to 
their relief when he could have arrived in so short a time. The 
charge so irritated the force, that many officers and men who 
should have known better joined in his condemnation, instead of 
placing the blame on his superior officer, who had left him without 
orders. For it was no doubt the duty of Major Von Tempsky to 
relieve the beleagueied Redoubt ; and as he did not take the 
troopers with him it argued that he considered his own company 
sufficient. Major Hunter was tried by court martial, and honour- 
ably acquitted. Those who knew the Major intimately knew him 



2 62 THE DEFENDERS 

to be a brave man, although this affair had led many who did not 
know him so well to think otherwise. There is little doubt that those 
who blamed him so hastily must afterwards have felt they had a 
large share in the sacrifice he made of his life in giving the lie to 
an imputation under which he was unable to live, as his reckless- 
ness at the battle of Moturoa showed. This battle took place soon 
after the attack on Turi Turi Mokai. Major Hunter led the 
attack with fifty men of the Armed Constabulary and some of the 
local forces. Coming to a clearing in the standing bush, he 
charged gallantly across the open ground and made straight for 
the palisading around the pa. When within fifteen yards the 
whole face literally blazed — at least two hundred Maoris had 
opened fire on their assailants. Major Hunter's men falling fast, 
and finding the palisading too strong and well defended to be 
carried by assault, took cover and held their ground, although half 
the force were either killed or wounded, amongst the latter being 
Major Hunter himself, mortally. The survivors held on for half 
an hour, and so much were they encumbered by the dead and 
dying, that it was not thought possible to carry them off the field. 
But at this critical moment Colonel Whitmore brought up No. 6 
Division of Armed Constabulary in skirmishing order, and by 
drawing the enemy's fire, saved the advanced party from 
annihilation, and enabled Major Hunter and the rest of the 
wounded to be brought off the field. Thus fell Major W. Hunter, 
who undoubtedly sacrificed his life to save his honour, his last 
w^ords being, " I must show the world to-day I am no coward," the 
unjust accusations made against him still rankling in his mind. 

In Colonel Whitmore's report to the Defence Minister (Colonel 
Haultain) he thus speaks of his death: — " I must now reluctantly 
allude, because it is with so much grief, to the death of the gallant 
Major Hunter. This brave officer, whose career has been so long 
before the country, who was so efficient in the every-day duties of 
his profession, and so prominent before the enemy, fell, as I 
believed, and he doubtless thought, in a moment of victory, when 
the loss of his brother, two months before, and of so many other 
gallant fellows, was about to be avenged. The Constabulary can 
boast of no better officer, the colonial service no braver, than Major 
Hunter, and the gallant manner in which he sprang forward before 
his division and led them to the assault, will never be forgotten 
by me, nor the whole force in presence of which it occurred. 
Happily, all saw how an officer should lead his men, and the other 
officers proved themselves worthy of the example. In falling as 
he has done, Major Hunter has left behind him an illustrious name 
in our colonial history, and will be followed to the grave by the 
regret of all colonial forces." 

The evening previous to the attack on Moturoa Major Hunter 
informed a friend that he had obtained permission from Colonel 
Whitmore to lead the attacking party the next morning, and that 
he would let the world see he was no coward, and would avenge 
his brother Harry's death. Reqtiiescat in pace. 



264 



THE DEFENDERS 





CAPTAIN THOMAS 



OF NEW ZEALAND, zt-- 



Captain Thomas. 

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE CAREER OF TE KOOTI. 




The Maori prisoners sent to Chathams-^The guard numerically insufficient 
for their safe custody — Te Kooti practising on the credulity of his 
fellow-prisoners — Capture of the ' Rifleman '■ — Landing in Poverty 
Bay afid subsequent events — The Poverty Bay massacre — A horrible 
tragedy — Hunting Te Kooti through the country — A series of successful 
engagements iii which the colo?iial forces distinguished themselves. 

APTAIN THOMAS was an Imperial officer, holding a 
commission in the 26th Regiment (Cameronians), and 
also as captain in the 2nd Cheshire, together with Sir 
H. B. Loch, the present Governor of Victoria. He 
settled in New Zealand, in 1857, and was appointed Resident 
Magistrate at the Chatham Islands. Happening to be in Wellington 
during the month of February, 1866, he was sent for by Colonel 
Russell, the then Native Minister, who informed him of the con- 
templated idea of the Government deporting ]\Iaori prisoners to the 
Chathams under his charge. Captain Thomas distinctly stipulated 
that under such circumstances the guard should be increased in 
proportion to the number of prisoners sent ; and on this under- 
standing Captain Thomas left Wellington for Napier without delay 
to take over the first batch of forty-three prisoners, their wives and 
children, amounting to twenty-five more. The guard, half jNIaori, 
half European, under Lieutenant Tuke, twenty-six strong, accom- 
panied them in the steamship SL Kilda. They arrived at the 
Chathams on the 14th March, and the first step Captain Thomas 
had to undertake was to proceed ashore and prepare for their 
reception with the natives of the Islands, informing them of the 
intention of the Government to locate them on suitable land for 
their habitation and cultivation. The prisoners were disembarked 
at Port Waitangi and marched up to the locality agreed upon as 
their place of residence ; and being close at hand, by the evening of 
the following day they were all comfortably housed, having been 
hospitably received and fed by the island natives. After con- 
sulting Lieutenant Tuke, a redoubt of a suitable size and residence 
for the Resident Magistrate and commanding officer were being 



266 THE DEFENDERS 

prepared, and the press of work was such that Captain Thomas 
did not consider it prudent to send half the guard back this trip, as 
Colonel Russell expected him to do. 

On the 27th April a second batch of prisoners arrived, numbering 
in all eighty-eight, and the Government were reminded by Captain 
Thomas that if it was contemplated to send a large increase of 
prisoners the guard should be strengthened in proportion, as, 
according to agreement with Colonel Russell, when the number 
of prisoners reached 300 the guard should consist of two ojfficers 
and fifty men. On the loth June another batch arrived, making 
in all 272 persons on the Island. With this batch was Te Kooti. 

It appears that a proposition had been made to the Government 
by one of the Chatham Island Maori chiefs (Toenga te Poki), when 
in Wellington, that the Island natives should be allowed to take 
charge of the prisoners, and it was greatly to the astonishment of 
Captain Thomas that he received, early in July, instructions to 
send back the whole of the military guard under his command 
with the exception of one corporal and three privates, without 
any further reference being made to him on the matter. Captain 
Thomas immediately ascertained the wishes of the majority of 
the Island natives, and they one and all were most emphatic in 
their desire not to undertake anything of the kind, neither did the 
prisoners themselves wish it. The European settlers also petitioned 
against being left under such inadequate protection, and all this 
was duly reported by Captain Thomas to the Government on the 
return of the St. Kt/da, by which vessel the guard was sent back, 
with the exception of the four mentioned. On the 26th November 
hfty-six more prisoners arrived, making a grand total of 328, under 
a guard of two officers and twenty men, including ten natives, 
the officers being Captain Edmund Tuke and Lieutenant Hamlin. 

The prisoners, up to this time, had behaved well, notwithstand- 
ing the inadequacy of the guard, and had hitherto been constantly 
employed in road making, and now had commenced planting seed 
potatoes for their own use. Again, at this time. Captain Thomas 
appears to have begged the Government, in the event of their 
sending any more prisoners, to strengthen the guard in proportion. 
No notice was however taken ; but, in March, 1867, Major 
Edwards, of the New Zealand Militia, was sent down by the 
Government to inspect and report. On his return to AVellington, 
Major Edwards reported on the satisfactory behaviour of the 
prisoners, and recommended that the guard should consist entirely 
of Europeans, with two officers and thirty rank and file. He 
alluded in his report to having interviewed the prisoners, and 
to their expressing to him their desire that a few of them should 
be allowed periodically to return to New Zealand on their good 
behaviour, as the Government had promised. On the 24th June, 
1867, Captain Thomas received instructions from the Defence 
Minister (Colonel Haultain) that the prisoners should not be kept 
under such strict surveillance as appeared to have been maintained; 
but Captain Thomas seems not to have adhered to this instructions, 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 267 

and everything proceeded favourably, the prisoners being chiefly 
employed in raising crops for their food. 

In January, 1868, ]\Ir. Under-Secretary RoUeston was sent down 
to the islands, and on his return reported most favourably of all 
that he saw, and stated that, with regard to the general control 
exercised by Captain Thomas in the Chatham Islands, so far as 
he could learn from personal observation, his kindness of manner 
and honesty of purpose had won for him considerable influence 
amongst the natives, and the way in which he discharged his 
duties to both races in a position made very difficult by the 
conflicting interests and animosities of a young and disorganised 
community appeared satisfactory ; also that the influence that 
Captain Thomas had obtained with the native prisoners had 
prevented any evil result, which probably might have been 
entailed by the unsatisfactory state of the military guard, and 
reported that he did not think that, as constituted, it would be of 
any material good had any serious difficulties arisen. One of the 
chief results of Mr. Rolleston's visit was that the guard, or rather 
a portion of the best behaved, were eniolled as a force of Armed 
Constabulary, numbering one senior sergeant, one corporal, and 
nine constables. 

On the 30th ]\Iarch, Captain Thomas again wrote to the Defence 
Minister (Colonel Haultain), expressing his hope that, should it be 
the determination of the Government to leave the prisoners at the 
islands, he might be allowed some kind of assistance and support 
to enable him to exercise the present control he had over the 
prisoners, having regard also to any outbreak that might 
unexpectedly arise amongst them. This request, reasonable as it 
was, does not appear ever to have been attended to. At the same 
time, he also reported that the prisoners, without showing an open 
defiance, had not of late exhibited the same amount of willingness 
as they had previously shown. In the middle of April, 100 bushels 
of seed wheat arrived, with instructions from the Defence Minister 
that it should be sown by the prisoners for food. This step 
evidently showed the prisoners that their time of detention was 
not for the present to expire, as they had expected, and it was 
currently reported and believed amongst them that a latent promise 
had been made to some of them by Sir Donald McLean that two 
years was to be the period of their imprisonment. 

Moreover, on the 19th May, Captain Thomas was instructed to 
warn the prisoners that the Government would not supply them 
with any more food whatever after the next harvest. In the latter 
end of June, one of the prisoners, who had had a quarrel with Te 
Kooti, reported to Captain Thomas Te Kooti's practise of rubbing 
his hands with matches, and imposing on the credulity of the 
prisoners on certa'n occasions, and of anointing some of them 
with oil, and from inquiries made he found the statement to be 
correct, and thereupon he at once separated Te Kooti from the rest 
of the prisoners. 

On the 3rd July, 1868, the Riflcmaii schooner, chartered by the 



268 THE DEFENDERS 

Government, arrived with stores, etc., and on the following morning 
(it rained heavily at the time) the guard at the redoubt was suddenly 
seized and overpowered by the prisoners, one of them being toma- 
hawked. Captain Thomas at the time was on the beach below 
attending to the customary duties at his office, and immediately on 
being informed of this unexpected event, proceeded to the redoubt 
without any arms whatever, knowing full well that he was entirely 
at the mercy of the prisoners, as he had been, in fact, all along, 
and not wishing to exasperate them. He found the prisoners in full 
possession, ransacking the magazine, etc. He called on them to 
lay down their arms and tell him what they wanted. He was upon 
this immediately seized, tied hand and foot, and carried into the 
guard's whare. One of the prisoners shortly afterwards came up 
to him and informed him that his life would be spared if he did not 
interfere to prevent their taking the Rifleman and proceeding to 
New Zealand. Shortly afterwards he was conveyed handcuffed to 
the gaol on the beach close at hand, and there he found the few 
European settlers incarcerated. After a delay of about half an hour 
they freed themselves, but by this time the prisoners were all on 
board the Rflciiian, which finally, after two futile attempts to put 
to sea, got away the next morning, leaving the captain of the vessel 
ashore. Te Kooti held strict watch over the men at the wheel all 
the way to New Zealand, until he arrived at Whare-onga-onga, in 
Poverty Bay, the very spot he wished to land at. His plans were 
laid with so much secrecy, the attack was so sudden and unexpected, 
and the means of defence so limited, that resistance was out of the 
question. It is even very doubtful whether, had Captain Thomas 
received warning of what was intended, he could with so weak a 
guard have offered any effectual opposition to their proceedings. 
But there can be no doubt of this, that had Captain Thomas's 
repeated requests to the Defence Minister only been granted, of 
having the guard stengthened according to the number of 
prisoners sent, the prisoners might have been detained there to 
this day ; but the escape of the prisoners, owing to the policy of 
the then Government, must altogether have involved the country 
in a loss of little less than a million of money and several hundreds 
of valuable lives. 

Captain Tuke writes: — "In 1866, the native prisoners at the 
Chathams numbered in all about three hundred and sixteen, two 
hundred men, women, and children. Their first occupation was to 
build themselves houses of punga, five in all ; the different hapus 
being divided and placed under a chief, who was responsible for 
their good behaviour and order. I found the system to work well, 
and the prisoners were exceedingly well behaved and orderly. 
They were visited every morning and evening by the doctor, and 
the roll called by the officer on duty in charge of the guard, which 
consisted of thirty men placed in a redoubt a short distance from 
the prisoners' houses. Rations were supplied daily to them, and 
they were found in clothing and tobacco. They were also allowed 
to fish three days a week, the Government supplying the whale- 



<9/ A^£IV ZEALAND. 



169 



boats, etc ; the princiiJal steer oar in the first boat being Te Kooti 
Rikirangi, who was always well behaved. This man had not 
joined the Hauhaus at Poverty Bay, but was supposed to have 
supplied the enemy with ammunition (caps). He was a wild 
rollicking fellow, about thirty-five years of age, a dealer in horses' 
and much given to drink ; so it was thought advisable to ship hirn 
off with the rest of the prisoners, although it was never clearly 
proved that he did supply the enemy with ammunition, Te Kooti 
not being a chief, but only what the INIaoris call a tangata tutua 
(common man), no objection was made by his hapu 'Atuina 
Mahaki) to his being sent away. On visiting the prisoners one 
morning after the boats had returned from a fishing expedition I 
found Te Kooti in a very bad state — spitting blood. The doctor 
(Watson) placed him on the sick list. The natives got permission 
to place him on the hill above the whares, in a small house by 
himself; an old woman attending him, according to native custom. 
He was well looked after, and supplied with medical comforts, 
port wine, etc. The natives, thinking he would shortly die, 
actually began preparing a coffin for him. I often used to visit him, 
at which he seemed much pleased and grateful. To the astonish- 
ment of the other prisoners he recovered, which they looked upon 
as almost a miracle. He then commenced the Hauhau practices 
and became a great prophet. At that time an order came from the 
late Sir Donald McLean, that all the chiefs who had behaved well 
were to be released. They were sent back to New Zealand by the 
St. Ktldciy with the exception of Kingita, a troublesome fellow, 
who was afterwards killed at Poverty Bay. I wrote to Sir Donald 
McLean (by private instructions from him), that the prisoners, after 
Te Kooti's revival, had become altered in demeanour, and that I 
thought something evil was brewing amongst them. Some time 
before this Te Kooti had been married by Captain Thomas to a 
native woman named Alartha. Major Edwards was sent down as 
commissioner, and recommended that the guard should be doubled, 
and a strong redoubt built, he fixing the position. This 
recommendation was not put into force, but another commissioner 
was sent (JNIr. Rolleston) with instructions to take all surveillance 
off the prisoners ; much to my astonishment, and also that of the 
Resident Magistrate, Captain Thomas. Our morning roll-call was 
done away with ; the prisoners could roam about wherever they 
liked on the island. They were also told they were in future to 
grow their own wheat, which they looked upon as a great evil, 
having been promised, on good behaviour, their freedom in three 
years. If Major Edwards's advice had been carried out, the 
prisoners would probably have never got away, and thousands 
would have been saved to the country, the terrible murders in 
Poverty Bay would not have been committed, and the jDrisoners 
would have been quietly released after the three years. I do not 
wish, by this short account, to palliate Te Kooti's doings on his 
arrival in New Zealand, as I shall always look upon him as a 
murderer of the deepest dye, who never ought to have been 



2 70 THE DEFENDERS 

pardoned ; but he certainly had a grievance in being sent away 
without a trial, not being a prisoner of war. I was ordered from 
the Chathams in February, 1868, returning with the guard. The 
rest of the story is too well known ; the prisoners escaping in the 
following July." 

After the capture of the Rifieuian and the imprisonment of the 
settlers, Te Kooti acted with great moderation. The women and 
children were kindly treated by Te Kooti's orders. So soon as the 
events recorded had taken place, the prisoners began to embark 
their wives and families. Not a moment's time was lost, and no 
precaution neglected, and in one hour from the time of the out- 
break the prisoners were on board. The ketch Florence, lying at 
anchor near, was boarded, the crew sent ashore, and then the 
cable was cut and the ketch sent after them — a simple and 
expeditious method of preventing pursuit. Almost the last man 
on board was Te Kooti, and as soon as he came on board he 
ordered the crew on deck, and gave them the choice between instant 
death and working the schooner to Poverty Bay. They A^'isely 
chose the latter, and were subsequently informed that their lives 
would be spared and the craft surrendered to them on arrival. Sail 
was made that evening, but a strong westerly wind prevented them 
beating out, and the schooner returned to her anchorage ; the sails 
were furled, the crew ordered below, and Te Kooti took charge of 
the deck. On the morning of the 8th another start was made, 
this time with success, and nothing of importance occurred until 
the gth, when, the vessel having been dela3"ed for two days by head 
winds, Te Kooti ordered all the greenstone ornaments on board to 
be collected and thrown overboard as a propitiatory offering to 
Tangaroa (Neptune). This sacrifice was evidently not sufficient, 
for the wind continued in the same quarter ; so an aged man, a 
relative of Te Kooti's was dragged on deck, his hands tied, and 
despite his prayers and lamentations, over he went. For some 
time the victim could be seen struggling in the water, but no one 
pitied him ; or if thsy did, were wise enough not to say so, for 
after all he might have been a Jonah, as the wind, hitherto adverse, 
suddenly veered round to the right quarter. The Hauhaus behaved 
quietly enough during the remainder of the voyage, though 
vigilant as ever. On the loth July, the schooner arrived at 
Whareongaonga, about 15 miles south of Poverty Bay. During 
the whole night the prisoners w'ere employed in landing the cargo, 
and by the nth, seventeen tons of flour, 5000 lbs. of sugar, beer, 
biscuits, and many packages of merchandise were on shore, 
besides forty rifles, ten fowling pieces, revolvers, swords, etc. 
This done, Te Kooti released the crew and told them to be gone. 

In due time the news of the landing reached IVIajor Biggs, the 
Resident Magistrate of the district. At first he would not believe 
the warnings, it seemed so improbable that the prisoners had been 
able to escape; but to solve the doubt he raised a force of 100 
Europeans and Alaoris, and started at once for the scene of action, 
arriving there on the following morning. The prisoners, about 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 2-ji 

190 in number, were found holding a strong position near the 
landing-place. The first step taken by Major Biggs was to send a 
Poverty Bay chief of Te Kooti's tribe with a message, to the effect 
that he would try and smooth over matters with the Government 
provided they would all surrender and give up their arms. This 
arrangement was scornfully rejected, Te Kooti replying that " God 
had given him arms and liberty, and that he was but an instrument 
in the hands of Providence, whose instructions he carried out." 
Major Biggs gave orders to commence the attack, but the friendly 
natives refused to move. Under these circumstances fighting was 
impossible and impolitic, for in the event of defeat our men would 
have been followed into the settled districts and the whole bay 
ravaged before another force could have been organised to meet 
them. On the same day the Hauhaus avoided our force, and 
commenced their inland march, carrying with them, over one of 
the most rugged districts in New Zealand, the whole of the loot 
taken in the schooner. 

When it was found they had escaped, Major Biggs ordered Mr. 
Shipworth to follow them up with some friendly natives until he 
had definitely ascertained the line of retreat, when he was to cut 
across country and join the main body, who by that timie would 
have taken post at Parapatu. This was a strategical post of 
great importance, as by the nature of the country the enemy would 
have to cross the Aral creek, a point just below the position taken 
up, and would thus come into collision with our force, whether 
he liked it or not. After four days' waiting at Parapatu the camp 
was out of rations, so Major Biggs started for supplies. On the 
morning of the sixth day Te Kooti arrived, drove our men from 
their advantageous position, and compelled our force to take 
advantage of the night to retreat, leaving behind them their horses, 
swords, and baggage, amounting to about ;^ 1,200. 

Another force attempted to intercept Te Kooti at a place called 
Waihau, but here again the Europeans and semi-friendly natives 
were compelled to retreat after an engagement. 

After the Europeans had re-organised and had obtained the 
leadership of Colonel Whitmore, they pursued and came up with 
Te Kooti on the bed of the Ruakituri river. The men had been 
without food since the previous evening, were knocked up with 
long marches through rough country, and were certainly not in a 
condition to encounter a well-armed and determined enemy in a 
position of their own choosing. Here another misfortune befel the 
pursuers, as in reconnoitring the enemy's position Captain Carr, 
Air. Canning, and three others we e killed, and Captain Tuke and 
five of his men wounded. The result of the fight was fatal to 
the future peace of the settled districts, as it enabled Te Kooti, 
although severely wounded in the foot, and having lost eight of 
his men, to camp at Puketapu, iust beyond the scene of the fight, 
from the 8th of August to October 28th, during which period he 
sent messengers all over the island, proclaiming himself the saviour 
of his people, and exaggerating his success. 



2 72 THE DEFENDERS 

Recruits, as might be expected, came up rapidly to him. The 
position held by Te Kooti at Puketapu was inland, and equidistant 
from the two settlements of Te Wairoa and Poverty Bay. Conse- 
quently it was in his power to attack either place by a march of 
two or three days. Moreover, it was well known that he had 
declared his intention of taking revenge upon the settlers for 
having attacked him at Parapatu, Te Koriaka and Ruakituri. 
There were two routes by which the Hauhaus might reach Poverty 
Bay, one by way of Te Reinga and the other by Ngatapa. The 
latter route was twice as long as the first, and was overgrown with 
fern and scrub. For this reason Major Biggs selected the Te Reinga 
track as the special point for observation. 

For some time previous to the massacre at Poverty Bay a general 
feeling of insecurity was prevalent among the settlers, and it was 
felt that some steps ought to be taken to fortify a place of rendezvous 
in case of need. The friendly ]\Iaoris volunteered to erect a 
pallisade if the Europeans would do the earth works. This was 
readily agreed to, but Major Biggs vetoed the proposition as 
unnecessary, but appointed the Toanga Redoubt as the mustering 
place in case of alarm. Certain settlers, dissatisfied with this 
result, formed themselves into a vigilance committee to watch the 
Patutahi ford of the Waipaoa river. For nights this duty was 
carefully performed, and would probably have continued to the 
salvation of the Bay, but on the Thursday before the massacre 
a very old settler called on his vigilant neighbours and informed 
them that the Hauhaus were in the Patutahi Valley. Major Biggs 
was informed of this, and replied, " You are all in an unnecessary 
state of alarm, for I shall have twenty-four hours' notice before 
anything further can happen." 

But about midnight on the gth November, 1868, the Hauhaus 
crossed the Patutahi ford on their murderous errand. Mr. Wylie's 
house was the first on their line of march, and the owner was 
sitting at a table writing; but so sure was Te Kooti of this man 
that he told his men to go and finish the Matawhero settlers first, 
as they were certain to get Wylieon their return. From this point 
the Hauhaus appear to have broken up into small parties. Some 
went inland to Messrs. Dodd and Peppard's station, while the main 
body attacked the more densely settled districts of Matawhero. 
Messrs. Dodd and Peppard appear to have been the first persons 
killed. A Mr. Butters, who had been engaged to press wool for 
them, rode up to the woolshed wondering that no one appeared, 
and finally he walked up to the back door and found the two 
owners dead. Instead of seeking his own safety, Mr. Butters very 
gallantly rode to Waeranga-a-hiki and warned the inmates of the 
mission station and force. From there he went on to Matawhero 
to psrform the same good office for the settlers there. How he 
escaped is a miracle, for he must have ridden through the midst 
of the enemy. 

At Major Biggs's he found the Hauhaus in possession^ and at 
Mann's house he saw the owner, his wife, and baby lying outside 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 273 

mutilated, and one of them burnt. When the natives reached 
Major Biggs's, they found him writing, it is supposed, the orders 
for the out-settlers to muster at Turanga. They knocked at the 
door, and Biggs asked them what they wanted. The Hauhaus 
replied that they wished to see him. Biggs evidently saw that 
the long-dreaded raid had come, but before opening the door he 
called to his wife to escape by the back. She refused to leave 
him. As he stood in the doorway the Hauhaus shot him. He fell 
forward into the verandah, and the fiends then rushed in and 
tomahawked Mrs. Biggs, her baby, and the servant. A boy 
wno was in the house escaped by the back door after the 
Major was shot, and, hidden in a flax-bush, witnessed part of the 
tragedy. 

Another party went to Captain Wilson's. The Captain, like 
Major Biggs, was engaged in writing when the Hauhaus knocked 
at the door. They announced themselves as the bearer of a letter 
from the principal chief of the Bay. Wilson evidently suspected 
their errand, for he told them to put the letter under the door ; at 
tho same time he looked out of the window and saw a number of 
men moving about. This roused his suspicions, and he at once 
roused his man-servant, Moran. Meanwhile the Hauhaus were 
trying to batter down the door with a log of wood, but a shot from 
Wilson's revolver stopped them, and forced them to adopt the less 
dangerous plan of setting fire to the house at either end. Captain 
Wilson defended his wife and family until it was a choice between 
being burnt alive or taking the Hauhau offer of life for himself and 
family if he v/ould surrender quietly. There was just a chance 
that they might keep their promise, and he surrendered. His 
captors led him in the direction of the river bank, when suddenly 
a Hauhau rushed at Moran and tomahawked him, and at the same 
moment Captain Wilson was shot through the back. Mrs. Wilson 
was savagely bayonetted, and only one little boy escaped ; he was 
being carried by his father when he fell, and in the confusion 
managed to escape into the scrub unnoticed. Strange to say, the 
settlers in the vicinity did not hear the firing, for the Hauhaus 
found the Messrs. Walsh, PadbournO;, McCulloch and others at 
their homes, unconscious of the tragedies that were being enacted 
in their immediate neighbourhood. McCulloch was shot while 
milking a cow ; his wife, carrying a baby and attended by her 
young brother, tried to escape, but was overtaken and tomahawked, 
together with her child. The boy, more fortunate, escaped. Mr. 
Cadel's house was next visited. He had been away from home 
that night, and was returning in the early morning, when he 
walked right into one of these gang of murderers and was shot 
dead. His store was then looted. The Hauhaus got violently 
drunk, and galloped about the country, shooting all the friendly 
natives obnoxious to Te Kooti, 

While the settlers about Matawhero were being murdered, the 
families living in the vicinity of the Patutahi Ford were reserved 
for the final coup^ it being supposed they could not escape. Nor 



274 THE DEFENDERS 

could they have done so had not one of them — a Mr. Firmin — been 
awakened during the night by the sound of musketry. The sound 
was not unusual, but, in the then unsettled state of affairs, it was 
sufficient to keep him awake during the remainder of the night, 
and send him out at grey dawn to reconnoitre. At the ford he met 
a maori, and hailed him to know the meaning of the firing, which 
was still going on. The reply was, "The Hauhaus are killing the 
pakeha ! " Mr. Firmin at once warned his neighbours — Wylie, 
Stevenson, and Benson — and these people, taking their children, 
fled towards Te Wairoa, across the Toanga Ford. Messrs. 
Hawthorne and Strong, who lived at some little distance from the 
others, had been forgotten in the hurry and confusion of their 
departure ; but Mr. Wylie remembered them just before it was too 
late, and asked one of the men to return and warn them. This 
was a service of great danger, yet ]\Ir. Benson never hesitated, but 
returned at once. About an hour after these fugitives had crossed 
the river, Te Kooti and twenty Hauhaus galloped up to the native 
village near the ford, and ordered the chief, Tautari, to point out the 
route taken by Wylie. The gallant old man refused to do so, and 
Te Kooti, finding his threats and promises disregarded, loot 
patience, and ordered his men to kill him and his two children. 
This was done before the wife's eyes, who was then questioned, and 
threatened with the same fate if obstinate ; but she, equally 
faithful, and more prudent than her husband, misdirected the 
Hauhaus by declaring that the fugitives had taken the inland track. 
The murderers, completely deceived, galloped off on a wrong scent, 
Te Kooti boasting that he would cut pieces of flesh off Wylie 
until he died. 

The young boy who escaped from Major Biggs's house 
succeeded in reaching Mr. Bloomfield's and roused the sleeping 
inmates. There were only ladies and children in the house, but 
they succeeded in escaping, though people were being murdered 
on both sides. While the enemy were attacking Mr. Goldsmith's 
house, a Mrs. James, mother of the boy just mentioned, was living 
in the barn with her eight children ; she was roused by the shots, 
and saw sufficient to prove that the Hauhaus were in the Bay. 
She behaved with admirable coolness. Collecting her children 
she slipped over the steep bank of the river, and crawled for 
more than a mile under the shadow of the clifl's until she was 
able to enter the scrub, and reached Turanganui twenty-four hours 
after the first alarm. 

The narrow escapes during this massacre would fill a volume. 
The most wonderful escape was, however, that of little James 
Wilson, who, as already mentioned, escaped into the scrub when 
his father fell. On the i6th November, seven days after the 
massacre, parties were sent out to bury the dead, and ascertain if 
any had escaped, and were in hiding. One of these parties, 
consisting of a Mr. Maynard and two comrades, saw a poodle dog 
run into a scrub of briars. Maynard recognised the dog as having 
belonged to Captain Wilson. They called and coaxed the animal 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 275 

in vain ; it remained hidden, and this obstinacy led them to the 
natural conclusion that someone was hiding. A search was 
instituted, and, after nearly half-an-hour's work, their patience was 
rewarded by finding little James Wilson, with the dog held tightly 
in his arms. The boy had been too frightened to discriminate 
between friend and foe, but was greatly delighted when he 
recognised Maynard. He told him that he had lost his way while 
trying to reach Turanganui, to bring help for his mother, who was 
lying wounded in an outhouse at their place. After escaping 
from his father's murderers he had wandered about, sleeping in 
outhouses for several nights ; often close to the enemy. At last 
he found his way back to what had been his home, and saw the 
bodies of his father, brothers, and sisters, but not his mother, until 
he happened to take shelter in the outhouse, where, to his great 
delight, he found her alive. When the bey had told his tale, 
Maynard galloped off to Wilson's. On arrival at the place they 
knocked at the door of the small building, but received no answer ; 
they then called Mrs. Wilson by name, and instantly heard her 
say, " Thank God, help has arrived ; bring me some water." 
After her husband fell, the poor lady was stabbed with bayonets, 
and beaten with the butt of a rifle, until the fiends thought her 
dead ; but later in the day she recovered consciousness, and 
managed to crawl to what had been her home. Here she got some 
water, and then took shelter in the outhouse, which was less 
likely to be visited by the enemy than the house. Here she was 
found by her son in the manner already related, and fed with eggs 
or anything the lad could forage. Mrs. Wilson was carried that 
same day to Turanganui. For some time it was thought she would 
recover, but her injuries were too severe, and she died after her 
arrival at Napier. In the massacre thirty-three white people and 
thirty-seven friendly natives were killed. 

Lieutenant Gascoigne, when warned by his scouts that the 
Hauhaus were in the Bay, rode as fast as he could to the Muriwai. 
On his arrival he found that he was senior officer in the Bay, and 
he determined to reach Turanganui at all risks, as there was no 
officer there to direct operations. To go by the beach was impos- 
sible, as it swarmed with the enemy, so he seized a boat and pulled 
across the bay. On arrival at Turanganui, Gascoigne found the 
old redoubt crowded with men, women, and children, and Avas told 
that a whaleboat had gone off' to overtake the schooner Tawcrtr, 
which was at some distance in the offing. She was fortunately 
brought back, and the women and children were shipped off in her 
to Napier. The friendly chief Henare Potae armed his men as best 
he could, and awaited with the settlers the expected attack of 
Te Kooti. The attack was never made, as Te Kooti was satisfied 
with what he had done, and contented himself with burning and 
looting the settlers' houses and coercing the friendly natives to join 
him. Within a week Major Westrupp and Captain Tuke arrived 
from Napier, and brought with them 300 natives, and the Hauhaus 
retired to Patutahi, where they collected their plunder. 



?76 2 HE DEFENDERS 

The first duty performed was the burial of those murdered on the 
Qth. Most of them were found in a dreadfully mutilated condition. 
The bodies of Major Biggs and his wife were never found, but it is 
supposed that they were burnt in the house, as a lady's hand was 
found among- the ashes, Mr. Cadel's body was found in a better 
condition than the others, for it had been guarded for seven days 
by his faithful retriever dog. By this time the friendly natives had 
arrived to the number of 600 men, but of a very indifferent class as 
regards fighting. They were placed under command of Lieutenant 
Gascoigne, and on November 21st that officer overtook the rear- 
guard of the enemy at Patutahi and shot two of them. Quantities 
of loot, which the Hauhaus had apparently been unable to carry 
away, were found at this place, and several dead bodies of friendly 
natives were seen, who had been shot by Te Kooti's orders.- At 
Pukepuke another encampment was found, with more dead bodies, 
and the carts and sledges of the murdered settlers, which had 
brought the loot thus far. About dusk on the 23rd our men came 
up with the main body of the enemy, who were encamped on the 
Te Karetu creek with their women and children, and immediate 
attack was made, but our native allies were driven back. We lost 
five killed and twenty wounded, and the Hauhaus lost about twenty 
men. Our men rifle-pitted the ridge in front of the Hauhau 
encampments, and remained there a week without anything 
particular being done. Up to this time the force had been supplied 
with rations and ammunition from the depot at Patutahi by means 
of a string of pack-horses, under the charge of Sergt. -Major Butters. 
But this did not last long, as the opportunity was too tempting for 
Te Kooti, who sent sixty men under Baker, the notorious half- 
caste, to take the depot, cut off the convoy, and capture all the 
ammunition he could. 

The party got in the rear of our men in the line of supply, and 
though the men escaped only by a timely warning, the Hauhaus 
captured sundry kegs of ammunition, and so large a stock of food 
that they were unable to carry it away. Ultimately, reinforce- 
ments having arrived, an assault was made on the Hauhau lines, 
and the enemy compelled to beat a retreat, losing over thirty-four 
of their men, including the celebrated fighting chiefs Nama, 
Kenu, and Henare Parata. Nama was wounded, but taken alive. 
Te Kooti himself had a narrow eGcape. He was still suffering 
from a wound he had received at Ruakiture, and was carried away 
up the bed of the creek on a woman's back. On the following 
morning the chiefs Ropata and Hotene went out to reconnoitre, 
and could see the Hauhau stronghold on the forest-clad peak of 
Ngatapa. 

On the morning of the 5th, Ropata marched to attack Ngapata. 
The pa had tied lines of stony earthworks, extending across a 
small flat below the peak, either end resting on a cliff. A gun 
going off accidentally, the enemy answered with a volley, and 
instantly a general panic set in, our native allies retreating with 
the greatest celerity for nearly half a mile, and all efforts to bring 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 277 

them back were found unavailing. Ropata, with seventeen others, 
commenced the attack upon the pa, working up the sides of the 
cliffs, within twenty-five yards of the first line of parapet. Thirty- 
nine more men were induced to come to their support ; but Ropata 
was compelled to retreat at dusk, and was so disgusted that he 
went right back to Turanga. Colonel Whitmore soon afterwards 
arrived at Ngatapa with 300 men, but hearing that the Hauhaus 
were burning their whares, preparatory to retreat, gave credence to 
the tale, and returned to Turanga. Te Kooti, on hearing that 
Colonel AVhitmore had retired, raided down upon the Aral and 
Pipiwhakau bush, where his men murdered Mr. Fergusson, young 
Wylie, and a friendly Maori. Colonel Whitmore at once returned, 
and after some days compelled Te Kooti to retreat to the Uriwera 
tribe. 

Colonel Whitmore, having driven Te Kooti from Poverty Bay, 
turned his attention to those troublesome people known as the 
Uriwera, to whom Te Kooti had gone. On the 19th of March, our 
force reached Matata. Whether Te Kooti had foreseen this 
combined attack or not it is impossible to say, but he certainly 
anticipated it by striking one of those rapid blows for which he 
is so famous. On the i8th, a kokiri of one hundred men, directed 
by Te Kooti, attacked the settlement of Whakatane. An old 
Frenchman, Jean Garraud, was tomahawked, but the Hauhaus 
were beaten off the large pa with heavy loss ; although the pa, in 
a couple of days, surrendered to Te Kooti. 

Major Mair coming up, Te Kooti fell back to a strong position 
in the hills, from which he retreated to Tauaroa, where Major Mair 
came up with him and surrounded him, but owing to the absence 
of proper support on the part of some native allies, Te Kooti 
effected his escape. Te Kooti, after his retreat from Tauaroa, 
retired to Ruatahuna, where he called a meeting of the Uriwera, 
and proposed to attack either Mohaka or Te Wairoa. The 
Uriwera chief proposed to join him, provided he would make a 
raid upon Mohaka, which was the more unprotected place of the 
two. With one hundred men, selected from the mixed tribes who 
accompanied him, Te Kooti pushed on to the Upper Mohaka, and 
arrived at a native village before daylight. The native inhabitants, 
thoroughly surprised, were taken prisoners and butchered without 
much noise, the tomahawk being the weapon used. He then 
crossed the river to attack the houses of the Europeans. Messrs. 
Lavin and Cooper were met on the road, and the latter was shot, 
but the former, who was not hit, attempted to escape with his wife. 
They were, however, overtaken and shot. Three little children of 
Lavin's, while playing on the river bank, were tomahawked, as 
also Mr. Wilkinson, making in all seven Europeans killed. Later 
on in the day, the Hauhaus marched down the river and attacked 
the Huke Pa, which had a garrison of six men and several women 
and children, the fighting men being away on an expedition 
against Te Wara. The defenders, though few in number, were 
under the influence of a courageous, man named Heta, and they 



278 THE DEFENDERS 

refused to surrender, and defended themselves all that day and 
night against Te Kooti, who, finding he was losing time, had 
recourse to stratagem. Heta was again summoned to surrender, 
but again refused ; but another chief in the pa (Rutene) went out 
to meet Te Kooti, and was persuaded by him to go to the next pa 
and fetch the son of the head chief, Ropihana. Te Kooti rightly 
concluded that if he had this chief he could place him in front and 
march up to the pa with impunity, for none of the Mohaka tribe 
would dare to endanger the safety of their chief by firing. Rutene 
was successful in his mission. Te Kooti now felt safe, and put 
Ropihana in front of his men and marched on the Huke Pa, and 
demanded admittance. Heta was called upon to open the gate, 
but refused ; but Rutene and the Hauhaus lifted the gate off its 
hinges, and the whole party entered. The defenders were dis- 
armed. Heta refused, and, saying "We know we are being 
disarmed that we may be more easily killed ; but if we have to 
die so must you," raised his rifle and fired at Te Kooti. A 
Hauhau, who was standing near, knocked up the muzzle, and 
Te Kooti again escaped. Heta was shot at once, and a general 
massacre ensued. Rutene was shot, and Ropihana wounded, but 
he succeeded in escaping to the big pa. All the women and 
children that could be found were soon dispatched, and then Te 
Kooti turned his attention to the big pa. 

News of Te Kooti's advance was sent to Te Wairoa, and a force 
was sent to the assistance of the beleaguered Maoris. A party 
of Mohaka Maoris, headed by Trooper Hill, broke through Te 
Kooti's lines and entered the pa, and after several days' siege Te 
Kooti moved off. Our loss by this raid was seven Europeans and 
fifty-seven friendly Maoris killed. Te Kooti advanced to meet 
Colonel Whitmore, but too late to meet him at Ruatatuna. The 
active rebel then at once marched for Heruiwi, an old native 
village on the edge of the main bush, overlooking the Taupo 
plains, where he could watch the movements of the pakeha. 
While at this place, two troopers of the Bay of Plenty Cavalry 
were waylaid, and one of them shot. On the yth June, he came in 
sight of Opepe, and was astonished to see smoke rising from the 
deserted whares. Te Kooti ordered some of his men to saunter up 
and pretend they were friendly natives, while the main body crept 
up a ravine and cut the troopers off from the bush. The Hauhaus 
walked up to the unsuspecting men, who proved to be a party of 
the Bay of Plenty Cavalry. The party were somewhat startled by 
the sight of these armed natives, but became reassured, and 
entered into friendly conversation. During the conversation the 
Hauhaus gradually got between the troopers and their arms which 
had foolishly been left in the whares. Some of the men, seeing 
other Maoris coming out of the bush in skirmishing order, tried to 
get their weapons, but were stopped by the Hauhaus, who, having 
no further need of concealment, commenced the massacre. Nine 
troopers were killed immediately, but three succeeded in escaping. 
Te Kooti, after taking all the arms and ammunition of the party. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 279 

continued his march to Waitahuna, where he camped, and Te 
Kooti's influence became supreme in tlie Taupo, and shortly after 
paid a visit to King Tawhaio. From this Te Kooti returned to 
defend himself from the systematic campaign that had been 
organised against him. 

After one or two skirmishes, Te Kooti fell back, after capturing 
four scouts, while asleep in a whare, and having seen them 
chopped up and thrown into a swamp. At Tokanu, Te Kooti was 
attacked by a mixed force and sustained a signal defeat, which 
cost him his prestige among the inland tribes, and lost him the 
possible support of Rewi, with his 600 fighting men. At Kaikeriri, 
Colonel INIcDonnell's pursuing force again came up with the 
Hauhaus, who suffered severely in men, and were compelled to 
take to the bush. On our side we lost Captain .St. George and 
Winiata, the most renowned fighting man of the Xgatihaus. Te 
Kooti himself was wounded in this engagement. A bullet 
wounded his thumb and forefinger, cut the third finger completely 
off, and passed through the fleshy part of his side, A smart 
search for the rebel was maintained, and our forces succeeded in 
finding him at the Tatapa Pa, but he and the garrison bolted, 
leaving 80 horses behind them. After his defeat, Te Kooti retired 
with his followers to Te Wera, a wild tract of bush country. In 
this terra i)icugiiiia Te Kooti remained hidden from his pursuers, 
but at last was surrounded, and a party of eighteen Europeans got 
on a terrace not more than twenty yards from the huts, but 
divided from the Hauhaus by a deep creek. Te Kooti was seen 
and recognised by several of the Poverty Bay settlers, and could 
easily have been shot, as he was not more than thirty yards away, 
but our men withheld their fire, trusting' the native allies would 
perform their share of the work. An alarm, unfortunately, was 
given and Te Kooti again succeeded in making his escape. 
Vigilant search was made for him by several search parties up to 
1 87 1, but without success, and in that year Te Kooti crossed into 
the King Country, where he has remained ever since. 

From Te Kooti's first landing in Poverty Bay he seemed to bear 
a charmed life, as, although force after force was dispatched against 
him, something in his favour always happened to facilitate his 
escape, even when dangerously wounded, and three-parts of his 
followers killed. On one occasion an old woman took him on her 
back to a place of safety. Circumstances seemed to favour him in 
every way, for often when he was surrounded, seemingly without a 
hope left, he would escape as if by a miracle. There is perhaps 
nothing more astonishing in Te Kooti's career than the power he 
possessed over the minds of his fellow Maoris. Occasionally 
successful in his raids, yet invariably beaten in open fight, he could 
nevertheless persuade or frighten any tribe into joining him. After 
the hardships he endured and the losses sustained during the 
Poverty Bay .ampaign, where not less than 150 of his men were 
killed, the Unweras joined him readily to attack Whakatane ; and 
although they lost twenty men there^ and were driven back to their 



28o THE DEFENDERS 

own country, yet it did not prevent them from again coming to his 
assistance at ;^lohaka and following on to Taupo, where they were 
again beaten in three successive fights, losing upwards of fifty men, 
and being literally hunted out of the district. Yet no sooner had 
Te Kooti reached Patetere than a portion of the Ngaiterangi and 
Ngatiraukawa were ready and anxious to share his fortunes. 

In 1882, the then Native Minister, ]\Ir. Bryce, from motives of 
policy, condoned Te Kooti's offences by including him in the 
general amnesty extended to Te AVetere of Mokau and other natives 
implicated in tragedies during the dark period of our history. The 
reason offered for this clemency is the fact that Te Kooti professes 
that when he arrived from the Chatham Islands he had no other 
desire or intention but to return peacefully to his settlement, but 
being attacked by the colonial forces he was driven into retaliation, 
and that his mode of warfare was not different from that which 
]\Iaoris considered perfectly fair. Since Te Kooti's pardon he has 
visited, with a large escort, many of the places rendered famous by 
his atrocities, and even contemplates a visit to Poverty Bay. 



2^2 



THE DEFENDERS 




COLONEL BALNEAVIS. 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 



283 



jCoLONEL ^BaLNEAYIS. 




OLONEL BALNEAVIS, to whom the principal credit 
belongs for the efficiency of the Auckland militia, 
arrived in the colony in 1845 with his regiment 'the 
58th). He took pait in all the conflicts of Heke's war, 
and resigned his captaincy in the Imperial service in 1858, when 
the old " Black Cuffs," as the 58th were called, left for England. 
On the outbreak of hostilities in i860, he took an active part in 
the organisation of the Waikato militia, and soon converted his 
raw levies into finely disciplined troops —steady under fire, and 
capable of enduring the hardships of a bush campaign. He 
had made a life-long study of field tactics and fortifications ; 
and a model of a Maori pa, constructed by him, and sent home 
to one of the English military colleges, created great interest 
at the time amongst military scientists, in view of the astonishing 
resistance that these apparently flimsy strongholds had given to 
our troops, armed with all the appliances of modern warfare. The 
Colonel was also a most accomplished linguist, being able to 
converse freely in Maori, Arabic, French, Maltese, Italian, Greek, 
German, and Spanish. He came of good old military stock, his 
father being Lieut.-General Balneavis, who commanded the 65th 
Regiment through the Peninsula war, and was subsequently 
Governor and Commandant at Malta. Colonel Balneavis died at 
Auckland, in August, 1876, deeply regretted both by his old 
brother soldiers and by the general public. A public demonstra- 
tion was made at his funeral, and the colours of his old 
regiment, which are now deposited in the Supreme Court 
buildings, Auckland, were sadly borne by his old comrades in 
the cortege. 



284 



THE DEFENDERS 



Captain Handley. 




A.PTAIN HENRY E. HANDLE Y entered the army as 
a very young man, and served with the Scots Greys 
during the Crimean War, commanding the right troop 
of the regiment at McKenzie's Heights, and in the 
charge at Balaklava, where he was wounded. He was also present 
at the battle of Inkerman and siege of Sebastopol. On leaving 
the Imperial service, and settling in this colony, he volunteered his 
services, and was appointed field adjutant to Colonel Herrick 
during the expedition to Waikare, Moana, and Taupo. 

Extract from "Nolan's History of the Russian War": — "At 
the charge of Balaklava, Colonel Griffith, of the Scots Greys, got 
shot in the head ; Brevet-lSIajor Clarke, a sabre cut at the back of 
the neck ; Cornet Prendergast, shot through the foot ; and Cornet 
Handley, stabbed in the side and arm. This officer was at 
one time during the charge surrounded by four Cossacks, three of 
whom he shot with his revolver, and the fourth was cut down by 
his sergeant. I saw this gallant young fellow, a few hours after 
the battle, leaving the temporary hospital, saying his wounds were 
not of sufficient consequence to keep him from rejoining his 
regiment." 



280 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR TUKC 



01' NEW ZEALAND. 287 



MAJOP^^ 



UKE. 




Hand-to-hand fight at Kairomiromi — Pursuit of Volkner's murderers — 
Wounded at Ruakitura — Command of the Taranaki district. 

AJOR TUKE first joined the Volunteer Cavalry Corps, 
I j then just formed under Captain Gordon (late of the Eruiis- 
killen Dragoons}, early in 1864, and was elected officer 
without opposition, and for some time both the training 
and the drilling of the corps were left in his hands. On the breaking- 
out of the war on the East Coast Major Tuke volunteered for active 
service, and obtained permission to accompany Major Eraser's 
company of militia to the scene of operations at Waiapu, where on 
arrival he was attached to the late Major Biggs's company of 
volunteers, then actively engaged against the rebels. He was 
present at the storming and capture of the pa Kairomiromi (where 
the fighting was of a most severe character, being a hand-to-hand 
struggle), and at the reconnaissance and capture of Pukemaire. 
He accompanied Major Biggs in his forced marches through the 
bush in pursuit of the rebels, and was present at the engagement 
at Kawakawa and capture of the Hunga-Hunga-Toroa pa, where 
he led his men up the cliff in the rear of the pa — a most perilous 
undertaking, but which soon decided the fate of the day ; and on 
both of these occasions he was mentioned in despatches. In the 
meantime he was constantly engaged scouting the district, until 
he was ordered to Poverty Bay to take part in the attack on the 
Waerenga-a-hika pa. He was afterwards detailed for service at 
the Wairoa, and participated in many skirmishes involving loss 
of life. He received a commission in the Hawke's Bay Alilitia, 
and was shortly afterwards sent as officer in command of the 
prisoners at the Chatham Islands, where he remained for some 
months. Recalled to the Wairoa, he was again employed on active 
service against the enemy, and on the completion of his term of 
service was offered, and accepted, a command in No. i company 
of Armed Constabulary, and was sent to Opotiki after the murder 
of the Rev. Mr. Volkner, to avenge his death. He was actively 
engaged there and at Whakatane, and in the operations up the 
Waimana and the Waioeka Gorge, and other skirmishes more or 
less severe. 

On the escape of the prisoners from the Chatham Islands he 
accompanied the division under Colonel Sir George Whitmore to 



2 88 THE DEFENDERS 

Poverty Bay, and took part in the pursuit of Te Kooti. At 
Ruakitura he was severely wounded, which caused him to be 
invalided for some time. After recovery, he was again detailed to 
the Wairoa district, in charge of Colonial forces during a very 
troublesome and anxious time, being daily threatened with an 
attack from a large body of insurgents. Here he received a most 
complimentary address from the settlers before leaving, which by 
the rules of the service he had to return. On the Poverty Bay 
massacre taking place he was immediately ordered to the scene of 
the disaster, and acted as second in command to Major Westrupp 
until the arrival of the reinforcements under Colonel Whitmore. 
He led the party who volunteered to go out and recover the bodies 
of the slain, when he was once more ordered to the Wairoa, and 
from thence to the West Ccast on the murder of the Rev, Mr. 
Whiteley. He was then despatched with No. 7 company of Armed 
Constabulary to Pukearuhe, to guard the northern frontier of 
Taranaki, when he was promoted to the charge of the Taranaki 
district, and on the retirement of ]\Iajor Turner, to the further 
command of the combined districts of Patea and Taranaki, where 
he remained until 1879, when the Parihaka natives began to be 
troublesome, and he had orders to organise the force assembled 
at Oakura under Colonel Roberts, preparatory to the demonstra- 
tion made on that settlement. Serving as second in command 
on the day of the capture ol Te Whiti, to him was given the post 
of honour, and, assisted by Captains Gudgeon and Newall, he 
arrested the prophets Te Whiti, Tohu, and Hiroki, and dispersed 
their followers, amounting to the number of 1,600. In September, 
1883, in consequence of an expected disturbance at Kawhia, 
Major Tuke was despatched with a company of the Armed Con- 
stabulary to take the command of that district, where he still 
remains, and at the request of the natives was appointed Resident 
Magistrate. 

This brave ofRcer having served the Government of the colony 
for upwards of twenty years, being under fire often and seriously 
wounded once, one can only wonder how it is that the Government 
has managed to keep so valuable an officer a major ever since the 
year 1867, and without bestowing on him the decoration of the 
New Zealand Cross he so justly merited. 



290 



THE DEFENDERS 




CA PTA IN CR A PP. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 291 



PaPTAIN Ci\APP. 




lAPTAIN CRAPP, who joined the colonial force about 
the year 1864, has the credit of performing one of the 
most daring acts during the war. On the 7th of May, 
1869, the scouts led by Sergeant White were ambuscaded 
by the Uriweras, at a crossing of the Whakatane River, where the 
brave Sergeant White fell, and although quickly carried out by 
two of his comrades, under a heavy fire, to a place of safety, was 
found to be dead. At the time, the enemy held every piece of 
vantage ground, and had posted themselves very strongly on a 
fern and bush ridge that commanded the crossing of the river, up 
the bed of which the force had to march, it being impossible to 
cross while the enemy held the ridge. Colonel St. John, seeing 
the position, ordered Sub-Inspector McDonnell to support the 
scouts, with 40 men of No. 2 division Armed Constabulary, in 
dislodging them. White having fallen, it was necessary that an 
officer should take command of the scouts in his place, which 
Sub-Inspector Crapp volunteered to do. The track he and his 
men had to take wound up a spur of the Range, covered with high 
fern, scrub, and patches of bush, while at the top rifle-pits were 
so placed that the occupants could fire down the track for one 
hundred yards at least, which was too narrow for more than one 
man to advance at a time, and every man of the column felt certain 
that the leader of this small party would be shot ere he reached 
the top, for, if not ambuscaded at the turn in the track, certain 
death appeared to await him when within range of the rifle-pits. 
All these dangers did not deter or daunt Crapp, who advanced 
steadily up the spur, about twenty yards in front of his men, he 
having instructed them to keep that distance in rear, that he might 
draw the enemy's first volley on himself, and enable them to rush 
the pits before they could reload. Thrice the enemy fired from 
ambushes on this brave young officer, but luckily without effect ; 
and at last, presumably fearing to come to close quarters with one 
so undaunted, backed by forty resolute men, they evacuated their 
rifle-pits and position, and disappeared in the dense bush before 
Crapp and his men could reach the summit of the range. This 
act of daring deserved the decoration of the New Zealand Cross. 



29a THE DEFENDERS 



Major Westrupp. 




AJOR CHARLES WESTRUPP joined Von Tempsky's 
Forest Rangers towards the end of 1863, and soon after 
was commissioned an ensign in that corps. He was 
promoted to lieutenant early in 1864, and served under 
Major Von Tempsky, in the Waikato, until the middle of 1865, 
when he was promoted to a captaincy, and took a company of 
Forest Rangers round to Waiapu (East Cape), where he did good 
service, under the late Major Fraser and Captain R, Biggs, 
throughout the East Coast campaign. He was present at the 
attack on Pukemaire, the taking of Hunga-hunga-Toroa, Wae- 
rengahika, and the fighting in the Wairoa, in October, 1866-7. 
After the murder of Major Biggs, in November, 1868, he was 
placed in command of the Poverty Bay district, and gave orders 
for the pursuit of Te Kooti by the Napier natives, under Major 
Gascoigne, who overtook and defeated the rebels at Mangakaretu, 
killing 63 on the spot, Te Kooti himself being amongst the 
wounded, who retreated to Ngatipa. 

Captain Westrupp now received his majority, and was left in 
command at Poverty Bay, while Colonel Whitmore directed the 
subsequent operations ending in the capture of Ngatipa. Major 
Westrupp shortly after retired from the service, settling down as 
a sheep farmer on a run in the Poverty Bay district. He was 
much liked by his officers and men, and was distinguished for his 
coolness and intrepidity in action. 



294 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR GASCOIGNE. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 295 



Majoi^ Gascoigne. 




Services in the East Cape expedition — Historical account of Poverty Bay 
massacre — Guarding the tvrong track — Burying the murdered settlers — 
A gallant defence at Makaratu. 

lAJOR GASCOIGNE joined the Colonial Defence Force, 
as lieutenant, in 1863, and served with the East Cape 
expedition in 1865; was present at the attack on 
Hatepe, and at the storming of Pakairomi-romi ; 
assisted in the assault of Pukemaire and several other minor 
engagements. He served with the Ruakakuri expedition, and 
was appointed ofhcer-in-charge of the Poverty Bay Scouts, in 
1868, and was also in command of the East Coast friendly natives 
in pursuit of Te Kooti, after the massacre at Poverty Bay. 
He took part in the attack at Patutahi, which, after eight days' 
fighting, ended in the capture of the entrenchments. He was 
present at Mangakaretu, as also at the operations and taking of 
Ngatapa. He served against Titokowaru, 1869; was at the 
capture of Tauranga-hika, Whereroa, Te Ngaiere, Waitotara, 
Otauto, and Paingaroa. He rose to the rank of major in Militia, 
and sub-inspector of Armed Constabulary, and is now stationed 
with his company in Waikato. 

This young and active officer was placed in charge of the scouts 
chosen to watch the movements of Te Kooti and guard the district 
from his threats to take utu on the Poverty Bay settlers for 
transporting him to the Chatham Islands, and had his suggestions 
been adopted, the massacre, in all probability, Avould have been 
averted. His idea was that he was guarding the WTong track ; 
that Te Kooti would come in by an old track, now grown up, but 
known to himself and Te Kooti, which he several times represented 
to the commandant of the district, and had once or twice ridden 
over to examine it, against orders, as Major Biggs was of a 
different opinion. Consequently this track was left unguarded, 
and the result was that Te Kooti, believing that he alone knew of 
this old route, and that he would be safe from molestation in 
coming that way, although many miles out of the direct road, took 
it, and one night surprised the district, massacring Major Biggs, 
Captain Wilson, their wives and children, and settlers to the 
number 0133, besides 37 friendly natives, while Captain Gascoigne 
and his men were carefully watching the more direct route. His 



296 THE DEFENDERS 

own account of the Poverty Bay massacre, never before published, 
is given verbatim below. It is concise and plainly written, no 
attempt to disguise or palliate the truth, but is a narrative of events 
as they occurred, and will one day be included in the future history 
of New Zealand. Captain Gascoigne was continually mentioned in 
general orders, yet shared the fate of so many of our bravest men, 
their services never having been recognised by the decoration of 
the Cross they well merited. 

MAJOR GASCOIGNE'S ACCOUNT OF THE POVERTY 
BAY MASSACRE, 9TH NOVEMBER, 1868. 

After Te Kooti had made good his escape from Colonel 
Vv^hitmore's pursuit of him, up the Ruatakuri River, early in 1868, 
and obtained the alliance of the Uriwera tribe, he was said to 
have declared his intention of exacting utu from the Poverty Bay 
settlers for having tried to intercept him. Major Biggs represented 
the dangerous position of the settlers so strongly to the Govern- 
ment that at last he was authorised to place nine men and one 
officer to watch the country between the upper Wairoa River and 
Poverty Bay. This party w^as to act as an outlying picket. 
Previous to this the settlers had been paying three men to watch 
the valley of the Patutahi creek. Our orders from Major Biggs 
were as follows : — To camp at a bit of bush on the Te Reinga road 
from the Wairoa ; to watch that road constantly; to have a sentry 
on the road at night and during the day on the top of the hill, 
which comm.anded a view of the road for several miles ; to scout 
daily to our right and left "front, and to report constantly to him. 
ISIajor Biggs felt sure that Te Kooti would advance by the Te 
Reinga road, and refused to spare men to watch the Ngatapa 
track, which was completely overgrown at the time, and supposed 
to be impassable. 

On 7th November, three of us scouted in the direction of 
Ngatapa as far as Mangakaretu, but could not discover any signs 
of natives having been in that part of the country for years. The 
furthest part of the track was quite obliterated by the dense growth 
of scrub. We reported to Major Biggs, who ordered us not to 
scout any more in that direction, but to keep an extra sharp look- 
out on the main track, as he " expected Te Kooti would move 
down in a few days, and that he intended to order all the settlers 
to come into Turanganui." Our party consisted of five whites 
and five natives. Two of the latter were at the Big Bush, on 
leave, on the afternoon of the 8th, and at daylight on the morning 
of the 9th, these two men galloped into our camp with the news 
that Biggs and all the settlers had been killed during the night by 
the Hauhaus. We snatched up our arms and rode back to Poverty 
Bay as fast as we could, narrowly escaping from a large party of 
the enemy on the way. 

We meant to get orders from Captain Westrupp, but on 
reaching his place at the Big Bush, we found that he had left for 
Wairoa, with a party of women and children, by the coast road 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 297 

We determined to push on to Turanganui, and as the Hauhaus 
were in numbers before us, we seized a boat, sent our horses adrift, 
and pulled across the bay. Three of our men (natives) stopped at 
the pa on the big river, and, with all the natives there, joined Te 
Kooti next day. On reaching Turanganui, we found that a 
number of settlers, with women and children, had collected with 
the intention of escaping on board a couple of Captain Read's 
schooners, which were in the bay. We sent the women and 
children to Napier by the vessels, but detained all the men to 
defend Turanganui until assistance should reach us. 

The Hauhaus reconnoitred our position, but did not attack us, 
and contented themselves with burning all the houses beyond the 
range of our rifles, and looting everything they could carry off. Te 
Kooti was employed in forcing or persuading all the Maoris about 
Makaraka and the Big Bush to join him, which they all did. We 
collected all the private property we could, and stored it in the 
redoubt, to save it from being stolen by the friendly natives, who 
began to join us. 

In a few days Major Westrupp and Captain Tuke arrived from 
Napier with four hundred friendly natives, and the Hauhaus 
collected at Patutahi began to retreat with their plunder. The 
first thing we did was to find and bury the murdered settlers ; 
this w^as sad and horrible work, and had to be done with strong 
covering parties of the friendly natives. The bodies of those 
killed had generally been dragged clear of the houses before the 
latter were burnt, and many of the bodies were dreadfully 
mutilated ; some had been partly eaten by pigs, and some had 
numerous bayonet stabs. The men had been mostly shot, and the 
children tomahawked. We buried j\Iajor Biggs and his wife and 
child in one grave, and his two servants in another ; also Captain 
Wilson and his children were buried together. Captain Wilson's 
son James, about six or seven years old, had escaped death in 
some way, and was found by one of our men in the fern next day ; 
the little fellow pointed out where his mother was hidden, and both 
were brought into Turanganui ; but IMrs. Wilson was so badly 
wounded that she only survived a short time. Besides these two 
families, Mr. and Mrs. Mann, Messrs. Peppard and Dodd, Sergt.- 
Major Walsh, and many others, whose names we did not know at 
that time, were slaughtered in cold blood during the dreadful night 
of the 8th of November. 

On the 2istthe Hawke's Bay natives, under the chiefs Renata 
Kawepo, Karauria, Henare Tomoana, and Tareha, and the scouts, 
marched in pursuit of the Hauhaus, and overtook a party of them 
laden with plunder at Patutahi ; we shot two of them there. On 
the evening of the 23rd, we came up with their main body at 
INIakaratu, strongly entrenched on the bank of the creek, and close 
to the edge of some heavy timber. The Hauhaus immediately 
attacked us on all sides, but we stubbornly held the ridge over- 
looking their main position, and contrived to entrench ourselves 
after a fashion by digging holes with sticks, bayonets, and knives. 



298 THE DEFENDERS 

For eight days the Napier natives defended themselves on this 
ridge, and on the third day we had nothing but fern root to eat, 
and had nearly expended the ammunition ; for the enemy had 
seized the supplies sent up to us from Turanganui, and routed the 
escort that came with them. During this time we lost thirty-five 
men, killed and wounded ; among the killed was the chief 
Karauria, one of the best leaders on our side. At last, by sending 
back a strong party as escort, we obtained a supply of biscuit and 
ammunition, which enabled us to hold out to the end of the month, 
when Captain Preece and the chief Ropata arrived with a 
reinforcement of the Ngatiporou tribe ; and advancing by our 
right flank, they turned the nearest Hauhau rifle-pits, and then, 
with the scouts and part of the Napier natives, rushed down the 
slope, and carried the main position of the Hauhaus by storm, 
killing sixty-three of the enemy, including Nama and other 
noted Hauhau leaders. Two of the scouts were severely wounded 
here. 

Te Kooti retreated to his almost impregnable stronghold, 
Ngatapa, which, however, was taken a few weeks afterwards by a 
force under the command of Colonel Whitmore, and where we 
again inflicted severe loss on him, killing many of the miscreants 
who, while living in Poverty Bay and professing loyalty to the 
Queen, not only assisted Te Kooti to surprise the district, but in 
many cases were the actual murderers of the settlers among whom 
they had been living on the most friendly and trusted terms up to 
the night of the massacre. 



300 



THE DEFENDERS 




QAPTAIN HARDINGTOM 



01' NEW ZEALAND. 



\o\ 



Papt. Wardington, 




APTAIN HARDINGTON, when Governor Gore Browne 
commenced the Taranaki campaign, was one of the first 
to volunteer for service in the Auckland Cavalry Corps, 
raised in Auckland for the defence of the settlers on the 
southern frontier of the province. The corps became popular, 
all the best men interested themselves in its progress, and it 
inspired a degree of confidence in the minds of the country settlers 
and their families. The muster at Otahuhu of about sixty 
stalwart troopers, mounted upon the best horse flesh in the 
community, in excellent drill, under the truly gallant Colonel 
Nixon, instituted a satisfactory surveillance over the outlying 
districts during a course of about two years ; when, upon the 
arrival of Sir George Grey, they were disbanded from prudential 



considerations. 



Tn 



war, however, was declared in the 



Waikato, and Captain Hardington was asked again by his fellow- 
townsmen to take command, should a corps of cavalry be again 
raised. To this he assented. He was unanimously elected to 
the command, and commissions were issued by the Government 
accordingly. After being enrolled, and the usual drilling over, 
the corps was put into active service, and had harassing work 
at patrol and escort duties, also forwarding despatches. In 
November, the Auckland troop rejoined the Otahuhu troop, 
under Colonel Nixon, at Papatoitoi. The duties of patrolling 
were at the Karaka, Shepherd's Bush, and forwarding despatches 
between Otahuhu, Papakura, and Howick ; and all of the three 
troops performed their respective duties throughout with the 
utmost zeal, and relieved the Defence Force situated at Papa- 
toitoi and Papakura. Colonel Nixon went up with the regular 
troops, and was mortally wounded at Rangiaohia (returning to 
his farm at Mangere to die), when Captain Hutton became the 
senior officer in command of the cavalry. At the latter end of 
1864, the cavalry were relieved from duty, after a course of over 



302 THE DEFENDERS 

a year's active service, when Captain Hutton resigned, and 
Captain Hardington again became senior officer. Upon the 
unveiling of the Nixon monument by the Governor, in 1866, 
he was in command of the three troops. The late Captain 
Bassett, of the Otahuhu, and Captain McLean, of the Howick 
troop, resigned in 1868, and Lieutenant IVIarks was then appointed 
to the command. Their five years' service — viz., four years of 
parades and one of active service — were rewarded with thirty acres 
to each member of land scrip, hardly covering the expense of 
shoeing their horses. 

Mr. Hardington, although now verging on the sere and yellow 
leaf, is still hearty and strong, with sufficient pluck left to go into 
harness again, should he ever be required so to do. 



T 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 303 



HE JChtef Turing. 






m 



An incident of ihe ivar — How Tukino saved Colonel McDonnelV s life, 

UKINO, a man of rank amongst the Maoris belonging 
to the Tangahoi tribe, and who had made himself 
known during the war by his shrewdness and skill in 
laying ambushes by which many an unfortunate fellow 
met his death, became, after the attack on Pokaikai (from whence 
he, with others, effected his escape), rather attached to Colonel 
McDonnell, as was shown from the following circumstance : — 
It was just before the attack and capture of Pungarehu, a pa 
situate in the forest, that Toi, a chief of Ngatiruanui, came with 
a chosen band of fifty armed men to a ford of the Waingongoro 
River, a mile or so distant from the Waihi camp, and sent 
the Colonel a message saying that they wished to make peace, 
but were afraid to come any nearer lest they should be fired upon, 
and requesting him to come and see them, when they would 
sign for peace, being quite tired of war. The messenger further 
handed McDonnell a letter from the tribe in which the same senti- 
ments were expressed. The Colonel, having so many times during 
the war visited hostile natives in their retreats and strongholds to 
try and induce them to surrender, it was nothing new or strange 
for him to receive such a message. Consequently, without a 
suspicion of treachery (although the tribe had been beaten in a 
sharp skirmish a short time previous), he replied, that as Toi 
wished to make peace, he was quite willing to meet him as a friend, 
but that he and his followers had better come into camp and tender 
their allegiance; and sitting down, wrote a letter to Toi to this 
effect, telling him to come in without fear, as no harm should 
happen to him. The messenger departed, but quickly returned, 
accompanied by Toi and two other chiefs. IMcDonnell received 
them in his tent, treated them most hospitably, and their protesta- 
tions of friendship and wish for peace were apparently sincere. After 
some further conversation Toi intimated that he wished the Colonel 
to return with them to where his people were and repeat the good 
words he had spoken to them, which, he continued, would be gladly 
welcomed, after which they could all return to camp and make 
friends. 

Just at this moment the Colonel heard the sentry outside the 
tent, who had been stationed there to keep prowlers off, order some 
one away. Again hearing the sentry threaten, he called to him to 
know what was the matter. He replied that it was a Maori 
bothering him to give the Colonel a letter. McDonnell, being 



304 THE DEFENDERS 

pestered with native letters asking for everything they could think 
of, said, " Give me the letter, and send him off about his business." 
This was done and he resumed the conversation with Toi. McDonnell, 
while listening to Toi's wish to start soon, unconsciously opened 
the note, one glance of which showed him his position. It was an 
earnest warning from Tukino, who had just galloped in from 
Taiporohenui to inform McDonnell that a plot had been laid to 
capture and tomahawk him, under the pretence of making peace, 
and that Toi and Hauwhenui were the promoters of it. The 
Colonel's presence of mind did not forsake him, and carelessly 
throwing the note into a candle-box standing close by, went on 
with the korero. INIcDonnell asked Toi if they had not better ride 
to the river, that he \\ ould find the horses and take two or three of 
his officers with him to see his people. Toi, apparently much 
pleased, said that would be very good. To put him quite off his 
guard, the Colonel asked him what he thought his people would 
like to eat when they came into the camp, rice and sugar, or flour. 
Toi made answer, rice would be best. While answering this 
question the Colonel had taken down his revolver, and looking at 
it said, " Toi, do you believe in mata kiti ? " (a kind of second sight). 
" Yes,'' he replied. " So do I, " McDonnell replied ; " I have just 
had a presentiment," and holding the revolver within a foot of his 
head, " One movement, Toi," said he, " and I fire. Confess that 
you came to trap me. Speak, or I pull — quick ! " Toi turned 
yellow. "Etikaana" (It is true), he gasped, " you have divined 
our intentions. We are in your power, you will act as you wish," 
was the reply, as their eyes fell. McDonnell had called the guard 
in the meantime, and, as Captain Wirihana and Lieutenant 
McDonnell entered and took charge of the prisoners, the Colonel 
went out to look for Tukino. He found him smoking in the canteen 
and breathing anger against the sentry who had behaved so roughly 
to him. The Colonel told him he was going to shoot Toi and 
Hauwhenui at once. But Tukino entreated so earnestly for their 
liberty, that, taking into consideration that the pleader had saved, 
in all probability, the lives of himself and some of his officers, he 
reluctantly gave in, and as the Colonel returned to his tent, Toi 
looked up and said, " Do not keep us long, do the resolve quickly ; 
shoot, but do not hang us." " I have a little to say, Toi," he replied, 
" I give you ycur lives. It's lucky for you that the order to cook 
rice has not yet been given ; get you gone quickly ; you are safe 
this time for certain reasons of my own, but if ever I catch you 
hereafter you will be killed without mercy. Go quickly, or I may 
alter my mind. I see plainly I will never be killed by such as you." 
The Colonel saw them through the lines and they travelled at a 
rapid pace to the crossing. 

Had it not been for Tukino's warning neither McDonnell nor any 
officer or orderly he might have taken with him would have ever 
seen the sun set. But as the Colonel promised Tukino not to let the 
natives know that he had given the warning, the fact has never 
been revealed until now, when Tukino is dead. 



u 



3o6 



THE DEFENDERS 




C A PTA I N BRYCE. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 307 



Captain 'Bi^ce, 




Defending the town of Wanganui — Mr. Rusden s attack on Mr. Brycc — 
Die affair at Handley's ivoolshed — Libel suit against yJ/r. Rusden — 
£Sooo damages awarded — The capture of Parihafca. 

'APTAIN BRYCE, one of the oldest settlers in the 
district of Wanganui, had successfully farmed his land 
for many years prior to the rebellion of i860; and, 
having a lively interest in all that concerned the future 
welfare of New Zealand, was always to be found taking part in the 
various discussions and public meetings of the province, where his 
straightforward and common-sense speeches soon attracted the 
notice of the settlers, inasmuch as they returned him as their 
member to the House of Representatives on the first occasion that 
offered. AVhen the war reached Wanganui, he was one of the first 
to volunteer his services, by joining- a troop of yeomanry cavalry, 
of which he was chosen one of its officers ; and soon afterwards, 
when Titokowaru threatened the township of Wanganui, and 
Colonel Whitmore, the commanding officer, was suddenly ordered 
off, with all the available force at his command, to avenge the 
horrible massacre at Poverty Bay, Lieutenant Bryce's troop became 
the main safeguard of the district ; and so well did they perform their 
trust — being always on duty, patrolling night and day the banks 
of the Kai-Iwi river (the then "coundary-line of defence), that 
Titokowaru was awed from attempting his threatened attack on the 
township. 

Years after, Captain Bryce joined the Atkinson Alinistry as 
Native Alinister, and by his firmness and determination to carry 
out his policy, staved off any further appeal to arms, which at 
times looked to imminent ; for all must admit that, in warding off 
the danger so long threatened at Parihaka, he showed considerable 
skill and judgment, using the force at his command to such 
advantage that the fanatics lost all hope, and in the end quietly 
submitted themselves as prisoners. Yet the Hon. John Bryce 
was most unjustly attacked by J\[r. Rusden, in his work on New 
Zealand, accusing him of indiscriminately shooting down men, 
v/omen, and children, while in command of his troop at Handley's 
woolsheds ; whereas the real facts were simply as follows : — 

While the lieutenant with his troop were guarding the approaches 



3o8 THE DEFENDERS 

to the township of Wanganui, by patrolling the boundary-line 
between the contending parties, Titokowaru's men, emboldened by 
their previous successes, were observed day by day pillaging the 
farm buildings and station of Mr. Handley, on the opposite side 
of the Kai-Iwi stream, near to Nukumaru, in broad daylight, 
which so exasperated our men, among whom were a number of 
young settlers in the immediate neighbourhood, that they deter- 
mined to try and surprise the natives in their work of destruction, 
by riding round the back of the sandhills, and cut them off 
before they could get back to their pa. One day they were 
observed destroying the pigs and poultry on the station, and, while 
intent on their work, a portion of the troop did get round, and made 
a sortie upon them from between the sandhills, but were unfor- 
tunately soon brought to a momentary standstill by a high bank 
and ditch fence erected round the farm, which few of the horses 
could clear. Those who did get over — seven in number — made a 
charge at the retreating body of natives, and succeeded in overtaking 
and killing several in a swamp before they had time to reach the 
pa ; amongst them two Maori lads fell in the general melee. It 
was clearly proved at the trial, and admitted by IMr. Rusden's 
counsel, that Mr. Bryce did not even take part in this charge ; but 
if he had done, there was nothing to feel ashamed of The skirmish 
was an ordinary brush with rebels under arms, who were in the 
very act of pillaging a settler's homestead. So insecure were the 
settlers of Wanganui at that moment, that it was absolutely neces- 
sary some demonstration should be made to check the further 
advance of Titokowaru ; and this little event had all the desired 
effect, as, after the skirmish was over, little more was seen or heard 
of Titokowaru's threats. It is very easy indeed for members of the 
Aborigines' Protection Society, as they sit by their cosy firesides 
in merry England, to try and rake up cases of cruelty against 
the pioneers of a new colony. If a few of these gentlemen were 
transported to the Antipodes, and their lives now and then placed 
in jeopardy, as the colonists' continually were, by a bloodthirsty, 
fanatical crew of savages, I doubt if even Mr. Rusden himself 
would wait to ascertain the ages of the enemy at his door before 
he fired in self-defence. An idea of the issues tried in the action 
brought by Mr. Bryce against Mr. Rusden, may be gained from 
the judge's summing up. 

" ls\x. Baron Huddleslon, in summing up the case to the jury, said : The 
defences which were set up were three — (i) It is said that the passages are 
true in substance and fact. If that be so, it is a complete answer to the 
action, for then there could be no injury to the plaintiff. By true in substance 
and fact he did not mean to say that it was necessary for the defendant to 
prove the truth of every fact in the passage. But the onus prohandi was 
upon the defendant to satisfy them that what he had written was substantially 
true in fact. He must prove every material fact. To these facts he would 
presently refer in detail. The second ground of defence was one which had 
been fully recognised by all the legal authorities, and particularly those of 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 309 

recent date. It was that the passages complained of were fair and bona fide 
comment written about a public man's act in connection with a matter of 
public interest. His Lordship said he would shortly explain what was fair and 
bona fide comment. The third defence was, that it was written in the honest 
and bona fide belief that it was true in substance and fact and without malice. 
As regarded that defence, his Lordship had not the slightest hesitation in at 
once ruling that, in point of law, it was bad and no answer to the action. 
Take, for instance, the case of a gentleman engaged in commerce, about whom 
something wholly untrue and which affects his character has been written, 
and in consequence he is ruined and becomes bankrupt, both in character and 
capital- — what answer is it for the person who has caused all that mischief to 
say that he honestly believed at the time he had written what he did that it was 
true, and that he had written it so believing and without malice } If such a 
defence were law, how could character and honour be maintained in this 
country } The law of England jealously protected the character of British 
subjects, and properly so. For if a mans character is attacked and ruined he 
is shunned by his fellow-men. Any man who chose to circulate slanderous 
accusations must be prepared to answer for so doing. Even were this subject 
new law he would have no hesitation in deciding it, but it was not, for it was 
laid down in the case of ' Campbell v. Spottiswoode ' (3 ' B and S,' 769) by 
Lord Chief Justice Cockburn in his judgment that 'in the interest of society 
the public conduct of public men should be criticised without any other limit 
than that the writer should have an honest belief that what he writes is true. 
But it seems to me that the public have an equal interest in the maintenance 
of the public character of public men, and public affairs could not be con- 
ducted b}' men of honour with a view to the welfare of the country if we were 
to sanction attacks destructive of their honour and character made without 
foundation. I think the fair position of the law is this — that where the public 
conduct of a public man is open to animadversion, and the writer who is 
commenting thereon makes imputations which arise fairly out of his conduct so 
that a jury shall say the criticism is not only honest but well founded, an action 
is not maintainable. But it is not because a public writer fancies that the 
conduct of a public man is open to the suspicion of dishonesty he is therefore 
justified in assailing his character as dishonest.' Again, in the same case, IMr. 
Justice Crompton had said, ' But it is always to be left to a jury to say whether 
the publication has gone beyond the limits of fair comment. A writer is not 
entitled to overstep those limits and impute base and sordid motives which are 
not warranted by the facts ; ' and ' I cannot for a moment think that because 
he has a bona fide belief that what he is publishing is true it is any answer to 
an action for libel.' Lord Justice Blackburn had also said in the same case, ' A 
question had been asked the jury whether the writer bona fide and honestly 
believed it to be true, and the jury have found that he did. We have to say 
whether that is an answer to the action. I think not; it is no defence.' His 
Lordship, continuing, said : You have, therefore, those authorities in addition 
to my own. The only remaining questions for us to consider, therefore, are 
whether it is true in substance and fact, and, if it is not, then whether it is a 
bona fide comment upon a public man on a matter of public interest. Sir 
John Gorst admitted in his admirable and candid speech that there were three 
things which he could not deny — viz. (i) That there were no women present 
at the Handley's wool-shed affair; (2) that Mr. Bryce did not take a personal 
part in the charge there made by the troopers ; and (3) that if the passage 
' Rangihiwhinui — {i.e., Kemp) — declared that he would never have joined the 
colonial forces if he had thought them capable of such acts. He earned these 
by the hatred of Bryce, who long afterwards, when Native Minister, dismissed 

U* 



3IO THE DEFENDERS 

him (Kemp) from office,' bore the meaning that Bryce had dismissed Kemp 
for corrupt motives, it was a libel on Bryce. Those questions seemed to go to 
the whole matter. The learned Judge, having read the first libel, remarked 
that in considering the question ot the meaning conveyed by the passage they 
must look at it not as Mr. Rusden might have thought of it, but as humble 
and ordinary individuals reading it for the first time. Could any such reader 
doubt that the w.ords ' some women and young children emerged from a pa to 
hunt pigs. Lieutenant Bryce and Sergeant Maxwell, of the Kai-Iwi Cavalry, 
dashed upon them, cutting them down gleefully and with ease,' did not impute 
that Bryce took a personal part in the slaughter? Again, what did they think 
was the sense conveyed by the passage which discussed the cause of Kemp's 
dismissal by Bryce .^ Did it not mean to impute some sinister motive to Bryce.' 
But the question was entirely for them to decide. That this statement about 
women being present is untrue is beyond all dispute, and now admitted. If, 
therefore, the other two passages convey the meaning which the plaintiff 
attributes to them, and they are also untrue, the defence that the libels are 
true in substance fails. This brings us to what I have seen from the outset 
would be the main issue in this case. It is this — Were these passages written 
by Mr. Rusden fair and bona fide comment upon Mr. Bryce in his public 
capacity about a matter of public interest.'' We may take it, I think, that the 
matters in question were of public interest. Was the comment fair .? This is 
the question which you will have to decide in the light of the law as explained 
by me. The duty of the Judges, his Lordship continued, was, no doubt, to 
adapt the law to the times and circumstances of cases — so far as was possible. 
But, as Lord Cockburn had said, in a case to which he would refer presently, 
there must be some limit to public criticism of public men, and liberty must 
not be extended to licence. No doubt politicians gave and received hard 
blows, but it did not therefore follow that trespass into personal character was 
to be permitted. This doctrine was very aptly put in a judgment of Lord 
Cockburn's in the case of ' Seymour v. Butterworth ' (3 ' F. and F.,' 372). 
Again, Lord Bramwell said in 'Kelly v. Sherlock' (' L. R.' i Q. B., 689), 
' A clergyman with his flock, an admiral with his fleet, a general with his 
army, and a judge with a jury are all subjects for public discussion and 
comment. All men who filled public positions rendered themselves open to 
comment.' Condnuing, his Lordship said he had read those extracts in order 
to explain to them the effect of what he was about to say — viz., that if, in 
discussing a matter of public interest, a man chooses to condescend to personal 
attack, such comment is not fair, and is, therefore, actionable. For example, 
if when you are commenting upon and describing the acts or character of a 
public man in a general way, you add that in early life he had been a thief, 
such comment would not be fair. That being the law which would govern 
them, he would remind them before proceeding, once more, what were the 
questions upon which they must bring their minds to bear. They were — 
Were the passages true in substance and fact.? And, if not, were they fair and 
bona fide comment, as explained by his Lordship ? His Lordship then pro- 
ceeded to detail the facts, first, as regarded the Handley's woolshed, and, lastly, 
as to the Parihaka incident. In a most careful and detailed manner, his 
Lordship took the jury through all the material parts of the evidence, com- 
menting thereon. In dealing with the materials upon which Mr. Rusden had 
said he had written the first libellous passage, and which accused Mr. Bryce of 
cutting down women and children, the learned Judge commented very severely 
upon the discrepancy in the evidence of Bishop Hadfield on the point taken 
on oath and in the version of the affair which Sir Arthur Gordon had sent in a 
letter to Mr. Rusden in 1883 as reliable statements made to him (Sir Arthur 



OF NE W ZEALAND. 3 1 1 

Gordon) by the Bishop relative to the same affair. In the latter Sir Arthur 
Gordon had stated that the Bishop had told him that ' he wished to be well 
within the mark, and that five women, and at least ten children, were killed on 
that occasion ;' while when examined on oath the Bishop had not said that 
any women at all had been killed. It was a remarkable difference, for which 
he failed to discover any satisfactory explanation. Speaking of the Parihaka 
incident, the learned Judge, having dealt with the circumstances under which 
it had taken place, remarked, w^th reference to the large forca employed, that 
that seemed a very wise precaution if resistance was feared. It was the most 
likely manner of avoiding bloodshed. And there was, as a fact, no bloodshed. 
Mr. Bryce had no doubt destroyed the native medicine-house — doubtless of a 
somewhat sacred character — he said that it was necessary to have done so to 
check the growth of a dangerous fanaticism. No doubt in all such cases as 
these it w-as necessary for those in power to act with determination and firmly. 
Supposing Mr. Rusden considered this a cruel act, did he in his book discuss 
it in a fair spirit and without introducing personal attack? His Lordship then 
read the libel justification and particulars and remarked that it did seem a 
little as if Mr. Rusden was dragging in little unnecessary remarks in order to 
express such an opinion. There, however, was the article, and they must judge 
whether or not it was a personal attack or a fair and bona fide comment upon 
]\Ir. Bryce as a public man. No doubt these events were such as to challenge 
comment, yet that comment must be fair. If, then, they were of opinion that 
the defendant had not satisfied them that the libels were true in substance and 
fact, or that they were not fair and hotia fide comment, then the plantiff must 
have their verdict. In that case it would be for them to say what damages 
Mr. Bryce should have. They must not give vindictive damages, but such a 
sum as, looking at Mr. Bryce's position and all the surrounding circumstances, 
might be considered a fair and reasonable compensation for the pain and 
annoyance occasioned him and for the damage to his reputation and character. 
In dealing with that question, his Lordship said he thought the jury would be 
fully justified in taking into consideration the fact that no apology had been 
made. In conclusion, his Lordship said that he considered Mr. Bryce was 
perfectly right in bringing the action in England and not in New Zealand. 
They had followed the case with such care and attention that he had no mis- 
givings in now leaving it in their hands. They would have to say whether the 
passages in question were true in substance and effect. And, if not, then 
whether they were fair and bona fide comment written of a public man on a 
matter of public interest. 

" One of the jury asked his Lordship whether the question asto the^o«a_/f</^ 
belief of the defendant in the truth of what he wrote might be taken into 
consideration wnen dealing with the damages. 

"Mr. Baron Huddleston said that Mr. Justice Blackburn, in 'Campbell v. 
Spottiswoode ' had said that ' it may mitigate the amount, but cannot disentitle 
the plantiff to damages,' and although he did not himself see how it could be 
so where it was a case of compensation to the plantiff they might on that 
authority consider it in that sense. 

" The jury retired at 3.50 p.m., and returned at 4 p.m., finding a verdict for 
the plantiff, with damages -^5,000. 

" Mr. Tyrrell Paine asked for judgment. 

"Mr. Baron Huddleston gave judgment accordingly. 

" Sir John Gorst asked for a stay of execution on the ground that the 
damages were excessive, but Baron Huddleston said he could see no grounds 
for granting the request. He was quite clear upon the law of the case. 
He also certified for the special jury." 



312 THE DEFENDERS 

The following account of the skirmish at Nukumaru is furnished 
by an eye-witness (Trooper Francis J. Shortt) : — " Towards 
the end of November, 1868, the colonial force, under Colonel 
Whitmore, were encamped at Woodall's Redoubt, some few 
miles out of Wanganui, The force consisted of a few hundred 
infantry and about thirty mounted troopers (exclusive of volun- 
teers), I belonged to the troop under Captain Newland and Sub- 
Captain O'Halloran. On the afternoon of the 25th November, the 
troop received orders to be saddled up at midnight for a night 
expedition, the object of which was kept secret. At 12 o'clock we 
were all ready, but the rain descended so heavily we were ordered 
to unsaddle and turn in. On the following afternoon, we received 
a similar order, and at 12 o'clock at night we left Woodall's 
Redoubt, in charge of a guide, w^ho led us down a precipitous 
path to the beach below, where we met the Kai-Iwi Cavalry. We 
proceeded together along the beach under the cliffs, forded the 
Kai-Iw4 and Okehu streams, and turning inland, crossed the sand- 
hills on to the fertile land near Nukumaru, and then rorle on to the 
Wairoa Redoubt. I w^as very tired and turned in. About two 
o'clock next day, we started back again. We did not return by 
the same road we came, but by the sand-hills along the sea coast. 
AVe had nearly arrived abreast of Nukumaru, when Sergeant 
Handley, of the Kai-Iwi troop, who was riding with Captain 
Newland, said, ' I should like to have a look at my brother's 
propel ty.' I was riding behind Captain Newland at the time 
as he turned round and said, * Shortt, you go with Handley.' We 
immediately galloped off, and soon arrived at the edge of the 
sand-hills, on the top of which was a post-and-rail fence surround- 
ing some graves. While I held Handley's horse, he climbed the 
hill and disappeared through the rails. In about a minute, he 
came down and told me to go up and have a look, but not to 
expose myself. I did so, and from the top of the hill a grand view 
of the surrounding country was obtained. A placid lake lay to the 
right, a large woolshed close under the hill, clumps of flax extended 
everywhere. The whole immediate district seemed fenced in every 
direction. In front of the shed were three or four large fires burning, 
and I counted about twenty or thirty men and striplings busy 
about the shed. I took a good, steady five minutes' look at the 
place before I returned to Sergeant Handley, who was impatiently 
awaiting me. I said, ' Hauhaus, Handley.' He said, ' Yes,' and 
w^e galloped off at right-angles to the road we had come by, to 
intercept the troops, who had travelled on slowly a mile or two 
ahead, I fell into my place, and the troop immediately halted. 

" Captain Newland, hearing what Handley said, ordered the 
return of the troopers as quietly as possible, telling the men not to 
allow their sword scabbards to hit the stirrup irons, or otherwise 
make a noise. We were soon halted again behind the same ridge 
of sand-hills, but fully half a mile to the right of the hill with the 
graveyard. Three or four of the officers, with Captain Newland, 
here started off for the scene of our first discovery. I went with 



OF NE W ZEALAND. 3 1 3 

them, to hold their horses while they reconnoitred the country. 
After a good half hour they returned, and ordering up the troops, 
gave them orders to dismount and proceed down the slope, leading 
their horses, so as to keep as much as possible under cover. The 
men dismounted and about six or seven of them had gone over 
the ridge, when one of the Kai-Iwi trooper's carbines went off 
acc'dentally. I was at the monent holding six horses, and 
hearing the report and an order given to mount and charge, I 
became so excited that I let the horses escape, and found myself 
galloping after the troop over the ridge, in company with the late 
Sergeant Maxwell and three or four others. But I unfortunately 
came to grief, being stuck in the swamp, and it was some time 
before I was. able to get out and follow on. Eight Maoris were 
killed in the charge made. I saw three of them killed, and one I 
fired at, but missed, as he was running in front of my horse. This 
man I think was afterwards killed, as I saw him on the ground 
after the charge, and recognised him by his tattoo marks. The 
natives then swarmed out of their pa against us. Some of our men 
were eager to rush the pa, for which our force was, of course, 
totally inadequate, and they were only restrained by the peremptory 
orders that had been given to retire." 

It was during the Hon. Mr. Bryce's term of office as Minister 
for Native Affairs, in 1881, that the Parihaka troubles commenced. 
Ever since the suspension of hostilities, the natives of the West 
Coast had passively resisted the occupation of the lands confiscated 
as a punishment for their participation in the rebellion ; but it 
was not until the year mentioned that any danger to the settlers 
was apprehended by the authorities. Te Whiti, a Maori tohunga 
possessing great influence, had collected a large assemblage of 
natives at his pa at Parihaka, near Mount Egmont, and did not 
hesitate to demand back the confiscated lands. Fully 1600 natives 
were collected at the pa, including many fanatics ; and at last, after 
they had ploughed up the settlers' grass lands, and ordered them 
off their farms, there seemed every chance of a rupture. Mr. Bryce 
had been too great a sufferer himself during the war, to be further 
trifled with on this occasion, and determined on collecting a force, 
which would at once awe them into submission and save bloodshed. 
To effect this, he got together the Armed Constabulary of the colony, 
and calling upon the volunteer companies, Lieutenant Bennett, 
formerly of the Thames Navals, but then residing in Wellington, was 
the first to respond to to the call, by getting together one hundred 
men within twenty-four hours, and offering their services to the 
Government, which they gladly accepted ; and, promoting 
Lieutenant Bennett to the rank ot captain, dispatched him with 
his men for the seat of action that same evening. This was 
followed by a general volunteering throughout the North Island, 
as in the meantime the lamented Miss Dobie was foully murdered 
near Opunake by a native named Tuhi, and the public mind was 
in fever heat over the occurrence ; while the Government of the 
day were determined to carry out the Native Minister's scheme, of 



314 THE DEFENDERS 

giving the Maoris a last salutary lesson, despite Sir Arthur 
Gordon's disapproval. 

On the 30th of October, the roll, showing the strength of all 
arms, including the Armed Constabulary, collected at the various 
redoubts on the plains, were : — Pungarehu, 540 ; Rahotu, 250 ; 
Opunake, 119; Manaia Cavalry, 50; Armed Constabulary, 40. 
There were also on the march the Nelson volunteers (205), 
Wanganui volunteers (120), and Thames force (160), making a 
total of 15 1 7 effective men, under the command of Colonel 
Roberts and a staff of officers, all of whom had seen good service. 

The different contingents were now gradually moved forward to 
the level plains of Rahotu — the muster ground. It was some few- 
days before the order was given to march onwards to Parihaka, 
owing to the inefficiency of camp equipage, want of tents, and 
even of ammunition. Luckily for the forces the weather continued 
fine, and on the evening the commanding officer's parade took 
place it was bright moonlight, showing Mount Egmont with its 
snow-capped tower, rising far above the few clouds discernible, 
with all its grandeur and beauty. The men were quickly brigaded 
together, told off in companies, served with ball cartridge, and in 
light marching order were minutely inspected. There were then 
on the ground 1300 colonial troops, well drilled, splendid shots, 
and eager to settle once and for ever the Maori question of 
supremacy. The men were cool and collected, and every word of 
command was distinctly heard. A finer body of colonial troops 
had never been got together. After the rations were served out 
for the morrow, the men were dismissed to their tents, with orders 
that no one was to pass the lines. 

At 2 a.m. the following morning the camp was raised, and two 
hours after the 1300 men were in full march to Parihaka. Great 
care was taken to prevent surprise, as it was not by any means 
known at that moment whether the Maoris intended fighting or 
otherwise ; nor was the fact ascertained until the stronghold w^as 
actually in our possession. Pungarehu Redoubt was safely passed, 
ere the separate divisions debouched off to surround the village. 
About 6 o'clock a.m. Parihaka was reached, and, the advance 
being sounded, the Armed Constabulary moved cautiously along 
at the double from stump to tree, in admirable skirmishing order, 
until the village was surrounded at pretty close quarters ; every 
hill and dell round the pa being covered with armed men, waiting 
to hear the first shot fired, — the sign that the strife had begun. 
But it was not to be. Te "VVhiti, who had, no doubt, been informed 
of the effective force surrounding him, and the determined 
character of the men he had to deal with, decided on a non- 
belligerent policy. As I before observed, the village was 
surrounded with a precision and orderly advance creditable to any 
force, being as well handled, and with as little noise, as might be 
expected. But what might have turned out a disastrous move- 
ment, had fighting began, was the position of some of the 
contingents. These men, being marched through the entrance of 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



0^0 



the village to the rear, completed the cordon, but were in 
consequence exposed to the cross-fire of our own men. As they 
entered the village they were met by a body of young native girl.'-, 
singing their songs of welcome, while the older women cursed 
them heartily. 

The cordon being now complete, and no possibility of escape 
left, a body of the Armed Constabulary, under the command of 
IMajor Tuke and Captains Gudgeon and Newall, entered the mare 
(or sacred square), and in the name of the Queen called upon Te 
Whiti to surrender. The old prophet replied, "I am here if you 
want me ; walk over my young men's bodies," he being 
surrounded by ]\Iaoris lying on the ground all round him. The 
gallant i\Iajor hesitated not, but picking his steps between the 
natives, arrested the prophet, and sent him out with an escort. 
The grand old chief Tohu then gave himself up, together with 
several others. j\Iajor Tuke's work was not as yet complete, for it 
had been mooted abroad that Hiroki, the murderer of a man 
named IVIcLean, was amongst them. IMajor Tuke loudly called 
out the murderer's name, and on the fourth call a native jumped 
up. He seemed to rise mechanically, and, finding his mistake, 
was quietly settling down again, hoping he had not been noticed, 
when the escort pounced upon him, handcuffed him, and marched 
him off. This man's presence had been denied by the natives. 
The capture gave universal satisfaction, not only to the Europeans 
but to the better disposed JMaoris, who would not tolerate murder. 
He was soon after tried for the murder, found guilty, and 
executed ; showing to the ]\Iaoris that the Queen's warrant will 
eventually be served, if not at the moment. A large number of 
natives who refused to disperse were incarcerated. 

Although the press cast some ridicule on the Defence IMinister's 
presence while his plans were in operation, there can be but one 
mind as to his success, as it probably saved the colony many 
thousands, and the lives of many, both pakehas and Maoris ; for, 
had it not been for the overwhelming force brought against them, 
the Maoris would most undoubtedly have fought, and probably 
might have been nearly exterminated. Consequently it was an 
anxious time for Mr. Bryce, for had only one rifle gone off by 
accident in the mare, it would have been followed by a general 
fusillade, which would soon have reduced the village to a shamble. 

The Government of New Zealand have in many instances 
shown a niggardly spirit towards the volunteers. This was the 
case again at Parihaka. No sooner was the danger over than 
the Government treated the men with . tinted justice (forgetful of 
the sacrifice many of them had made in leaving their employment 
to serve their country) by dismissing them then and there, causing 
many officers and men to retire in disgust — a " penny wise and 
pound foolish " policy, which will be remembered should they ever 
be again called upon. 

The demonstration was brought to a close by a general return 
of all the volunteers to their respective districts, the Armed 



3i6 THE DEFENDERS 

Constabulary alone remaining for the purpose of preventing a 
return of the natives to Parihaka, who had been sent back to 
their own kiangas. Te Whiti, Tohu, and Titokowaru were tried, 
found guilty of assembling unlawfully, and confined as State 
prisoners during the Governor's pleasure. They were released 
shortly afterwards, and no further trouble worth speaking of was 
occasioned, showing the utility of Mr. Bryce's iron-handed 
policy. 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAI N TURNER. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 319 







URNEPv. 




The athick on /vcJi/ieJy's farm — Fightfjig on the East Coast — Decisive 
victory at Te Rangi — Incidents of the fight — Various skirmishes — 
Pursuit of Te Kooti. 

;APTAIN TURNER, of Tauranga, the third son of 
Colonel C. B. Turner, K.H. (Knight of Hanover), one 
of the Duke of Wellington's old veterans, was educated 
in Canada as a civil engineer ; and, when the Canadian 
(-rovernment arranged the active militia force, he was appointed an 
ensign in Brocknell's Rifles, which rank he held until 1861, when 
he resigned his commission, in consequence of his intention of 
proceeding to Auckland, where he arrived in August, 1862. 

Upon the breaking out of the war in that district in 1863, he was 
appointed a sub-inspector in the Colonial Mounted Defence Force, 
under the command of Colonel Nixon, and was sent on detachment 
to St. John's Redoubt at Papatoitoi, for the purpose of patrolling 
in the vicinity of the forest. When at this post he was suddenly 
ordered to Kennedys farm, where the Maoris had killed two 
children and wounded another; but he arrived too late, the natives 
having fled. 

After the battle of Rangiriri, he was ordered to join head- 
quarters at Ngaruawahia, and captured a spy in the guise of a 
Maori postman. He was then sent on to Papakura, to take charge 
of the depot, and remained in charge until headquarters returned. 

On the 30th April he received orders to einbark at Auckland for 
Tauranga ; marched all night, and next morning was on board the 
transport steamer Alexandra, with a detachment of artillery under 
Colonel Barstow. The sudden movement was in consequence of 
the disaster at the Gate Pa. He arrived at Tauranga on the ist 
May, just after the killed had been buried, and found there the 
68th, 43rd, and part of the 3rd Waikato Regiments, the Flying 
Column, and Royal Artillery. Shortly after his arrival, he 
marched, under Sir Duncan Cameron, out to attack the Potorifi 
Pa, on the Wairoa river, but found it empty. A military post was 
established here, but abandoned on the arrival of Sir George Grey; 
when General Cameron left for Auckland, and Colonel Greer, of 
the 68th, took command. 

On the 2oth June, 1 864, Captain Turner was ordered to reconnoitre 
the country beyond the Gate Pa, with three troopers only, so as 



320 THE DEFENDERS 

not to attract the notice of the enemy. He returned late in 
the afternoon, reporting a large number of natives near the 
Waimapu river, transporting supplies. This resulted in an order 
being given after tattoo for a march out in the morning, consisting 
of Artillery, portions of the 68th, 43rd, and ist Waikato 
Regiments, Flying Column, and JMounted Colonial Defence Force, 
the whole under Colonel Greer, who had not proceeded above a 
mile-and-a--half beyond the Gate Pa when the videttes were fired 
upon. But they soon drove in the enemy's picquets to the Te 
Rangi trenches, where the natives had made extensive earthworks. 
The Artillery, with one Armstrong gun, was placed on the rise in 
front of the trenches ; two companies of the 43rd flanked the 
right (a very awkward position in heavy fern on the slope of a 
gully) ; the Mounted Force dismounted and flanked the left, until 
relieved by a company of the 68th ; while the remaining portion 
of the 68th and 43rd, supported by the ist Waikato Regiment, 
formed the attacking party. The Armstrong gun was shortly after 
removed to flank the trenches on the left, where it did good 
execution. In the middle of the fight a dog belonging to the 
Artillery was wounded while lying under the gun, and howled 
fearfully. The fight had lasted about three hours, when the 
advance was sounded, and a gallant charge was made, without a 
waver, against a most galling fire, and the affair was soon 
brought to a close, the enemy being completely routed. The 
natives suffered heavily, having 152 killed, besides those who fell 
in the swamps, and whose bodies were never recovered. Their 
loss in wounded was large. Our loss was ten killed and thirty- 
five wounded. In charging across the rifle-pits Captain Turner's 
horse fell with him into the earthworks, but he soon remounted. 
The natives here fought well, meeting the bayonet with their 
spears. Several acts of individual bravery were displayed in this 
engagement, and mentioned in Colonel Greer's despatches. One 
was omitted, where a INIaori in close quarters was in the act of 
shooting an artillery sergeant, when Sergeant Charles, of the 
Mounted Defence Force, rode at him, and cut the back of his head 
clean ofi^, thereby saving the life of the artilleryman. Here it 
was, also, that Rawiri, the native general, was killed, and a noble 
fellow h2 was; he was shot down by one of the mounted men. 
When I say Rawiri was a noble savage, I speak not so much in 
praise of his undoubted pluck as for his humane feelings ; he 
having issued the order that, when Europeans were wounded 
or taken prisoners, they were to be well treated. This order was 
strictly carried out at the taking of the Gate Pa, when Colonel 
Booth, of the 43rd, and other wounded men were in the pa all 
night as prisoners, and were well treated by the natives. 

Rawiri was buried with the others in their own trenches, and 
was the only one encased in a blanket. vSome years later his body 
was exhumed by the Ngaiterangi tribe and buried in the cemetery, 
next the Europeans who fell at Te Rangi and the Gate Pa, the 
natives inviting Captain Turner to be one of the pall-bearers, as he 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 321 

was captain of the mounted men who had killed him. The captain 
accepted the compliment. After the fight at Te Rangi, Captain 
Turner was transferred to the ist Waikato Regiment at Tauranga, 
and affairs remained in statu quo until the latter end of 1866, when 
the natives again began to be troublesome, first burning Captain 
Tovey's house down, next murdering a settler named Campbell, 
who had gone to cultivate his land ; and as the natives had again 
collected in large numbers, it was thought advisable to disperse 
them. An outpost was accordingly established at Omanawa, about 
nine miles from Tauranga. Soon after a portion of the detachment 
under Captain Goldsmith (in reconnoitring) were suddenly attacked 
near Irihanga, and in the skirmish Sergeant-Major Emus was 
mortally wounded. It was then decided to attack their stronghold 
in force, and the ist Waikatos and volunteer engineers were 
ordered to Captain Tovey's farm under Colonel Harrington. They 
crossed the Wairoa river at sundown on the evening of the 22nd 
January. Marching all night, they arrived at Irihanga at sunrise, 
and after a sharp defence the pa was captured ; but the force being 
much annoyed at the enemy firing volleys from the edge of the 
forest, Captain Turner called for volunteers, who joined him quickly 
from the different companies and Volunteer Engineers, and having 
fixed bayonets, they, under a heavy fire, made a charge into the 
forest and took possession of the enemy's position. For this and 
other services Captain Turner was mentioned in dispatches and 
highly complimented in orders. 

After this the force proceeded through the forest to the Whata- 
whata pa, and found it abandoned. Shortly after arriving there 
the 1 2th Regiment, who were acting as a moral support, were seen 
coming from the direction of Minden Peak. After burning down 
the settlement the force returned through the forest to attack 
Whakamarama, where the enemy had gathered in force, and quickly 
drove them out of their settlement some distance into the forest, 
returning to camp at 9 p.m., after a heavy day's work and the loss 
of two killed and several wounded. Captain Mair during the day 
had his horse shot under him. 

It was supposed that after this the Maoris would remain quiet ; 
but such not being the case, another expedition to the same place 
was made on the 15th February, and again the force lost two men 
and a number of wounded, remaining in possession for some days 
destroying crops, etc. The next action fought was at Akiaki, 
where, after a night march, the force attacked the pa and routed 
the enemy, having several men wounded but none killed. The 
natives in these skirmishes lost twenty-one killed, besides the 
wounded. Plghting then ceased in this district, the natives 
having retired into the interior, the blockhouse erected and 
garrisoned near the bush at Pye's pa having had a salutary 
effect upon them. 

Nothing further of importance occurred until the end of 1869, 
when Te Kooti was at large on the warpath. Colonel McDonnell 
having followed him to Tapapa, a portion of the Armed Con- 

V 



7,22 THE DEFENDERS 

stabulary were instructed to go to Rotorua to try and intercept 
him, and Colonel Fraser, who commanded at Tauranga, applied 
for Captain Turner to join his staff, which he did, and two hours 
after was on his road to Rotorua, marching through the almost 
impenetrable forest for two days. It was hard work indeed, and 
proved to be Colonel Fraser's last march, as this gallant officer 
died shortly after of fever. Captain Turner was then appointed to 
the command of the East Coast Native Contingent, and returned 
to Akiaki. Here Te Kooti's advance guard laid an ambuscade, 
and, firing a volley, killed two of the Native Contingent and one 
Armed Constabulary man. After firing they retreated quickly 
to the bush, but the force succeeded in taking a prisoner. 
Captain Crapp here had .- narrow escape, as the two natives shot 
were standing on either side of him. 

On reconnoitring next day the force came upon Te Kooti's 
abandoned camp, some of his fires being still smouldering, which 
convinced them that he had taken the road to Rotorua. While 
on the march up the Waimana orders were sent for the force to 
return, and the Native Contingent being disbanded, Captain Turner 
sheathed his sword and returned to his civil duties. 



324 



THE DEFENDERS 




THE HON. JOHN BALLANCE. 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 



325 



HE 



JfoN. /. P 



ALLANCE. 




HE HONOURABLE JOHN BALLANCE, in the early 
days of the settlement of Wanganui, started a paper in 
the district, which, I believe, was one of the first dailies 
of the North Island. It was called the Wanganui 
Herald. It vas conducted so successfully that it soon became a 
paper of considerable circulation. ]\Ir. Ballance had the gift of 
not only writing a good article himself, but of making his paper so 
interesting that his journal was sought for far and near. At the 
beginning of hostilities in 1868, on the West Coast, martial law 
was proclaimed, and every available man called upon to volunteer 
for service, or to join the militia. Mr. Ballance at once called a 
meeting, and the Wanganui Volunteer Cavalry Corps was formed, 
in which he enrolled himself a member ; but before the services of 
the corps had been gazetted an order had gone forth from the 
commanding officer of the district, calling on all the inhabitants 
capable of bearing arms to enrol themselves in the militia. Mr- 
Ballance, among others, demurred to serving both as a volunteer 
and a militiaman, and sent a letter to the commander of the 
district, protesting against what he termed a tyrannical and sense- 
less order. The result was that a picquet was sent to arrest him, 
and he was lodged in the guard-room, but was immediately released 
without conditions. Mr. Ballance was shortly after elected cornet 
of the corps, which rendered distinguished service throughout the 
war. 

The most graphic accounts of the operations on the coast 
proceeded from his pen, and it was while doing duty as officer of 
cavalry and correspondent of his paper that he formed a 
lasting friendship with Colonel (now Sir George) Whitmore, 
both of whom were, ten years later, members of the same Cabinet. 
Towards the end of the war, Mr. Ballance fell foul of the 
Government, in consequence of an article violently attacking them 
for incapacity, which he was supposed to have written. His 
commission as cornet in the corps which he had raised, and 

V* 



326 THE DEFENDERS 

which he had materially assisted to gain a colonial reputation, 
was cancelled without inquiry, and on no better evidence than 
mere suspicion that he was the author of the obnoxious article. 
In 1875, ]\Ir. Ballance was elected a member of the House cf 
Representatives for Rangitikei, and in 1878, he joined the Grey 
^linistry, holding the portfolios of Colonial Treasurer and ]\Iinister 
of Education until, through a difference of opinion with the 
Premier, he resigned in 1879. At the general election of the same 
year he defeated Sir William Fox at Wanganui, but was himself 
defeated in 1881, regaining his seat,' however, by an overwhelming 
majority, on the appeal to the country by the Atkinson Ministry 
in 1884. Upon the formation of the Stout Ministry, Mr. Ballance 
was asked to join, and at present holds the important portfolios 
of Native Affairs, Lands, Immigration, and Defence. 

The Honourable John Ballance has, during his term of office, 
introduced and inaugurated the Village Farm Settlement Scheme 
of perpetual leases, thereby inducing the unemployed to turn their 
attention to the cultivation of the land, the true source of wealth in 
all new countries, and relieve the townships of their presence. 
These Village Settlements he has established in various parts 
of the North Island, and already upwards of a thousand persons 
have been located thereon, leaving it entirely to their industry 
to secure a happy and permanent homestead. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 327 




B^OUGHTON. 




Recovery of Captain Lloyd's head — The skirmish at Niikumaru — 
Treacherously murdered in a Maori pa. 

HARLES WILLIAM BROUGHTON arrived in New 
Zealand in January, 1852, and during the early years of 
the colony carried on considerable business relations 
with the natives, his head-quarters during the grain 
season being at Marahowai, a settlement in the upper Wanganui, 
and the residence of the celebrated old chief Topine Te Mamaku. 
He was afterwards in the service of the Piovincial Government 
of Wellington as interpreter, and was attached in that capacity to* 
the staff of the late Dr. P'eatherston, who was acting as Land 
Purchase Commissioner for the province, and assisted in the 
completion of the purchase of the Waitotara block, the original 
negotiations having been initiated by the late Sir Donald McLean, 
who paid to the natives the first instalment of the purchase-money. 
At the outbreak of the Taranaki war, in i860, he was employed in 
various capacities by the Government, and, at very great personal 
risk, succeeded in interviewing the rebel natives and getting them 
to deliver up the head of the late Captain Lloyd, of Pier Majesty's 
57th Regiment, who had fallen in an attack made on the escort 
outside New Plymouth, and which was being carried about the 
country in a manner horrifying to Europeans, being used as a 
trophy to excite the unsettled natives to throw in their future with 
the rebels. P'or this service Mr. Broughtcn received a written 
testimonial from all the officers of the 57th Regiment, accompanied 
with a valuable silver cup (26th June, 1864), as a token of their 
appreciation of his gallantry and zeal in putting an end to what 
was felt to be a most deplorable exhibition. 

At the outbreak of the war in Wanganui, Mr. Broughton joined, 
in his official capacity as interpreter, the Imperial forces under 
General Cameron, and accompanied them from Wanganui to 
Alexander and Peat's station, at Kai-Iwi, on the 3rd January, 
1865, was present at the skirmish (24th January, 1865^1 at 
Nukumaru, w^here Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General Johnston 
and two privates were killed, and seven men wounded. He was 
present also on the 25th January, 1865, when the rebels attacked 
the British camp, and succeeded, under cover of smoke, having 
first fired the fern, in breaking through the advanced pickets of 



328 7 HE DEFENDERS 

the troops, and charged up to within thirty yards of the General's 
tent before being repulsed and driven back. The British loss on this 
occasion was ten killed and two officers and eighteen men 
wounded. The native loss was supposed to be heavy, nine killed 
and three wounded being brought into camp. He accompanied 
the forces to Patea, and was present at the action at Te Ngaio, 
when the natives, who met the troops in the open, suffered heavily, 
being thrown back in disorder, and their pa at Kakaramea taken 
and occupied by the Imperial troops. He was wdth the forces 
during their continued advance through Katemarae and J\lana- 
wapo until reaching Wairongora, and remained in the field until 
the troops went into winter quarters. The campaign then 
languished, and the Government, wishing to circulate their terms 
of peace amongst the rebels, Broughton proceeded to the Wereroa, 
then held by a 'British detachment, and endeavoured through the 
medium of a friendly native named Kereti, to open communications 
with the hostile natives. 

MURDER OF KERETI, OF MR. CHARLES BROUGHTON, 
AND OF TROOPER SMITH. 

The Hauhaus on the West Coast having refused to receive the 
peace proclamation issued by His Excellency Sir George Grey, in 
1865, it was found to be absolutely necessary, for the peace of the 
district, that they should be punished ; for these tribes, taking 
advantage of the absence of colonial forces at Opotiki, had com- 
mitted some very treacherous and barbarous murders. The first one 
was on a Wanganui Maori named Kereti, who had been attached 
to Brigadier Waddy's staff as native orderly. This man had been 
ordered to select some one among the Wereroa prisoners to carry 
the peace proclamation to the Ngarauru and Pahakohi tribes, a 
dangerous duty for anyone but a Hauhau to undertake. One of 
the prisoners, Tariu by name, was chosen, and he volunteered to 
do the work. Mr. C. Broughton, interpreter to the forces, approved 
of the choice, and warned Kereti not to proceed beyond the 
Wereroa, he being a Wanganui, and friendly to the Europeans. 
Kereti acknowledged that it would be unsafe to do so, and 
promised to remain at the AVereroa. On the 25th of September, 
he and Tariu started from Wanganui, and on the arrival at the redoubt 
Tariu was sent with the proclamation to the Putahi, while Kereti, 
forgetting Mr. Broughton's warning, proceeded on the same 
errand to the Ngarauru tribe. On reaching the village of Arei 
Ahi, he observed a strong party of Hauhaus, who were en route to 
waylay stragglers from the Wereroa. These men he avoided 
by hiding in the fern. After they had passed he went on to the 
Waitotara River, where he saw four women and a man named 
Rawiri on the opposite bank. 

Kereti called to them and stated his errand, but was promptly 
informed that they would not consent to peace-making. He then 
asked them whether he was to return to the Wereroa. The women 



OF NEW ZEALAND. ^n^ 

replied in the affirmative, but Rawiri said, '* Return here to- 
morrow, and the tribes will then talk it over with you." Kereti 
very foolishly trusted to the good faith of a Hauhau, and on the 
following morning started to meet the tribe ; but he did not go 
far, for the Hauhaus, expecting him, had an ambuscade laid on 
the edge of the Karaka plateau, within sight of the Wereroa, and 
their first volley mortally wounded him. He fell, and was 
immediately stripped of his valuables, but, strange to say, was not 
tomahawked. The garrison of the redoubt saw the volley fired, 
and hastened to his assistance. They found him dying, and 
carried him to the camp, where he lived suffi.ciently long to make 
a statement to Mr. C. Broughton. 

Even the ex-Hauhau Tariu was not well received, for the people 
of the Putahi refused to receive the proclamations, and kept him 
a prisoner for some days. Eventually he was allowed to depart ; 
but his chief and relation, Hare Tipene, warned him to return by 
the sea coast, not by the track he had used previously, as 
ambuscades were lying in wait for him. 

The treacherous disposition shown by these tribes ought hence- 
forth to have been a warning to those people inclined to trust them- 
selves to Maori honour. But such was not the case, as will be seen. 
On the 26th of September, a letter, signed by some Patea Hauhaus, 
was sent in to one of the redoubts. It contained a request that 
some person acquainted with the J\Iaori language might be sent 
to confer with them on the proclamations which had reached them 
by the agency of Tariu. On receipt of this letter. Brigadier 
Waddy ordered Mr, C. Broughton to proceed to Kakaramea and 
communicate with the rebels. No time was lost, and, on the 30th, 
Broughton and a Maori assessor from Wanganui, escorted by ten 
soldiers, left the Kakaramea Redoubt, and proceeded in the 
direction of Otoia. Their flag of truce was seen, and a few 
Hauhaus went out to meet them, and invited them to enter 
the pa. This Wx. Broughton very properly refused to do, but 
proposed that the meeting should be held midway between their 
respective strongholds. The INIaoris would not agree to this very 
reasonable request, and Mr. Broughton returned to the redoubt. 
On the following morning he went to the meeting-place of the 
previous day, and after hoisting the flag was met by three 
Hauhaus. One of them had been Mr. Broughton's servant 
some years previously, and now tried hard to persuade his 
former master to enter the pa, assuring- him that he would be safe. 
Wi Pukapuka, the assessor, tried equally hard to prevent it, 
saying that treachery was intended, and absolutely refused to go 
a step further himself. 

]\Ir. Broughton unfortunately trusted his old servant, and went 
on to the pa, while his companions returned to Kakaramea, feeling 
that they had seen the last of him. Of the tragedy that ensued 
there is no really authentic account, but the following statement 
made by an eye-witness, who belonged to another tribe, is 
probably true : — When Ruka and Broughton entered the pa, they 



.-,o 



THE DEFENDERS 



found the tribe assembled ; but instead of the loud welcome of 
" Haere mai ! Haere mai ! " usual in such cases, they were 
received in dead silence. As they entered the gate, Broughton 
saluted the Hauhaus, but received no reply, and saw, when too 
late, that his fate was sealed. He sat down for a few moments 
amidst the dead silence, and then, probably to hide his feelings, 
took out his pipe, walked towards the fire and began to light it. 
While thus engaged a native shot him through the back, and he fell 
partly upon the embers, where he writhed in agony until they dragged 
him off the fire and threw him over the cliff into the Patea River. 
Thus far the peace proclamations had caused two barbarous 
murders. The Ngarauru Pahakohi tribes having in this manner 
shown their desire for war, the people of Tangahoe and Ngati- 
tupaea evinced the same spirit, for, on the 4th of October, five 
troopers of the military train fell into an ambush on the main 
road between IManawapou and Te Hawera. Two of their horses 
were shot. Trooper Smith, unable to move, his horse having 
fallen on him, was tomahawked ; but his comrade escaped, after 
knocking down a Hauhau who tried to stop him. 



r:>2 



THE DEFENDERS 




RENATA KAWEPO, 



OB NEW ZEALAND. 333 



JR.ENATA ^AWEPO. 




A genuine friend of the pakeha — Gallant services on the East Coast — A 

tussle for life. 

ENATA KAWEPO, a well-known chief of Hawke's Bay, 
took a prominent part on the side of law and order 
during the disturbances on the East Coast, and distin- 
guished himself on several occasions by his personal 
prowess. In the same spirit in which he afterwards refused to 
offer himself for the House of Representatives and declined a seat 
in the Legislative Council, he took the field as a volunteer with his 
people. The proffered rank of major had no charms for him, as 
he was conscious that no mere creation of the kind could add to his 
influence or dignity as chief of his tribe. Renata's first service on 
our side was in the attack upon Omarunui (Hawke's Bay), where, 
under command of Whitmore, he led the Ngatiteupokoiri into the 
thick of the fight. The enemy was completely routed and defeated. 
For his services on this occasion Renata, who refused pay, received 
from Mr. Superintendent (afterwards Sir Donald) McLean a pre- 
sentation sword. He afterwards went to Wairoa and took part in 
the fighting against the Hauhaus there, and subsequently at 
Turanganui. On the voyage to the latter place the people had 
suffered severely from sea-sickness. Hapuku counselled delay, to 
" give the young men time to recover." Renata insisted on imme- 
diate action, saying that was the best cure. They accordingly 
marched the same night, and Patutahi was attacked and captured 
at daybreak. He took part in the successful attack on Te Karetu, 
and was present at the subsequent operations against Ngatapa. 
When afterwards, at Tarawera, Colonel Whitmore called for a 
storming party against Te Waiparati, Renata Kawepo was the 
first man to volunteer. It was found, however, that the enemy had 
evacuated the place. 

Renata's last performance was at Taupo, whither he had taken 
his people as "kupapas" (volunteers), under Colonel McDonnell, 
to fight against Te Kooti. After some skirmishing they attacked 
the Papakai pa simultaneously from three points, and then found 
that the enemy had retired on Porere. Without waiting to be 
attacked there, the Hauhaus came out, and a general fight ensued, 
the enemy suffering severe defeat. In the pursuit which followed 
there was much hand-to-hand fighting. Being well in front, and 



334 THE DEFENDERS 

separated from his own people, Renata was attacked by a powerful 
Hauhau, and it became a trial of personal strength, each endea- 
vouring to disarm the other. Whilst they thus struggled together 
on the ground the Hauhau's wife, like an enraged tigress, sprang 
upon Renata and gouged out his right eye with her sharp talons. 
She would have had the other eye also, but Renata, whose hands 
were engaged with the Hauhau under his knees, seized the woman's 
fingers between his teeth, and, biting them to the bone, held her 
firmly as in a vice. At this conjuncture Petera Rangiheuea, a 
Ngatiporou warrior, came up and " relieved all parties." By 
applying the muzzle of his rifle to the head of the unfortunate 
Hauhau, whom Renata held firmly down by the hair, with his face 
to the earth, he gave him his coup de grace. Renata was then 
taken to camp on a stretcher in an unconscious state, but recovered 
in time to prevent his people killing the woman who had come so 
gallantly to the rescue of her husband. 

In consideration of the loss of his eye, and in recognition gene- 
rally of his meritorious conduct, the Government bestowed on 
Renata a pension of one hundred a year. Being the owner of an 
extensive estate, and cultivating European tastes, the old chief now 
lives in comparative affluence at Omaha, about twelve miles from 
Napier, 



336 



THE DEFENDERS 




OF NEW ZEALAND, 337 



Lieut. jStandish. 




IIEUTENANT FRANK STANDISH was one of the 
early settlers of Taranaki, and in the pursuit of colonial 
farming, was soon efncient as a good shot, a fearless 
yi rider, and had gained a thorough knowledge of bush 
life. At the outbreak of hostilities, he took up arms to defend 
himself and family; and, early in the year i860, just after the 
burning of the Waitara Pa by the natives. Governor Gore Browne 
entrusted him with important dispatches to convey to Wellington, 
a distance of 270 miles through the enemy's country, which he 
accomplished in the short space of three days ; the only places on 
the route where the natives showed any signs of stopping him 
being at Waihi and Patea. He spent his first night between 
Manawapow and Patea, among-st a large party of armed natives, 
camped in the open country, considering he was safer there, and 
less likely to be attacked alone amongst a number, than if pursued 
by a few. He reached AVanganui about 1 1 a.m. the following day 
after which all went smoothly, and he eventually reached 
Wellington, and delivered his dispatches. 

He was present and took part in the battle of Waireka, and 
accompanied Colonel Gold's expedition to Warea, and was after- 
wards with General Pratt at Mahoetahi, where he crossed the river 
with the friendly chief Mahau, to try and ascertain the probable 
number of natives located there. When within one hundred 
yards they were fired upon, and, upon reporting the same to 
Colonel Carey, he immediately advanced, and destroyed the pa. 
Standish was then ordered to Kihi with General Pratt, and 
discovering some rifle-pics close to the pa, was only just in time to 
save the lives of the force uijder Colonel Carey, who, after firing a 
few shots, marched into an empty pa. 

The carrying of these dispatches through the enemy's country, 
at this period of the outbreak, was one of the most daring things 
of the war. 

W 



338 THE DEFENDERS 



Sergt.- Majoi^ Maling. 




fERGT.-MAJOR CHRISTOPHER MALING earned 
the New Zealand Cross for the valuable and efficient 
services he rendered as sergeant of the corps of guides 
on many occasions, and especially in going out to scout 
in advance with three men (two of whom were shot on the 
morning of the 26th February, 1869), by which an intended 
ambuscade was discovered, and many lives saved. And for a long 
reconnaissance with two men of the corps of guides (which lasted 
two nights and days) in advance, to ascertain the direction of 
Titokowaru's retreat after he had evacuated Tauranga-i-ka. This 
service was a most daring one, and of the utmost importance to 
the force, as intelligence was thus obtained which in no other way 
could have been procured. 

From the moment of Maling volunteering for field service until 
he left — on conclusion of the war — he was conspicuous for his cool 
pluck and dash. He was much liked by his companions in arms, 
and never led them into any difficulty he did not share with them. 
Many years ago Maling's parents, brothers, and sisters were mur- 
dered by the natives, the memory of which sad event appeared to 
be always present before him, urging him on to avenge their deaths. 
At the end of the war, INIaling was engaged by the Government 
to construct telegraph lines through some of the roughest parts of 
New Zealand, at which work he was eminently successful. Mr. 
Tvlaling is now in Japan, where he holds a post of some 
responsibility under the Government of that country. 



340 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR NOAKE. 



__i 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 341 



M 



AJOR 
J ^ J 



N 



OAKE. 




Some incidents of the Crimean ivar — -The relief of Pipiriki — Resident 
Magistrate at Upper Wanganiii — Expedition tip Waitotarn river — 
Pacification of Patea. 

AJOR NOAKE, when only sixteen, left his boarding 
school for the ranks of a cavalry regiment then quartered 
in the South of Ireland, where he witnessed the painful 
scenes caused by the famine of 1847 and 1848, and was 
in Tipperary during Smith O'Brien's escapade, as also in Yorkshire 
during the Chartist riots. The war with Russia took his regiment 
to the East, where it formed a portion of the heavy brigade of 
cavalry. After serving some time in Bulgaria, where the regiment 
suffered severely from cholera, they were sent to the Crimea, took 
part in the siege of Sebastopol, and were present at the three 
Balaclava episodes — viz., (i) The unsuccessful defence of the 
advanced redoubt by the Turkish troops, when his regiment 
supported. In this affair there were many casualties ; amongst 
them the ]\Iajor's horse was wounded and his sword-scabbard 
broken by a bursting shell. (2) The charge of the Heavy Brigade 
and repulse of the Russian attack upon Balaclava, in which the 
Major took part, and assisted afterwards in taking prisoners. 
(3) The celebrated charge of the Light Brigade, whose attack was 
supported by Major Noake's regiment, the Scots Greys. While 
thus engaged the regiment suffered terribly from the heavy fire of 
the enemy. ]\Iajor Noake had his sword knocked out of his hand, 
his revolver torn from his side, and his leg smashed. It was an 
unfortunate day for him, as, although he received the disting-uished 
conduct in the field medal for his action therein, his wound caused 
him to be invalided home and discharged. Prior to this his 
promotion had been rapid, though so young, that his future would 
have been assured had he remained with his regiment in the 
Crimea. Some time after he was presented with a commission in 
his own country militia regiment, then embodied by the Lord- 
Lieutenant, and subsequently obtained his lieutenancy therein. 
He afterwards obtained perrriission and was attached to the 
garrison for qualification for a commission as riding master, and 
was appointed to the Military Train. A few months only elapsed 
when the mutiny in India broke out, which caused the King's 
Dragoon Guards to be suddenly ordered to India to assist in its 

W* 



342 THE DEFENDERS 

suppression, and the riding master of the regiment obtaining his 
captaincy, Major Noake was appointed to the vacant post, and 
soon found himself with his new regiment in Calcutta, with every 
appearance of abundant active service, but was disappointed by 
being ordered to Madras, where they took no part in the stirring 
events beyond the disarming a mutinous native cavalry regiment. 
The climate soon caused his old wound to break out again, and 
undergoing an operation, he was for the second time invalided and 
transferred to a home regiment, until he ultimately left the service, 
and in 1863 came out to this colony. Finding the war in the 
Waikato was likely to continue, he applied for service and was 
appointed captain of militia and transfer! ed to the Wellington 
Defence Force, which company as adjutant he materially assisted 
in organising. Major Noake afterwards commanded the force 
stationed in Rangitikei, which command he retained until it was 
disbanded, when the Major was appointed Resident Magistrate of 
Upper Wanganui district, succeeding Mr. White in that office. In 
his magisterial capacity he attached himself to the expedition sent 
to the relief of Pipiriki. He relieved Mr. Booth in the magistracy 
of Rangitikei, and was offered that of Raglan, which private affairs 
of his own in Rangitikei obliged him to decline. In 1868, the war 
having been brought to the doors of the Wanganui settlers, the 
commanding officer obtained his assistance as adjutant. On one 
occasion, having taken despatches to Colonel Whitmore, and finding 
him just about to attack Moturoa, he offered his services and that 
of his escort of Wanganui Cavalry, and consequently was by 
accident present at that disastrous affair. The command of the 
district being now given to Major Noake, he conducted an ezpedi- 
tion up the Waitotara River after rebel natives. The force took three 
days' rations only, but were away eleven days, and received the 
thanks of the Government for the manner in which the expedition 
had been conducted, without tents, transport or commissariat, but 
that taken from the enemy. He afterwards searched the Whenua- 
kura and Patea Rivers, which resulted in the capture of the 
Pukekohe tribe, with their chief, Tauroa, and the despatch to 
Dunedin of 180 prisoners. For this service he was again compli- 
mented by the Government, and employed in the re-pacification of 
the Patea district, the object being to get the outsettlers back again 
on their land. Major Noake occupied Waihi with a garrison of 
Ngatiporou, built blockhouses, and was appointed Resident 
Magistrate, and entrusted with the construction of roads, etc. 
When these duties were successfully accomplished, and the district 
re-settled and prosperous, he was relegated to Wanganui. Te 
Whiti's action creating alarm by ploughing up the settlers' land 
his military abilities were again called into action, and he was 
dispatched to Patea to take measures for its defence in organising 
and arming the settlers, and retained the command until the 
termination of the disturbance, which ended in Te Whiti being 
taken prisoner. 



344 



2HE DEFENDERS 




SIR WALTER L. BULLER 




OF NEW ZEALAND, 345 



IPv W. L. BuLLE^ 



:iR WALTER L. BULLER, eldest son of one of out 
earliest missionaries, was born in New Zealand, con- 
sequently received his early education in this colony, 
Si and went Home to complete his studies. Before his 
return to the colony he obtained his degree as Doctor of Science, 
and was called to the Bar of the Inner Temple. He has since 
practised his profession as a barrister and solicitor, besides 
devoting himself to literature and science. He has been created 
a Knight of St. Michael and St. George, and elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society. At the time of the West Coast campaign 
he was stationed at Wanganui as Resident Magistrate of that 
district, and had special charge of native affairs. At the taking 
of the Wereroa Pa in July, 1865, he as a volunteer accompanied 
Sir George Grey from Wanganui, and was present at the operations 
before that stronghold. He rode with His Excellency and others 
to within ten paces of the outer palisades, behind which the Maori 
rifle-pits were lined with barking fanatics, who covered the 
Governor's party with their guns, while the parley was proceeding, 
waiting only for the order to fire. On the night of the capture of 
the pa he undertook to carry from, the camp to Wanganui some 
important despatches from the Commander-in-chief, relating to the 
complications that had arisen from the investment of Pipiriki, and 
the rising of the natives on the East Coast, which service he 
performed at considerable personal risk ; as, without an escort, he 
rode alone at midnight many miles through the enemy's country. 
Sir George Grey, in referring to this act, spoke of it as " carrying 
despatches under circumstances of danger ; " and Lieut.-Colonel 
Rooke, the officer in command of the district, in his despatch, 
described it as " an act of conspicuous personal courage, and a 
service which, in the Imperial, army, would have been rewarded by 
some special mark of distinction." He afterwards, by order of 
the Governor, proceeded to Wellington with about one hundred 
Maori prisoners of war, whom he handed over to the authorities ; 



346 THE DEFENDERS 

and when, in the following year, these prisoners made their escape 
from the hulk, he organised an armed party of Maori volunteers, 
and scoured the Ruahine Ranges in pursuit, receiving for this 
prompt and zealous service the official thanks of the Government, 
General Sir Trevor Chute has also placed on record his acknow- 
ledgment of Sir W. L. Buller's services in furnishing valuable 
native information before the commencement of his memorable 
campaign of 1866. 

In one of the first engagements with the enemy Major (now 
Colonel) INIcDonnell, at the head of the Native Contingent, got 
severely wounded in the foot, and was reported disabled ; where- 
upon Sir W. L. Buller, who is a first-class Maori linguist, promptly 
wrote to the Government, and volunteered for active service in his 
stead, believing that his knowledge of, and influence with, the 
natives would be of special use to the general. His offer was 
favourably received, but McDonnell, although suffering intense 
and personal inconvenience from his wound, gallantly refused to 
relinquish the command. 



348 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN H. A. LOMAX 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



349 



Captain 




LOMAX. 




lAPTAIN H. A. LOMAX was sent from the civil 

department, with which he was connected at Wellington, 

by Sir William Fox, to join Colonel McDonnell at 

Taupo, in his campaign against Te Kooti in November, 

colonel having applied for trustworthy officers to 

Soon after his arrival, on 24th January, 1870, 



1869; the 
accompany him. 

he was present at the attack on the camp at Tapapa, at the 
head of the waters of the Thames River, where he distinguished 
himself by his coolness while under a heavy cross-fire, and 
subsequently in a skirmish at the foot of the ranges separating 
Waikaio from the Lake Country ; the force having been attacked 
on the march. The fire of the enemy was very sharp while 
it lasted, but the troops soon drove them off, with the loss of 
five killed and one prisoner. The force then moved on to 
Tauranga and Maketu, a most toilsome march through heavy 
bush up to Opotiki. On the force arriving at Tauranga a long 
discussion was held by the friendly natives as to the propriety of 
giving up the stern chase after a flying enemy, and one of the 
principal chiefs tried hard to persuade the Wanganuis to return ; 
but old Governor Paipai, ever on the right side, sprang to his feet 
and combatted his arguments by declaring that those men who 
feared a little hardship were cowards ; and, pointing to Capta«in 
Morrison, Lieutenant Lomax, and the other thirty Europeans with 
McDonnell, said, " Even though you go back, these men will not." 
Nothing will so stimulate a Maori to action as the fear of resting 
under an imputation of cowardice, and the march was resumed. 
Presently a new earthwork was discerned, but whether occupied by 
our men or the rebels it was impossible to say. Shortly after the 
sound of musketry was heard, and bullets whistled through the 
air in all directions. This lasted for half-an-hour and suddenly 
ceased, to the great relief of the Wanganuis, who could not 
possibly understand it, no enemy being seen engaging the men 
holding the redoubt ; and it was equally evident the fire was not 



350 THE DEFENDERS 

intended for them. To ascertain who the strangers were was now 
a service of considerable danger, for, whether friendly or otherwise, 
they would be sure to fire on any scouts seen ; but the attempt had 
to be made, and forty Wanganuis, led by Lieutenant Lomax, were 
sent out to do it. Captain Morrison being at the time disabled, 
owing to having staked his leg. These men crawled up to within 
a short distance of the redoubt in true Maori fashion, unseen by the 
supposed enemy, and, to their astonishment, found the redoubt to 
be manned by a mixed force of Europeans and friendly Maoris, 
under Colonel Fraser, whom they could distinctly make out- 
How Fraser got there puzzled them, as they supposed him to 
be at Rotorua, guarding the passes to the Uriwera country. The 
only difficulty now was to make themselves known without being 
fired upon, when Lieutenant Lomax again undertook the duty, 
feeling assured he would not be taken for a Hauhau ; but he had 
forgotten his bush-ranging costume, and the sentry had actually 
covered him with his rifle, and would have fired, but for the inter- 
vention of Sub-Inspector Withers, to whom Lomax may be said 
to owe his life. For his services Lomax was promoted to the rank 
of captain, and received the New Zealand war medal at the close 
of the war. 



35- 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR GUDGEON 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 353 




P 



AJOR LrUDGEON, 




Engagement 7iear Wereroa Pa — Besieged at Peperiki— Command of the 
Native Contingent — -Services under General Chute. 

AJOR GUDGEON entered the service, at Wanganui, 
as a very young man, just as the rebellion had reached 
j that district, and from his knowledge of the Maori 
Ul language and the drilling he had previously received at 
Taranaki, he was at once placed in the Native Contingent, as 
sergeant-major of that branch of the service. The first time he 
was under fire was w^hile occupying the Karaka heights, the 
morning prior to the taking of the Wereroa Pa. Just before 
daybreak. Colonel McDonnell, taking with him Captain Wirihana, 
Sergt. -Major Gudgeon, and three or four of his men, started on a 
reconnoitring expedition, and had not proceeded far when they 
heard voices in the valley below, which they soon discovered was 
the village of Areiahi, containing several large whares, some of 
which were seemingly full of armed natives on their way to the 
defence of the Wereroa. It was still quite dark, and without 
waiting for the main body to come up, which the Colonel had 
hurriedly despatched a messenger for, he descended the hill and, 
approaching the large Rununga whare, called upon the natives 
inside to surrender, when a reply came in the shape of a bullet 
much too near McDonnell and his small party to be pleasant. 
This caused the Colonel to call out that any further action on 
their part was useless, as they were quite surrounded, that he 
would give them five minutes to lay down their arms, and that 
if another shot was fired he would blow the whare to pieces. This 
speech seemingly had the desired effect as no further demon- 
stration was made, and the five minutes having expired. Captain 
Wirihana approached the door of the whare, and pushing it 
back, the sergeant-major crawled in on his hands and knees and 
demanded their arms. The natives denied having any, when on 
turning up the fern around the inside walls, 42 guns, mostly 
double-barrelled, were discovered, with the ammunition, which he 
handed out to Captain Wirihana, thereby disarming them. The 
force sent for was by this time coming down the hill, and the 
prisoners were handed over to them, and next day marched into 
town and shipped off to Wellington. 

For this action he gained his commission. Two days after he 

X 



354 THE DEFENDERS 

took part in the relief of Peperiki, a post sixty miles up the 
Wanganui River, which was besieged by Pehi Turoa, an Upper 
Wanganui chief, with several hundreds of his followers. Ho 
accompanied the native contingent, as second in command, to 
Opotiki, and was present in every engagement at Kiore Kino, the 
Hill Pas, and Waimana, where he surprised the notorious 
Kereopa ^the eye swallower) with his twelve apostles, killing two 
of the party. He accompanied Sir Trevor Chute in his campaign 
of 1866, and was present at both attacks on Okotuku, and in the 
valley fight of Putahi, for which he was promoted to his lieutenancy, 
but unfortunately, while in the act of preparing for the next 
morning's fight, his revolver accidentally exploded, the charge 
passing through his thigh, which incapacitated him for the 
remainder of that campaign. On recovering from his wound, he 
was appointed to the command of the Native Contingent at 
Peperiki, where he remained until recalled to the Patea, v/here he 
took part in all the engagements fought in that district, with the 
exception of the disastrous one of Te Ngutu-o-te-Manu, being on 
that occasion left in charge of the camp. He served both under 
Colonels McDonnell and Whitmore during the West Coast 
campaign against Titokowaru, leading the Native Contingent 
throughout, their services ending in the severe action at Moturoa, 
where Colonel Whitmore encountered the full strength of the West 
Coast tribes under Titokowaru. 

He followed Te Kooti into the fastnesses of the Uriwera country, 
and at the termination of the war was appointed Resident 
Magistrate at Gisborne. He was again recalled to take the 
com.m.and of his company during the disturbance at Parihaka, and 
was left in charge of the district of Manaia until April, 1885, when 
he gained his majority, and was placed in command of the land 
forces at Wellington (the seat of Government). A few months 
later. Colonel Reader, the Under-Secretary of Defence, finding 
his health giving way, applied for cix months' leave of absence, 
and Major Gudgeon was appointed to take his place in the 
meantime. 

Colonel Sir George Whitmore, in his despatch of the 7th 
November, 1868, thus speaks of this officer's conduct at Moturoa : 
" Captain Gudgeon and Mr. E. McDonnell, in charge of the 
Native Contingent, who, though unable to bring on their men, 
followed Kempt to the field, and shared the honour which he has 
won." 

PLUCKY CONDUCT OF THE THREE GUIDES. 

On the morning of the second attack on Okotuku, under General 
Chute, the three guides, namely. Lieutenant Gudgeon, Captain 
William McDonnell, and the brave Winiata, were some distance 
ahead of the attacking force, and not being aware that the main 
body had halted for a few minutes before ascending to the plateau 
on which the pa was situate, continued to advance until within 
twenty yards of the palisading, when they received a volley which 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 355 

caused them to adopt Major Von Tempsky's drill in bush warfare, 
namely, to throw themselves flat on the ground. The force had 
just arrived on the brow of the hill at the time, and witnessing' 
the manoeuvre thought at least they were either killed or severely 
wounded. But, in an instance, they were up again, and making 
for a potato-pit close by, had just time to throw themselves in 
before receiving the second volley. General Chute asked Colonel 
jNIcDonnell what the devil they were about, when the Colonel 
answered he supposed they were going to take the pa. The 
General, enjoying the joke, ordered the advance at the double, 
and some of the natives, who had come out of the pa to intercept 
the guides' retreat, had to scamper back again quickly. As the 
force advanced the guides came out of their cover, and joining 
with the troops rushed the pa, which soon fell into our hands, but 
not without some heavy casualties. 



356 THE DEFENDERS 



Henare K 



ENARE KEPA. 



TE AHURURU OF THE NATIVE CONTINGENT. 




pNSTABLE HENARE KEPA obtained the New Zea- 
land Cross for his gallant conduct during the attack on 



the enemy's position at Moturoa. The storming party, failing to 
find an entrance, passed round to the rear of the pa, when 
Constable Kepa climbed to the top of the palisades erected around 
the fortifications to reconnoitre the position, and in doing so was 
shot through the lungs, yet he nevertheless walked out of action 
and brought his arms into camp. 



X* 



358 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR GORI NG. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 359 




Major Goi^ing. 



IAJOR GORING, at the age of sixteen, volunteered as 
a private in the third company of the ist Waikato 
Regiment, and during the winter of 1863 was in active 
service under Lieut. -Colonel (then Major) Lyon at the 
Wairoa. In September, 1863, he received an ensign's commission 
in Pitt's Four Hundred, and remained with them about six months. 
He was then appointed an officer in Her Majesty's Transport 
Corps, in which he served two years, being present at most of the 
engagements that took place in the Waikato under General 
Cameron. He subsequently joined the Flying Column, under 
General Chute, which marched round the foot of ]\Iount Egmont, 
and shortly alter rejoined his regiment, then quartered in the Bay 
of Plenty district. He was present and took part in three 
engagements inland of Tauranga, under Colonel Harrington, and 
remained with his regiment until it was disbanded, receiving the 
compensation land allotted to him by the Government. In 
September, 1867, he was gazetted as Sub-Inspector of Armed 
Constabulary, but did not join for some months afterwards. He 
was then despatched to Opotiki, and saw service in the Uriwera 
country, under Colonels St. John and Fraser, being for a time 
attached to their divisions, until placed in charge of a native 
contingent. When Titokowaru's rebellion broke out in 1868 he 
was ordered to AVaihi, and was present at the second attack on 
Te-Xgutu-o-te-]\Ianu, in which engagement our forces were worsted. 
During the retreat, while showing a comrade the track Colonel 
McDonnell had taken, he got separated from his company, and 
finding himself cut off by the natives he had to follov/ on the same 
route. On coming up with the rear of Colonel McDonnell's party 
he found Captain Rowan seriously w^ounded and being carried out 
on a stretcher. He immediately volunteered his services as one of 
the bearers, the number around him being but few. While taking 
his share of this duty the natives twice got between them and the 
main body, but retired after a brisk skirmish and the loss of one of 
his men. 

Colonel Whitmore soon after assuming the command, jSIajor 
Goring (he had obtained his majority for his services at Te Ngutu) 
was present in the many skirmishes which took place at that time 
with the enemy, as also at the battle of Moturoa, where he had 
charge of No. i division of Armed Constabulary. Here our forces 



360 THE DEFENDERS 

had again to retire, and the Major being in command of the rear- 
guard, he was one of the last to leave the bush, having to stand the 
brunt of a very heavy fire from the rebels the whole way out. On 
reaching Wanganui news arrived of the massacre at Poverty Bay, 
and he and his company were ordered off to avenge the deaths of 
the many settlers, their wives and children, who fell on that sad 
occasion. He was afterwards present at the taking of Ngatapa, 
and in the various skirmishes with Te Kooti in that district under 
Colonel Whitmore. Returning to the West Coast, he was present 
at several engagements where loss of life ensued, including that of 
Otauto, where the natives suffered a terrible defeat. He was 
afterwards placed in charge of the Waihi redoubt, when he obtained 
his majority in the New Zealand Militia. 



i62 



THE DEFENDERS 




GENERAL METE KINGI TE RANGI PAETAHI. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 363 



General Mete Kingi. 



TE RANGI PAETAHI. 




ENERAL METE KINGI was ever a staunch friend 
of the Europeans. From first to last during the 
troubles that arose from the Maori war, his influence 
and help were freely given to the colonists, and right 
good and loyal were his services to the Crown during the 
governorship of Sir George Grey. At the time when the 
Wanganui European corps and the loyal natives were assembled 
before the Wereroa Pa, that stronghold of fanatics and murderers, 
the news was brought to camp late one evening, that the safety 
of the villages and settlements on the lower Wanganui was in 
danger. This was exciting -news to our natives, who, almost to a 
man, were for striking camp and rushing to protect their wives 
and families. Much excitement prevailed in our quarters. Sir 
George Grey sent for Mete Kingi to his marquee, saying, " Mete, 
let us first take this Wereroa Pa, and afterwards we will go to the 
relief of Pipiriki. This is but a ruse of the enemy to cause you and 
me to abandon the taking of this noted place. The Europeans at 
Pipiriki are brave men, and will defeat their foes," etc. Nobly did 
]\Iete respond to this speech, andorderedtheWanganuis to remain. 
Information almost impossible to obtain now poured in, and 
Sir George Grey so matured his plan, that in twenty-four hours 
fifty-six Hauhaus were prisoners to the colonial forces, and the 
Wereroa Pa handed over by Sir George Grey to the Imperial 
troops, much to the disgust, by the way, of j\Iete Kingi and others, 
who wished it to be occupied by colonial men. For this assistance, 
Mete Kingi and the Wanganuis received the well deserved thanks 
of the Governor, and the title of general was conferred on ]\Iete 
Kingi, which made him quite a lion in his tribe. 

General j\Iete Kingi then, with the AVanganuis, joined the 
European force under INIajor Rookes, and all went up the river in 
canoes to the relief of the garrison at Pipiriki. After this 
expedition, the influence of jNIete Kingi was necessary to induce 
the Wanganuis to go to Opotiki, and at length ISIete and the 
Wanganuis accompanied the expeditionary force under the 
command of IMajor Brassey and Stapp in the steamer Sfor?nbird 
to Opotiki, where they took part in every fight, and did good 
service. From Opotiki the Wanganuis, still commanded by their 



364 THE DEFENDERS 

native general, returned to Wanganui to assist General Sir Trevor 
Chute in his West Coast campaign. 

The Wanganuis gave valuable assistance to General Chute in 
penetrating the dense forest inland of Mount Egmont, where the 
railway now runs. A nice jungle it was then. Sir Trevor Chute 
speaks in high terms of the valuable aid he received at this time 
from Mete Kingi and others in his despatches. Then came 
Titokowaru's raid in 1868, when that notorious rebel neared the 
town of Wanganui and threatened to burn and sack it over the 
heads of its inhabitants, at the time when the majority of the 
European force was absent with Colonel Whitmore at Ngatapa, who 
again came forward with his influence, but Mete Kingi Paetahi ? 
Europeans are apt to forget, in these piping times of peace, 
the services rendered in war. Others again are in ignorance of 
the services rendered by this old man, now no more. But 
those services deserve honourable mention in the history of New 
Zealand. Farewell, Mete Kingi ! Peace to your ashes ! You 
were kind and gentle to all. Aaere atu ra ! Mete never affected 
to be a warrior. .He was essentially a man of peace. He swayed 
his people with kindness, and preferred the suamfer in modo to the 
fortiter in re. 

I do not suppose there ever lived a chief who was better or 
more favourably known throughout the country than the late 
Mete Kingi. For generosity and hospitality his name has become 
a proverb amongst the New Zealand tribes. He was close and 
careful in his own family, which earned him the name of being 
mean ; but he was not so really. He set his face against drunken- 
ness, and blamed the pakeha law that allows people to drink and 
then punishes the drinker. *' Why not," said he, " prohibit the 
sale of it ?" Mete passed away full of years and honours at his pa 
at Putiki Uharanui. 



;66 



THE DEFENDERS 




DR. WALKER 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 367 



P-^ 



, w 



ALKER. 




R. WALKER joined the Armed Constabulary, as 
surgeon, soon after the breaking out of hostilities, and 
was present at most of the actions fought both on the 
"^^^ East and West Coasts of the North Island. He was very 
clever in his profession, although he had not allowed himself time 
to pass his degrees, so anxious was he to indulge in his love or 
travel and adventure in foreign countries. But at last, finding 
himself in New Zealand, just before the rebellion broke out, and 
few medical men anxious to take the field and administer to the 
wants of the sick and wounded, he volunteered his services for 
what they were worth, stating explicity what his experience had 
been and what he was equal to, all of which he greatly under- 
estimated, as proved by the many clever operations he performed 
during his length of service — a period of eight 5^ears and upwards. 
Amongst others, he successfully extracted from the back of a 
Maori chief's eye a large tumour which other medical men had 
declined to operate upon, for fear of the results. 

Dr Walker was a good officer, most assiduous in his duties, and 
extremely plucky in the field, and gained the New Zealand Cross 
for conspicuous gallantry in the performance of his duties as 
assistant-surgeon on many occasions during the campaign of 
i868-6g, and notably at the successful attack upon the position 
and encampment of Titokowaru, at Otauto, on the 13th March, 
1869, where he was exposed to a very heavy fire, and bore himself 
with great courage. He has now passed away with the great 
majority, but his memory is still fresh in the hearts of many of 
his old comrades. 



368 



THE DEFENDERS 



Thomas Adamson. 



m w 



HOMAS ADAMSON, private in the Volunteers, gained 
the New Zealand Cross for good and gallant ser\dces as 



a scout and guide throughout the campaign of i868-6g, continually- 
undertaking hazardous and laborious reconnoitring expeditions 
almost alone in advance of the force ; and for personal gallantry 
when attacked, with other guides, in advance of the column beyond 
Ahikereu, on the 7th of ]\Iay, 1869, where they unmasked an 
ambuscade, and Adamson, with others, was severely wounded, and 
the guide Hemi killed. 



370 



THE DEFENDERS 



\ LJ^ 












TAME HAN A, 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 371 



Tamehana. 







TAIMEHANA AND HAIMONA AT THE BATTLE OF IIOUTOA. 

HE Hauhaus of the Upper Wanganui being determined 
to attack the town of Wanganui, sent messages to the 
Ngatihau tribe, at Hiruharama, a pa on the river, 
somewhat nearer the township, asking their assistance. 
These natives, instead of answering the request, despatched a swift 
canoe begging AVanganui and Ngatiapa to come to their assistance, 
well armed, to resist the attack, and holding a council of war, 
decided to abandon their pas of Hiruharama, Kanaeroa, and 
Tawhitinui, and fall back on Ranana, so as to fight the enemy on an 
old and classic ground, the island of Moutoa. These movements 
were made immediately after the meeting. ]\Ieanwhile the 
Hauhaus, ignorant of their intentions, advanced cautiously, and 
finding the three pas abandoned, took possession of Tawhitinui, 
about two miles distant from Ranana, on the opposite side of the 
river, from whence they could open up negotiations with the tribes 
of the lower district. 

By this time the fighting men of Wanganui, Koriniti, Atene, 
and Parakino had arrived at Ranana, and were present when a 
message was received from the Hauhaus, demanding permission 
to pass down the river, and hinting they would resort to force 
should their request be refused. Haimona, chief of Ngatiapa 
Moana, a man of determined character, replied : " We wnll not let 
you pass ; and if you attempt to force a passag'e, we will fight you 
at Moutoa." The Hauhaus accepted the challenge, and Haimona, 
with 100 picked men, occupied the island before dawn, awaiting 
the arrival of the Hauhaus, while INIete Kingi, wdth 350 men, took 
up a position on the left bank of the river. The advanced guard 
en the island (fifty strong) was divided into three parties, each 
under a chief. Riwai Tawhitorangi led the centre, Kereti the left, 
and Hemi Hape the right — the whole under the general charge of 
Tamehana. A further support of fifty men, under Haimona, was 
posted at the other end of the island, at least 200 yards from the 
advanced guard, much too far to give effective assistance. 

The 130 Hauhaus attacked vigorously. The main body of the 
friendlies, under Mete Kingi, being 300 yards away, and 
separated from the combatants by an arm of the river, were utterly 
unable to assist their friends. Why so small a party should have 



372 THE DEBENDERS 

been detached to fight 130 Hauhaus, mad with fanaticism, and 
possessing a thorough belief in their own invulnerability, it is 
difficult to say, the more so as nearly, if not all, the friendly 
natives believed they were fighting against men who were assisted 
by the angels. Consequently we are bound to admire their 
courage rather than their discretion in putting themselves in a 
position comparatively unsupported, and from whence they could 
only retreat by swimming. 

It must not be supposed that Wanganui fought only to save the 
town — far from it — for at that time they were strong supporters of 
the King, therefore in a measure inimical to the Europeans. They 
fought for the mana (influence) of the tribe. No hostile war party 
had ever forced the river, and they were determined none ever 
should do so. Our friends, whom we left at their posts on the 
island, had not long to wait, for the Hauhaus came down the river 
and grounded their canoes on a shingle spit of the appointed 
battle-ground. The w^arriors sprang on shore like men confident 
of success, Wanganui allowing them to land. A portion of the 
advance guard then fired a volley. The Hauhaus were not 
thirty yards distant, yet, strange to say, none of them fell, which 
increased the superstitious belief of their opponents regarding 
their invulnerability. At this moment a lay brother of the 
Catholic priest, Father Pezant, who had accompanied Wanganui, 
rushed forward and implored the opposing party to stop the 
fighting. No one listened to him, and the return volley laid him 
dead, together with many others, including the chiefs Riwai and 
Kereti. The centre and left, disheartened by the loss of their 
chief, began to give way, shouting that the enemy were protected 
by angels ; but Hemi Hape held his ground, and soon proved 
to the contrary. Nevertheless, his warriors were driven slowly 
back by the overwhelming force of the Hauhaus. Two-thirds of 
the island had been gained, and the battle appeared to be lost, 
when suddenly Tamehana came to the rescue. He had vainly tried 
to bring back the fugitives, but, not succeeding, had returned to 
share the fate of those who still held out. Hemi called on his 
men to take cover from the Hauhaus' fire and hold their ground. 
He was obeyed by all but Tamehana, who fought like a demon, 
killing two men with his double-barrelled gun. 

At this critical moment, Hemi Hape, the last of the three divisional 
leaders, was shot dead. His son Marino took the command. 
Nearly all his men were wounded, and as the Hauhaus rushed 
forward to finish the fight, Wanganui fired a volley into them at 
close quarters, killing several. But they still came on, and for a 
moment the fate of Wanganui trembled in the balance. Tamehana 
was equal to the occasion, for seizing the spear of a dead man, 
he drove it through the nearest Hauhau, whose arms he took, and 
drove a tomahawk so deeply into the skull of another as to break 
the handle in wrenching it out. Finding the gun unloaded, he 
dashed it in the faces of his foes, and capturing another gun was 
about fire it when a bullet struck him in the arm. He neverthe- 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 373 

less killed his man. This was his last effort, as the next moment 
a bullet shattered his knee to pieces, and the tomahawk would 
soon have finished him ; but his gallant stand had given Haimona 
time to rally the fugitives and come up to his support. Ashamed 
of their conduct, they came determined to wipe it out. They fired 
one volley, killing a chief (brother to Pehi), and then charged pell- 
mell upon the Hauhaus. 

There was no time to reload, so down went the guns, and all 
went in with the tomahawk. The enemy were driven in confusion 
back to the upper end of the island, where, followed by the 
tomahawks of their pursuers, and exposed to the cross-fire of 
]\Iete Kingi's people, they rushed in a body into the water, and 
attempted to swim the rapids to the right bank. Just then 
Haimona recognised the prophet amongst the swimmers, and 
calling to one of his best fighting men, Te Moro, said, " There is 
your fish," at the same time handing him his bone mere. Te 
Moro went for him, and caught him by the hair just as he reached 
the opposite bank. The prophet, seeing his fate, put up his hand 
and said, *' Pai mariri ; mariri hau." The remainder of what 
might have been an eloquent speech was cut short by the mere, 
and Te Moro swam back towing his fish, and threw it at Haimona's 
feet. This day he shows two gaps in the mere with great pride. 
Over fifty Hauhaus were buried on the island, and twenty more 
were taken prisoners by ]\Iete Kingi, who surrounded them in a 
gully. The loss of the friendlies was sixteen killed and nearly 
forty wounded — rather severe when it is remembered that not more 
than eighty men actually took part in the fight. It was only the 
gallant behaviour of Hemi and Tamehana with the men of 
Ranana that turned the scale and gave us the spectacle of a real 
old Maori fight in modern times. No other tribe can boast of an 
engagement like this for the last fifty years. 



374 ' ^^^^ DEFENDERS 



JA 



ICHAEL riERCY. 

AND HIS THREE COMRADES. 




ICHAEL PIERCY and his three comrades belonging 
to No. 3 division of the Armed Constabulary, whose 
names with one exception I am unacquainted with, behaved most 
gallantly in rescuing Trooper Joseph Hogan who was severely 
wounded in the thigh early in the engagement at Te Ngutu. As 
soon as the order w^as given to retire they got the wounded man 
into a stretcher, took him on their shoulders, and through all the 
horrors of that retreat never left him until he was safe in the 
redoubt at AVaihi, some twelve miles distant, and harassed most of 
the time by the enemy. They had no relief the whole time, although 
Hogan was a heavy, powerful man, over six feet high, and fully 
fourteen stone in weight. The only one of the four whose name I 
know was Michael Piercy, a son of one of our Wanganui settlers. 



376 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN ALFRED ROSS 



OF NEW ZEALAND. -377 



Captain Ross. 




APTAIN ALFRED ROSS joined the Wanganui militia 
at the outbreak of the rebellion, and was chosen by- 
Lieut. -Colonel Rookes, the commandant of the district, 
as his captain and adjutant. He carried out the duties 
of his office to the satisfaction of his superior officers during an 
eventful period of eight years, and deserves special notice for 
his pluck in volunteering and successfully carrying despatches 
from the commanding officer on the Karaka Heights through the 
enemy's lines to Sir George Grey at Maimene. This was a service 
requiring a considerable amount of tact, energy, and courage, all 
of which Captain Ross possessed ; consequently he ably performed 
the service. Although many times under fire, and often placed 
in considerable danger in the discharge of his duties, and accom- 
panying the commanding officer to and fro through the enemy's 
country, where the natives were lying in ambush to surprise and 
murder unwary settlers, he (unlike his brother. Captain Frederick 
Ross, who fell at Turi-turi Mokai, having some months previous 
been severely wounded at Ketemarae) escaped without a scratch. 
He was often favourably mentioned in general orders, and more 
particularly in Sir George Grey's despatches to the Secretary of 
State for the Colonies on the 20th July, 1865. After the war, in 
March, i86g, he was made a Justice of the Peace, and, turning 
his sword into a ploughshare, is now farming his estate in the 
Wanganui district. 



378 THE DEFENDERS 



J^APTAIN TERCY. 



?: 




APTAIN PERCY volunteered for service in 1863, and 
soon rose to the command of his troop of yeomanry- 



cavalry, and up to the end of 1865, did good service on the 
west coast of the North Island. In August, 1865, he was 
despatched with the force sent to Opotiki, to avenge the death 
of the Rev. Mr. Volkner, under Major Brassey, and during the 
attack on the Pua Pa, Captain Percy strolled out some distance to 
witness the attack, his troop not being engaged, and, while looking 
on, a spent ball lodged in his groin, which has not only disabled 
him for life, but nearly caused his death. This handsome and 
brave young officer is now in England, still under medical advice, 
the ball having never been extracted. 



38o 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR KEMP. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 381 



Major Kemp. 




Awarded the Neiv Zealand Cross for distinguished service — His quarrel 
with the Government — Gallantry at the capture of ]\Ioturoa — Pursuit 
of Te Kooti. 

AJOR KEEPA, or KEMP, son of the chief and chief- 
tainess Rere-o-Maki and Tanguru, first distinguished 
himself as a young chief at the battle of Ohoutahi, near 
Hiruharama, on the Wanganui River, about the year 
1847, but owing to a quarrel with his uncle, the late Hori Kingi- 
te-Anana, he entered the Maori police service for a time, and 
afterwards accepted the post of mailman between Wellington and 
Wanganui, an office in those days of considerable recponsibility 
and danger. Soon after their reconciliation the war broke out in 
the Wanganui district, and Kemp with other chiefs succeeded in 
raising a Native Contingent amongst their own tribes, of which the 
Government made him captain, and he faithfully served his Queen 
and country during the war, distinguishing himself on so many 
occasions that he was recommended for and received the New 
Zealand Cross of Honour, for devoted and chivalrous conduct at 
Moturoa, on the 7th November, 1868, when at the head of a very 
small portion of his tribe, with which he covered the flank of the 
retreat, and assisted the removal of the wounded, although exposed 
to a very heavy fire at a close range ; and for the gallantry and 
constancy shown by him in conducting the pursuit of Titokowaru's 
followers after their defeat at Otauto on the 13th March, 1869, 
hanging on their rear, and constantly harassing them during 
several days in dense bush. His force on this occasion was com- 
posed entirely of volunteers, several officers and many men of the 
Armed Constabulary having volunteered to follow this distinguished 
chief, besides the members of his own tribe. At the termination of 
hostilities he was made a Government Land Purchase Officer of 
the colony, and did good service, but an unfortunate quarrel with 
another land purchaser led to his dismissal from office, it is said, 
without any inquiry as to the cause of the dispute, although Kemp 
had demanded one. This circumstance afterwards resulted in a 
sort of civil warfare between Kemp and the Government, which 
completely shut up for a time the native trade on the Wanganui 
River, much to the disgust of the settlers. 



382 THE DEFENDERS 

After the battle of Moturoa Colonel Whitmore in his despatch 
to Colonel Haultain, the Defence Minister, thus speaks of Major 
Kemp : — " Captain Kemp, brave, modest, and generous in all his 
conduct ; who never boasted before the fight, who has cast no 
reproaches after it, who has shown every officer that he is endued 
with great capacity for military operations, who has exhibited to 
every man of the force that a Maori chief can manifest a calm, 
deliberate courage in no way inferior to their own, who has laid 
up for himself in the hearts of many of the force the gratitude of 
men, who received a comrade's help in the moment of need, and 
who has tried hard to redeem the forfeited reputation of his tribe — 
this officer and chief merits a full recognition on my part of his 
deserts." 

In the course of the ceremony of presenting New Zealand War 
IMedals to certain loyal natives, the following interesting par- 
ticulars, relative to the distinguished services of Major Kemp, 
were given in the speech of Dr. Buller, C.M.G., who said: — " Mr. 
Woon, you have asked me to take part in the proceedings to-day 
by presenting on behalf of the Government, to Major Kemp, the 
New Zealand War Medal. I have much pleasure in doing this ; 
the more so because the events which this medal is intended to 
commemorate occurred during the period that I held office as 
Chief Magistrate of this town and district. I need not tell Major 
Kemp that the intrinsic value of this silver ornament and the 
piece of blue ribbon attached to it is little or nothing. The real 
value of the war medal is derived from the fact that it comes from 
the hand of the Queen, who is the fountain of honour, and is 
intended to show to all the world that the wearer has served Her 
Maje ty in the field, and has exposed his life in the cause of his 
country. During the late operations in New Zealand, a large 
number of soldiers and friendly natives took part in the fighting, 
and, as a consequence, a large number of war medals have been 
distributed. But I think I may venture to say that, among all 
who have received this honourable badge, there has been no more 
worthy recipient than our staunch friend and ally, Major Kemp, 
the son of Tanguru, and therefore a high-born chief of the 
Wanganui River — related, on his mother's side, to the Ngatiapa, 
Rangitane, and Ngarauru tribe — own nephew to the late Hori 
Kingi, that good old chief who was the consistent friend of the 
pakeha, and the guardian of peace in this district — closely related 
also to another well-known chief, Te Mawae, who is in attendance 
here to-day to receive a medal — and, in addition to all this, 
endowed with natural gifts of a very high order — Major Kemp had 
better opportunities than most men of establishing a name for 
himself among the tribes, and making his mana felt in the district. 
Nor have these opportunities been neglected. In times of peace, 
always to be found on the side of law and order — in times of war, 
always in the foremost ranks of fighting — active as a Native 
Magistrate, and taking an intelligent part in the politics of the 
country — Major Kemp has succeeded in acquiring a larger 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 383 

measure of personal influence among the tribes than probably any- 
other chief on the west coast of this island. But it is of INIajor 
Kemp's services in the field that I have now more especially to 
speak. I well remember that when I first came to the district, 
in 1864, Kemp had just received a commission as an ensign or 
lieutenant in the Native Contingent, under Captain (now Colonel) 
McDonnell. After performing good service at Pipiriki, Kemp 
was ordered, with the rest of the contingent, to Opotiki, for the 
purpose of breaking up a Hauhau combination there, and avenging 
the murder of the Rev. Mr. Volkner. On his return from that 
expedition, he served with IMcDonnell under General Cameron, 
and subsequently under ]\lajor-General Chute, throughout the 
campaigns on the West Coast. He assisted Sir George Grey at 
the taking of the Wereroa Pa ; and he afterwards fought under 
Colonels McDonnell and Whitmore, distinguishing himself on all 
occasions by his daring courage. I believe I am right in stating 
that he was present at the taking of every pa, and that on more 
occasions than one he was instrumental in saving our native allies 
from defeat. To mention only a single instance, it will be in the 
recollection of the natives how, at the capture of Moturoa, when 
the friendlies had met with a temporary repulse, Kemp sprang to 
the front, and running along the parapet, shouted a challenge to 
the chiefs of the enemy to meet him in single combat, thus, by his 
daring example, stimulating the wavering courag-e of our native 
allies, and ensuring us the victory. In recognition of his services, 
he was first promoted to the rank of captain, and afterwards to 
that of major ; and Colonel IMcDonnell has, on frequent public 
occasions, borne testimony to his intrepidity and valour. When 
the rebellion had been crushed on the West Coast, Kemp was 
instructed by the Government to organise an expedition into the 
interior for the pursuit of Te Kooti and his band of murderous 
fanatics. Of this force he took the chief command himself, and 
became known among the natives as ' General Kemp.' Starting 
from the head waters of the Wanganui, he pursued the enemy 
across the Murimotu plains to the East Coast, and thence back 
into the Ohiwa mountains, where, after much hard fighting, he 
succeeded in breaking up and dispersing Te Kooti's band, 
Hakaraia, one of the murderers of Volkner, and several other 
leading- chiefs being killed, and Te Kooti himself barely escaping 
with his life. Major Kemp returned to Wanganui from this 
expedition covered with military honour, and received the thanks 
and congratulations of his pakeha and Maori friends in this 
district. He afterwards received in public, at Wellington, the 
handsome sword which now hangs at his side, the gift of Her 
Majesty the Queen, in recognition of his loyalty and bravery. 
Mrs. Fox, when handing over the sword, expressed on that occasion 
an earnest hope that it might always remain in its sheath. Up to 
the present time that hope has been realised ; and I am sure all 
present will join with me in the same expression for the future. 
But if the occasion should ever arise, I think we may depend on 



384 THE DEFENDERS 

its being promptly drawn in defence of our Queen and country/'" 
Dr. Buller then stepped forward, and affixing the decoration in its 
place, said, * Major Kemp, I now hand you the New Zealand War 
Medal, and long may you live to wear it.' " 

On the Stout-Vogel Ministry coming into office the Native 
Minister, the Hon. John Ballance, restored to him his position and 
pension, which he had been deprived of by the former Ministry. 
]\Iajor Kemp still resides at Putiki Pa, on the opposite side of the 
river Wanganui, his principal fighting men, Wirihana, Winiata, 
and others, the companions of all his late campaigns, having 
succumbed to the inevitable fate of all mankind. 



i86 



THE DEFENDERS 




OF NEW ZEALAND. 



387 



HE 



OLUNTEERS. 




HE Volunteers of New Zealand, in order to uphold Iler 
jMajesty's supremacy in this colony, have enrolled 
themselves throughout the North and South Islands, 
ready for any emergency that may occur. They are 
mostly composed of old soldiers and the youth of the colony, 
vieing with each other both in drill and as steady marksmen. Tlie 
only opportunity they have had hitherto of showing their pluck and 
determination as a body was at Parihaka, when they volunteered 
to a man to take the field in support of law and order, and were 
ready to lay down their lives at a call from the Government of 
the colony. They have gone to considerable expense in uniforms, 
etc., and put themselves to great inconvenience to attain efficiency in 
their calling", and if a foreign cnemiy should (-ver disturb the peace 
of the colony the citizen soldiery of New Zealand will not be found 
wanting. I have often witnessed the eagerness of the settlers to 
assist the Government in their trials during the ten years of native 
rebellion and the bravery they displayed on such occasions. 
AVhenever the Governm.ent wanted volunteers there were 
double the number ready to serve, and at the present moment it 
would not be at all difficult to gather together five thousand men, 
well armed and equipped for any emergency, at a few hours' notice. 
Formerly it took time to make a man a soldier, but at the 
present day a slight knowledge of drill, joined to perfectness in 
the use of his rifle is sufficient to make him a steady, unerring, and 
cool marksman, with sufficient knowledge of military duty to be 
very serviceable in the field. The volunteers are all officered by 
men of their own choice, whom they have the greatest confidence 
in ; and to show their endurance, I may mention that I have known 
many badly wounded settlers more than once return again to their 
corps, forgetful of prior sufferings. The fear of further rebellion 
amongst the natives of New Zealand is now over, and the enemy who 
m.ay next invade these islands will probably be one more worthy of 
our steel, being supplied with all the latest improvements in the art 
of warfare. But the colonists of New Zealand, to their credit be it 
recorded, are ready to double the numbers of the volunteer forces, 
leaving few to be compelled to join the militia. As an Englishman's 
home is his castle, he will defend it to the last extremity; and 
the New Zealand settler has brought with him from the land of his 
forefathers not only the pride of his nation, but his love of the old 



388 THE DEFENDERS 

country, and his indomitable will to defend, and, if needs be, die 
under the British flag wherever threatened or assailed. It is upon 
this force the Government of New Zealand will have to depend, 
as the revenue of a new country is required in so many ways to 
open up its resources that the colony cannot afford a standing 
army even of small limits, consequently it would be suicidal to 
its own interests not to give every facility to foster and increase 
its army of volunteers. In years gone by a soldier was a mere 
machine, but at the present day he is an educated man, with a 
feeling of honour sufficient to carry him through great hardships 
and inspire him with indomitable courage. There is no doubt 
that the fall of all great nations has hitherto been due to over- 
population, and it is the over-population of the Continental nations 
that renders war so imminent at the present day. England's 
colonies have saved her from this calamity, by nursing her reserves, 
and increasing her help at hand, should she ever require it. 
For a long time even the Home Government seemed blind to this 
fact, by refusing to take possession of New Guinea and other 
islands of the South Pacific as a further outlet for her over- 
population ; but her eyes are wide open now, while Continental 
nations are only just awakening to the fact that England possesses 
a source of strength in her colonies which will have to be reckoned 
with in case of any future disturbances of the peace of the mother 
country. 

The experience of those who served during the late rebellion 
condemns the volunteers of New Zealand adopting the scarlet 
uniform of the Imperial army, not only as being unsuitable, but 
as leading to great confusion should the two forces ever be called 
upon to act together. Each colony should have a uniform of its 
own, as it has its flag, so that the forces may be distinguishable 
from one another, while fighting side by side. This would lead 
to a rivalry which would stimulate all to great and generous exer- 
tions. The fighting dress of a New Zealand volunteer should be a 
loose blue serge suit ; their parade dress of blue cloth, with white 
facings. Even the Imperial forces, when in this colony, found 
their red regimentals so inconvenient that the Government had to 
supply them with blue serge suits, to enable them to take their 
part in the guerilla warfare of the country. Her Majesty, in visiting 
the hospitals after the Crimean war, is reported to have asked a 
severely-wounded man in what dress he preferred to fight in, and his 
answer was, " Your Majesty, in my shirt sleeves," and in his reply 
he spoke the feelings of the most experienced. All the money the 
Government can spare should be expended in the best of arms and 
ammunition, and for a fighting dress nothing can excel a loose 
blue serge shirt and trousers. Thus equipped, the issue of the day 
may be safely left to the pluck and determination of the men. 



390 



THE DEFENDERS 




LIEUTENANT W. HUNTER. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 391 




"Lieut. W. Hunter 



■lEUTENANT WILLIAIM HUNTER, the younger 
brother of Captain Hunter, who fell at Moturoa, had no 
fear in his composition. Arriving on the battle-field of 

I Te Ngutu-o-te-Manu, he remarked to his men, " That, 
as the ball was about to commence, he should advise them to 
choose their partners." He had hardly delivered the speech, when, 
to the grief of all around him, he was shot down. On the side of 
the pa his company had advanced to attack was a small fringe of 
scrub, dividing it from a partial clearing, which had a break in it 
of about ten or twelve yards in length. This was only twenty- 
five yards' distant from the pa occupied by the enemy in 
force, and who had taken advantage of every cover, even to the 
standing trees around, which were all alive with armed natives. 
Captain Scannell, who was close to Lieutenant Hunter at the 
commencement, gives the following account of Hunter's contempt 
of danger. He says : — " I was passing- the opening in the 
scrub, and saw Lieutenant Hunter walking up and down quite 
unconcernedly. He called me to him, and on my going he showed 
me the natives in the pa, quite visible through the opening behind 
their paling fortification, shouting and yelling in the most frantic 
manner. I remonstrated with him on the unnecessary manner in 
which he was exposing himself; but he merely laughed, and said 
it was capital fun to watch them. The brave fellow was soon after 
shot down on the same spot." Thus fell one of the bravest and 
most genial officers of the force. 

An incident of this engagement may be mentioned here. On 
the 12th September, 1868, five days after the engagement, a half- 
naked man was seen coming from the bush towards the camp. A 
party was sent out to meet him, and found to their astonishment a 
man named Dore, one of the Wellington Rangers. He had been 
wounded on the 7th, having his arm shattered near the shoulder, 
and must have fainted from loss of blood, as the first thing he 
remembered after coming to his senses was finding himself stripped 



392 THE DEFENDERS 

of everything but his shirt. He had probably been found by the 
enemy while unconscious, and they, believing him to be dead, 
neglected to tomahawk him, a most unusual piece of neglect on the 
part of the Hauhaus. The poor fellow hid in a rata tree until it 
was dark, and then attempted to find his way to Waihi, but for 
three days he had wandered in a circle, always returning to Te 
Ngutu, but on the evening of the loth he managed to reach the 
open country, and made for the crossing of the Waingongora river. 
Here he felt his senses going, and feared he would never reach the 
camp. How he crossed the stream in his weak state is a mystery ; 
and he himself is not aware, and from this time all was a blank to 
his mind, for all idea of time had left him, nor was he seen until 
the 12th. This was one of the most wonderful instances of endu- 
rance on record. A man with his arm shattered to pieces, without 
food, and nearly naked, struggding through five days and nights of 
frosty w^eather, and yet recovering of his wound more quickly than 
many whose injuries were of a slighter character. 



394 



THE DEFENDERS 




LI EUT. -COLON E L FRASER 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 395 




TT 



OL. T RASEI^ 




lEUT.-COLONEL FRASER was formerly an officer of 
Her Majesty's 73rd Regiment, and sold out in order to 
settle down in New Zealand, taking up the land allotted 
yj to retired officers of the Imperial army. Shortly after 
his arrival he was offered, and accepted, the command of the 
Hawke's Bay military settlers ; and, when hostilities commenced 
on the East Coast in 1864, he was sent with a small force to the 
East Cape, to co-operate with the friendly natives in suppressing 
the Hauhau rebellion. He was rapidly promoted to the rank of 
major, and soon afterwards to lieut. -colonel, for his distinguished 
services during the campaign ; as, with the force under his 
command — a mere handful of men — he was successful in com- 
pelling the rebels to surrender, after many well-contested 
engagements. At the assault on the pa, Karomiromi, Colonel 
Eraser, while leading the charge, had a narrow escape from being 
tomahawked ; the axe was actually descending upon his head 
when a private soldier, named Welfitt, bayoneted the native in 
time to save his officer's life. 

In 1865 Colonel Eraser took command of the force operating 
against the rebels at Poverty Bay, which campaign was brought 
to a close in November of that year, by the seven days' siege of 
Waerenga-a-hika. He was then transferred to the Bay of Plenty 
district, in command of the Eorest Rangers ; and active operations 
having recommenced in various parts of the island, ]\Iajor PVaser, 
under Colonel Whitmore, took a prominent part both at the 
Wairoa and fall ofNgatapa, on the East Coast, in 1869, and during 
the operations on the West Coast in the same year. After the 
success of the campaign the field force again returned to the Bay 
of Plenty, where this gallant officer fell a victim to low fever, 
contracted at Tauranga, and died, deeply regretted by all who 
knew him. 



396 THE DEFENDERS 



P 



OLONEL Logan. 




T early dawn on a peculiarly brilliant morning, in the 
beginning of the year 1865, the quiet settlement of 
Wanganui was startled from its slumbers by the booming 
y.' of a gun, announcing the arrival of the first of seven 
regiments despatched to crush out the Maori rebellion in that 
district. The township of Wanganui is situated half-way between 
Wellington and Taranaki, and is surrounded by some of the finest 
agricultural land in New Zealand. It derives its name from the 
river which waters it and is navigable for steamers up to Pipiriki, 
a native settlement sixty miles from its mouth. As the troops 
landed all was bustle and commotion, and the quiet agricultural 
village suddenly became a centre of importance. I was soon on 
the wharf, and shall never forget the martial bearing of Colonel 
Logan as he marched up the beach in command of the 57th 
Regiment —as fine a body of men as ever had the honour of serving 
their country. Our Major Cooper, then senior officer in command, 
received and quartered them in the York Stockade taking prece- 
dence of Captain Blewett, in command of two companies of Her 
]\Iajesty's 65th Regiment, who had been stationed there for some 
time. Soon after. Major Rookes, one of the most soldierly-looking 
men the colonial force ever had, with considerably military experi- 
ence, gained in both cavalry and infantry regiments, and who had 
seen some service, was appointed commanding officer of militia 
and volunteers. I also had the honour to receive Her Majesty's 
commission as lieutenant and quartermaster, after having for 
months served as a full private, doing picket duty on alternate 
nights, subject to the orders of my son-in-law, who was captain and 
own adjutant, and of my son, who was a lieutenant. Such was then 
the fortune of war in New Zealand. 



398 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR R. eiGGS. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 399 



MaJOI^ R. jBlGGS. 



Suppression of the Ilaiihau rebellion at Waiapu — Killed in the Poverty 

Bay massacre. 




pAJOR BIGGS, who resided for many years on his station 
in the Rangitikei district, was in i860 one of tlie most 
active and energ^etic of our settlers, and tlie best shot and 
horseman in the wliole island. lie soon after left for 



the Poverty Bay district, and there joined the East Cape Expedi- 
tionary Force, and was one of the foremost in all the engagements 
that ensued, ending with the capture of Hunga-Hunga-Toroa, where 
he greatly distinguished himself — he and Ensign Tuke, with five or 
six men, having clambered along the face of the cliff, below the pa, 
reaching a spot which so commanded the position that their fire 
soon compelled the surrender of over five hundred men, and a pro- 
portionate number of guns, fell into our hands, together with a large 
number of women and children, completely putting an end to the 
Hauhau rebellion at Waiapu. He was warmly thanked by the 
Government for this service, and promoted to the rank of captain ; 
and his cool courage, which never deserted him, established him as 
a leader in all the subsequent severe fig-hting which took place at 
Turangahika and AVaikare j\Ioana during 1 866. Ele was afterwards 
promoted to the command of the Poverty Bay district, with the 
rank of major, and on Te Kooti's escape from the Chatham Islands, 
and his landing at Poverty Bay, the Major collected the first party 
of volunteer settlers to oppose his progress, taking up a position at 
Paparata to prevent his escape into the interior ; but being sum- 
moned at that moment to meet Colonel Whitmore at Turanganui, 
Te Kooti took advantage of his absence, surprised and defeated 
his force, and made good his retreat into the Uriwera country, 
followed by Colonel Whitmore, not only too late to stop him, but 
the pursuit resulted in the loss of Alessrs. Canning and Carr 'two of 
the principal Hawke's Bay settlers) and several other valuable 
lives. In 1868, owing to the threats of Te Kooti that he would 



400 THE DEFENDERS 

attack Poverty Bay as "utu" for his imprisonment, Major Biggs 
placed nine men under Captain Gascoigne to watch the main 
track from the Uriwera country, but Te Kooti advancing by an 
old track at that moment grown over, succeeded in surprising the 
district on the night of the 8th and morning of the 9th November, 
1868, and, dividing his men into small parties, attacked the out- 
lying settlers simultaneously, murdering the settlers, with their 
wives and families. The Major was busy writing at the time 
(supposed to be the order for the out-settlers to come in) when he 
was shot, as he answered a knock at the door, and his wife, child, 
and two servants were tomahawked. 

T^Iajor Biggs was acknowledged by all who knew him or served 
with him to be one of the most capable leaders we have ever had 
in the Colonial force, and his death was deeply regretted by both 
officers and men. 



AA 



402 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR ROPATA 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 403 



/I 



AJOR KOPATA WaHAWAHA 



CHIEF OF NGATIPOROU. 




iTAJOR ROPATA was one of the bravest and most loyal 
of Her Majesty's subjects in New Zealand. He knew 
no fear, and was ready to lay down his life, as he in 
so many instances showed, in defence of law and order. 
At the commencement of the fight at Waiapu, he resisted one 
hundred rebels when he had but few men, and only seven guns. 
He seldom carried a weapon, except a pistol or walking stick. 
His strength was prodigious. At Tikitiki, the contending parties 
were ranged on each side of a ravine, when one of the enemy 
came forward, on the opposite bank, defying Ropata and his 
men. Ropata saw him, and went at him unarmed, and succeeded 
in dashing out his brains, whilst both parties stood looking on 
perfectly amazed. This was one of his earliest exploits. After- 
wards, Ropata came down to Pukepapa, where some five hundred 
rebels were entrenched, and amongst whom were some of his own 
tribe. He had but two hundred followers with him at the time ; 
but with this small force he soon overturned the pa. After this 
he followed down and took the rebel pa at Takitahupo. 

Ropata was a man of iron nerve, who would never swerve from 
his purpose. At Ngatapa, he came with a small body of men, 
overturned the pa, and defeated the rebels. Most of his men 
deserted him ; but, with only thirty men, he charged the last 
trench, carried it, and held it all night. For this he received the 
decoration of the New Zealand Cross and a pension of ;;^ioo per 
annum. Afterwards he joined the forces under Colonel Whitmore 
and gave valuable assistance in defeating the rebels. 

On one occasion, when the Europeans and Ropata's men were 
engaged with the enemy, Ropata stood on a rock, at a distance, 
and guided the movements of his own men by waving to them 
which way to proceed, so well disciplined were they. At another 
time he and his men were advancing up the bed of a river exposed 



404 THE DEFENDERS 

to a very harassing fire, so much so that they became panic- 
stricken and showed a tendency to retreat. But Ropata, bent on 
his purpose, resolutely advanced, come what would, and with his 
stick he thrashed all those who felt inclined to retire. Again, he 
actually took possession of the whole of the Uriwera country. 
When in the middle of the country, he was surrounded by rebels 
on all sides, who asked him to retire, promising not to molest him. 
The odds were fearfully against him, but nothing would make him 
turn from his purpose, and he merely replied that as he had got 
so far he would go right through. He did so, and the rebels for 
a day or so pursued him hotly, but eventually gave it up, and he 
got through safely. He afterwards said he knew that had he 
returned his force would have been massacred. This is only a 
tithe of his exploits. 

Major Ropata has done an immense amount of good in the 
cause of order for the New Zealand Government, and so far from 
having his income reduced, it should have been doubled. He 
is as great a general in Maori warfare as ever lived in New 
Zealand — a wonderful man, for when fighting, he never took 
shelter, but remained in the open, yet was never hit. He never 
cringed to anyone, but went honestly forward, a creature of 
Providence. After the war, Her Majesty presented him with a 
handsome sword, in recognition of his services, and he gained the 
decoration of the New Zealand Cross, as the Gazette states, " for 
personal gallantry and loyal devotion on the occasion both of the 
first and last attacks on Ngatapa, and more especially for the 
courage he showed on the first occasion, at the head of only 
seventy men, when all the rest of the native contingent had 
retreated and left him without support. Major Ropata then 
pushed his way close to the entrenchments, and held a position at 
a pistol-shot distance all day, and until, under cover of night, he 
was compelled by want of ammunition to retire, having sustained 
heavy losses." 



AA* 



4o6 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN ROSS. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 407 



Captain tvoss. 



j^' 




CAPTAIN FREDERICK ROSS, the second son of Hugh 
Ross, Esq., of Cokeley, on the breaking-out of the war, 
was chosen as one of the officers of the Rangitikei troop 
of Yeomanry Cavalry, and served in that capacity until 
appointed to a Sub-Inspectorship in the Armed Constabulary of the 
colony, from which time up to his death he was present in most of 
the engagements that took place. He was severely wounded while 
reconnoitring at Ketemarai, a bullet having entered his wrist and 
escaped at his elbow. Despite the painful nature of the wound, 
he was in a few weeks back again in command of his company. 
He soon after received orders to garrison with twenty-five men the 
old redoubt erected by Her Majesty's 14th Regiment at Turi Turi 
Mokai. It took some time to put in order, and when done, finding 
it too small for the necessary buildings. Captain Ross had his own 
tent pitched outside. All went well for two or three weeks, and 
the natives living in the immediate district came daily to offer 
their produce for sale, making friends with the officers and men, 
and lulling them into a false security, from which they were 
destined to be rudely awakened. The friendship of the natives 
was merely a ruse to inspect the redoubt and discover its weak 
points, as they subsequently made a night attack, killing 
or wounding nineteen out of the twenty-five defenders. 
Captain Ross was first awakened by the report of a rifle fired by 
one of the sentries, whose suspicions were aroused by the restless 
movements of some sheep feeding in the neighbourhood of the 
redoubt, and seeing a Maori raise his head above the fern he fired. 
In an instant a wild yell was raised by the natives lying in ambush 
around, followed by a general charge of the enemy. Captain 
Ross, having no time to dress, seized his sword and revolver and 
reached the entrance to the redoubt before the enemy, and there 
fell while gallantly defending the bridge across the ditch. The 
Maoris were led by their chief, Tautai, who in his charge missed 
his footing on the bridge and fell into the ditch. The next man 



^o8 THE DEFENDERS 

fell by Captain Ross's revolver, and he had wounded another, when 
a native, crawling along under the planks of the bridge, shot and 
mortally wounded Ross through the openings, and driving a long- 
handled tomahawk into his body, dragged him into the ditch, 
where they cut his heart out. It is said that when Captain Ross 
was shot he called out to his men, " Take care of yourselves, boys, 
I am done for." And four of the bravest of his men, taking his 
words literally, actually jumped the parapet over the Maoris' heads, 
and, strange to say, three of them got clear away and gave the 
alarm. Thus ended the career of Captain Frederick Ross, one of 
the many colonial youths of New Zealand whose bravery, love of 
adventure, and open-heartedness wins the love and friendship of 
all they are thrown in contact with. 



4IO 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN NEWLAND. 



OF NE W ZEALAND. 41 1 



Captain Newland. 




lAPTAlN WILLIAT^I NEWLAND was born inTaranaki, 
entered the Colonial service at the very beginning of the 
war, and took a most active part in it to its close, having 
been present at most of the skirmishes and engagements 
fought. He had the character of being a brave and determined 
man and a good officer, consequently his promotion was rapid. He 
served on both the East and West Coast campaigns of the North 
Island, being oftentimes in command of the cavalry or mounted force 
of the colony assisting in the operations against the rebel natives. 
He was essentially a cavalry officer, though well used to bush warfare. 
He also served under Sir George S. Whitmore at Taupo and in the 
Uriwera country when in pursuit of Te Kooti, and seemingly must 
have borne a charmed life, having escaped the numerous perils 
consequent on guerilla warfare. Captain Newland has now settled 
down to agricultural pursuits in the favoured district in which he 
was born. He was much respected by his men, who were a picked 
troop, m.any of whom fell at Okotuku and in other engagements. 
The names of Mick Noonan, Jim Lane, Kelly, and many others, will 
ever be remembered for their bravery and coolness in action, although 
some of them are numbered with the slain. Mr Shortt, of Queen- 
street, Auckland, also served in his troop, and afterwards acted as 
aide-de-camp to the late lamented Colonel St. John, and was for 
some time principal orderly to the Staff" at head-quarters in Patea 
and Ngatipa on the East Coast. Captain Newland's distinguished 
services were frequently mentioned in despatches. He took a 
gallant part in defending the homes of settlers during the most 
critical period of the war. Colonel Sir George Whitmore, in his 
despatch after the jMoturoa engagement, says : — " I beg to express 
my obligations to Sub-Inspector Newland, Armed Constabulary? 
who succeeded to the command of the force, and who behaved 
splendidly." 



412 THE DEFENDERS 



Captain Lloyd. 




lAPTAIN LLOYD, while in command of detachments 
of the 57 th Regiment and one hundred military settlers, 
was the first to come in collision with the Hauhaus 
while foraging and destroying Maori crops at Ahu Ahu, 
on the Kaitake ranges. The main body had finished work, and 
with piled arms awaited the return of Lieutenant Cox, 57th 
Regiment, who, with a small party, was destroying maize on the 
hill-side. Suddenly a large body of the enemy rushed out of the 
fern and scrub, with a terrific yell, firing as they advanced. The 
military settlers had been enrolled only a few weeks, many of 
them had never fired a shot, and their rifles were so clogged with 
oil that they would not go off; the few men who had seen service 
were new to Maori warfare, with its ambuscades, yells, etc. : the 
natural result was that both soldiers and settlers were thrown into 
confusion, and, after a little desultory firing, something very like 
a stampede ensued. Captain Lloyd stood his ground and was 
killed fighting bravely ; Lieutenant Cox, with a handful of men, 
escaped by taking to the bush ; and Captain Page, with ten or 
twelve men, who stood by him, got into high fern, and made his 
way through it to the Poutuku Redoubt. Our loss was seven men 
killed and twelve wounded ; the enemy had four killed. Lieutenant 
Cox and his party, guided by a Maori scout, reached the town of 
Taranaki, and gave the alarm. The Bush Rangers, under Major 
Atkinson, always ready, were ordered to the scene of action, and 
reached the place in an incredibly short space of time. They found 
that the heads of those killed had been cut off and carried away. 
This act of barbarity was new in Maori warfare, and not under- 
stood at the time. Several men were missing, and as it was quite 
possible that they might be hiding in the thick fern, the officer 
commanding the Bush Rangers had the 57th regimental call 
sounded. The missing ones responded, and were brought out, all 
more or less severely wounded. They stated that the enemy 
rushed upon them barking like dogs, and seemed to have no fear 
of death. 



414 



2FIE DEFENDERS 




CARTA IN E. TU K E 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



415 



P 



APTAIN 



H 



TuKE. 




lAPTAIN E. TUKE was ordered by the late Sir Donald 
McLean to Dunedin in 1863 to enlist the Hawke's Bay 
Military Settlers, and succeeded, with the assistance of 
Sergt. -Major Scully, in enrolling a fine body of 150 men, 
who did good service during the war. He was then sent to 
Poverty Bay, and was for a short time under the late Major Biggs' 
command, but was ordered back to Napier with forty men, to take 
up a position on the Ngaruroro river, and built a redoubt there. 
This was for the purpose of preventing a turbulent native, Paora 
Kopakau, from joining the Hauhaus from the Patea side. He was 
also present at the action at Petane, the late Maior Eraser being in 
command, where nearly the whole of the Hauhaus were killed, 
including the m.ost troublesome chief in Hawke's Bay, Rangehiroa. 
Captain Tuke was then ordered to the Chatham Islands in com 
mandofa guard of thirty men, and sailed for there in the St. Kilda, 
Captain Johnson, in October, 1865, with sixty prisoners taken in 
Omaranui and other places, relieving his brother, JVIajor Tuke. 
The prisoners at the Chathams, then 317 in all, were well-behaved 
and orderly. They were supplied with rations, clothing, and 
tobacco, but had to work in planting their potatoes, fishing, etc. 
Te Kooti Rikirangi (his name tattooed on his breast), being a very 
quiet and well-behaved man, was placed in charge of the fishing 
boats. Te Kooti was suddenly taken ill, suffering from spitting of 
blood. He became so bad that his hapu asked permission to put 
him in a whare by himself to die, a native custom, with an old 
woman to attend him, but he had every attention paid to him by 
Dr. Watson, the surgeon, and was fed on port wine for some days. 
To the surprise of the prisoners Te Kooti recovered, which they 
considered a miracle, and the man became a great prophet and 
commenced preaching the Hauhau religion. Thinking that some 
evil was brewing. Captain Tuke wrote privately, by instructions 
from the late Sir Donald IMcLean, to that effect. A Commissioner 
(Major Edwards) was sent down. He recommended that the guard 
should be strengthened and another redoubt built in a stronger 
position overlooking the prisoners' whares. These recommendations 
were unfortunately not carried out ; but another Commissioner 
(Mr. Rolleston) was sent, with instructions to take all surveillance 
off the prisoners — in fact, let them do as they liked, but give them 
their rations as before. The first step Captain Tuke had to take 



4i6 THE DEFENDERS 

was to do away with the morning and evening roll-call, as the 
prisoners could go where they liked and could roam all over the 
island at their pleasure. This second Commassion cost the country 
thousands of pounds, for if the first had been carried out the 
prisoners would not have escaped, but would have been released, 
according to Sir Donald McLean's promise, in three years. 
Another foolish act was pardonmg the chiefs who had behaved 
well, who had been placed by Captain Thomas, Resident Magistrate, 
and Captain Tuke in charge of their different hapus. They were 
all released, sixteen in number, but one Kingita, a very bad fellow, 
who was killed afterwards at Poverty Bay. It was then that Te 
Kooti commenced his career as prophet. Te Kooti, when in Poverty 
Bay, was not a Hauhau, but was sent away for selling ammunition 
to the Hauhaus, a charge that was never proved. He therefore had a 
grievance, but always behaved well. Captain Tuke was present at 
his marriage by the Resident Magistrate, Captain Thomas, to a 
woman named Martha in the Court-house. How little anyone then 
present thought that he would afterwards revenge himself on 
men, women, children, and little infants. Captain Tuke was 
ordered back to Wellington in February, 1868, with the greater 
part of the guard and the released chiefs. He then retired from 
active service, but afterwards volunteered his services to Colonel 
McDonnell and joined the expedition to Potou Rotoaira, marching 
with a native force under Renata Kawepo by the inland route via 
Patea. On arriving at Potou he accompanied Colonel McDonnell 
in a reconnoitring party, who were fired at from the hills above 
Tokano. He was then sent back with despatches to Napier, making 
the journey in a day and a half, riding all night, accompanied by a 
half-caste, who picked up exchange horses on the road. 



BB 



4i8 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR PORTE R 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 419 



Majo^^ Portei^ 



Carrying off a ivounded soldier — Storming Ngaiapa pa — Fighling 
Titokoivarii — Pursuit of Te Kooti, and capture of two pas. 




AJOR PORTER'S first appearance amongst those who 
had so nobly volunteered to aid the Government in re- 
establishing law and order in the colony was in the 
Colonial Defence Force Cavalry. Colonel AVhitmore, the 
then commandant, placed him in charge of the Block House at 
Mohaka, for the protection of that district, the native mind at that 
moment being much disturbed. From this time to the end of the 
war Major Porter's name was continually before the public as one 
of the most active and resolute officers in the force. At Waerenga- 
a-hika he greatly distinguished himself by bringing off the field 
(with the assistance of three others) one of his own men, who was 
severely wounded, under a heavy fire ; he sustained a wound on this 
occasion. In 1866, the false economy of the Government having 
disbanded the Colonial forces, Major Porter was entrusted by Sir 
Donald McLean and Major Biggs (who was afterwards killed in 
the Poverty Bay massacre) with some very important negotiations 
with the Ngatiporou, which he executed to the satisfaction of the 
Government. 

In 1868, when Te Kooti and his band ot ruffians escaped from the 
Chatham Isles and landed at Poverty Bay, Major Porter again 
volunteered his services, taking part in nearly every action fought 
before and after the massacre. 

At the siege of Ngatapa, he particularly distinguished himself. 
Being attached to the native contingent under Ropata, he formed 
one of the storming party who so gallantly scaled the outer works 
of the enemy, which action led to its capture. For this, Colonel 
Whitmore recommended him as sub-inspector of the Armed 
Constabulary, and gave him the command of No. 8 division of the 
Arawa tribe, who had orders to proceed to the West Coast to assist 
the field force raised against Titokowaru, who was then threatening 
the Patea and Wanganui districts. 

During the Wanganui campaign IMajor Porter was continually 
on active service, and being a good Maori linguist, he was often 
detailed off, with Major Kemp and the Wanganuis, as a flying 
column of pursuit. In one of the ambuscades on the Waitotara, 
and also at Otauto, where so many of our scouts fell, Major Porter 



420 THE DEFENDERS 

was again slig-htly wounded, and after the final scattering of 
Titokowaru's force at Te Ngaere, and the cessation of hostilities, 
he returned to the East Coast, with his company of Arawas, to 
take up the pursuit of Te Kooti, who had appeared in force and 
committed many massacres, both at Whakatane and IMohaka. 
iNIajor Porter was afterwards placed in charge of the Transport 
Corps, and narrowly escaped being one of the party who were so 
treacherously murdered at Opepe. Te Kooti having retired to the 
fastnesses of the Uriwera country. Sir Donald McLean organised 
several expeditions to penetrate this stronghold of rebellion, which 
was quite a terra incognita, and ]\Iajor Porter was ordered to accom- 
pany Major Ropata and an expeditionary force of Ngatiporou in 
marching through that hitherto supposed impenetrable country. 
At ]\Iaungapohatu, on the way. Major Porter, with a division of the 
force, successfully surprised a pa, and captured about 80 prisoners, 
the expedition culminating in the fight at jMaraetahi, near Opotiki, 
where a number of Te Kooti's men were killed and 330 taken 
prisoners. 

From that time to 187 1 Major Porter was wholly engaged in bush 
travelling, in pursuit of Te Kooti, through the wild fastnesses of the 
country, enduring hardships and starvation, Avhich so pulled him 
down that his nearest relations failed to recognise him. 

The last engagement fought with Te Kooti was at Te Hapua, 
near Maungapohatu, from which place Te Kooti escaped with but 
few followers, and in one of these expeditions Ropata's force captured 
Kereopa, the murderer of the Rev. Mr. Volkner, and handed him 
over to justice. On the cessation of hostilities, to Major Porter was 
left the task of disarming our native allies, and by judicious 
diplomacy he succeeded in inducing them to return 2000 stand of 
arms, for which he was awarded just praise. Major Porter during 
these later years has held the post of Staff- Adjutant of East Coast 
IMilitia District, Native Office Land Purchase Commissioner, and 
many other appointments entailing great responsibility. 

As Land Purchase Commissioner, he completed the Crown title 
to 547,381 acres in various parts of the East Coast of New Zealand. 
He has been elected i\layor of Gisborne four times, and has taken 
an active part in other local institutions. 



BB* 



422 



THE DEFENDERS 




RIGHT REV- BISHOP SELWYN 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 423 



Right Rev. Bishop Selwyn. 




EORGE AUGUSTUS SELWYN, D.D., was born at 
Hampstead in 1809, and consecrated Bishop of New 
Zealand in 1841. He was educated at Eton, and 
while manifesting his rare abilities as a scholar, he was 
very fond of all athletic sports, in which he excelled, and found 
to his advantage during the chequered life he spent while in New 
Zealand and the South Pacific Islands. The draft of his letters 
patent as Bishop of New Zealand, framed on those of the Bishop of 
Australia, shocked him greatly, more particularly the Erastian 
expression of the Queen giving him the power to ordain. But 
the Crown lawyers were inexorable, and the letters patent 
were issued with the offensive clauses in full. Against this 
the Bishop could only protest, which he did formally in a 
document delivered to the Colonial Office, saying " that he 
conceived that all spiritual functions were conveyed to him at 
his ordination." This feeling of High Church principles the 
Bishop carried out with him to the Antipodes, for on his arrival 
there he soon made his presence known, preaching the truths of the 
Church as by law established, and completely ignoring the doctrines 
of the Wesleyans and others who had for some years been in- 
structing the natives in Christianity. This led to a series of letters 
between the Bishop and the Wesleyan minister of Taranaki, the 
Rev. H. Hanson Turton, all of which will be found in Brown's 
" New Zealand," published 1 845, wherein the Rev. H. H. Turton asks 
the Bishop who invested him with the authority he denied to others, 
a question the writer says the Bishop very wisely refrained from 
answering. Like most of the missionaries, he took the part of the 
natives, right or wrong, advocated their cause, and at times placed 
himself in such a position during the war that had he been a person 
of less dignity he would in all probability have come to great grief. 
As it was it caused considerable annoyance to the military 
authorities. The Bishop was of opinion that the Governor was 
wrong in consenting to purchase Tiera's land at the Waitara (the 
cause of the war), which led to the action he took ; otherwise His 
Lordship was highly approved of as the head of his own denomi- 
nation, and generally admired and respected by all communions. 
He was a man of great earnestness, eloquence, and courage. He 
returned to England in 1867, and was soon after made Bishop of 
Lichfield, which position he retained up to the time of his death. 



424 THE DEFENDERS 



/ 



OHN McpREGOI^ 




Uliirder of the Gilfillan faviilv — John McGregor s leap for life — Selilers 

ask 171 g to be removed. 

HE first outbreak in Wanganui occurred in the year 1848, 
when the up-river natives, led by their old chief Maketu, 
murdered the Gilfillan family, drove in the out-settlers, 
and actually occupied and held possession for a time 
of a portion of the town, although it was garrisoned by several 
companies of Her Majesty's 58th Regiment. During this siege 
a settler named John McGregor (late a wealthy settler there), 
seeing some of his cows on the opposite side of the river, 
crossed with the intention of bringing them in, and was ascending 
Shakespeare's Cliff, when an ambush of Maoris, from a ti-tree 
scrub, suddenly rose and pursued him. He turned and fled 
for his life, and as he looked round at his pursuers they 
fired. A ball entered his mouth and passed out of his cheek 
without displacing a tooth. Finding- himself hard pressed, John 
McGregor leaped over the cliff on to the beach below — some say 
a height of fifty feet — and so escaped. This settler afterwards 
headed a deputation to Sir George Grey (who was always to be 
found where danger threatened), asking him to remove them to 
Wellington, and abandon the settlement. But Sir George Grey, 
with his knowledge of human nature, replied, " Before I assent to 
your request, I should like to see how many of you really wish it." 
He then directed all those who were anxious to run away from the 
natives to move to the other side of the room. Not a man stirred. 
Sir George having by this speech roused their courage and saved 
the settlement. 



/|26 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAI N PR E ECE 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 427 



APTAIN PrEECE. 




IAPTAIN GEORGE A. PREECE entered the Govern- 
ment service as clerk and interpreter to the Resident 
Magistrate at Wairoa, Hawke's Bay, in December, 1864, 
and was attached to the colonial forces as extra inter- 
preter, and served in the field through the East Coast campaign of 
1865-66 under Colonel Eraser. After the cessation of hostilities he 
returned to duty in the Civil Service until July, 1868, when Te 
Kooti escaping from the Chatham Islands, he was again attached 
to the colonial forces with the rank of Ensign. He served under 
Captains Richardson and Tuke, Major Westrupp, and Colonel 
Lambert, and was in several expeditions against the rebel natives. 
After the Poverty Bay massacre he was made Lieutenant in 
command of the Wairoa Native Contingent. He accompanied 
Major Ropata and the Ngatiporou Contingent to Poverty Bay for 
the purpose of following up the rebels, and was present at the 
Mokeretu engagement, as also the first attack on Ngatapa, for 
which service he received the special thanks of the Government, 
and was subsequently rewarded with the decoration of the New 
Zealand Cross. He served through the East and West Coast 
campaigns of 1868-69 under Sir George Whitmore, and was several 
times favourably mentioned in despatches. He afterwards served 
under Colonels Herrick and McDonnell in Taupo and Tapapa, and 
was again mentioned in despatches on three occasions. He was 
promoted to the rank of Captain in February, 1870. The command 
of the Native Contingent was entrusted to him, and he was present 
in a number of expeditions, engaging with rebels on several 
occasions from 1870 to 1872, when Te Kooti with the remainder of 
his followers escaped into the King country. He experienced 
great hardships in the Uriwera country during these expeditions. 
He served in the Armed Constabulary as Sub-Inspector until May, 
1876, when he was again transferred to the Civil Service as 
Resident Magistrate in the Opotiki district. On the occasion of 
the first attack upon Ngatapa his behaviour was so brilliant as to 
elicit the admiration of Major Ropata, who recommended him for 
special reward to the commanding officer with the very com- 
plimentary remark " that with two or three more like him he 
would have been able to break into the pa, at that time not fully 
completed." 



4 28 THE DEFENDERS 



Mr, H 



I\, pEWITT. 



Murder of Mr. Heivitt. — Head cut off and exhibited throughout the country. 




VERY day some fresh incident occurred to prove the 
hostile character of the natives around us, and an order 
was issued for the out-settlers to bring in their wives 
and children for protection. This order had not been in 
force many days when the murder of Mr. Hewitt took place. This 
gentleman, having settled on land in the neighbourhood of the 
Kai-iwi River, eight miles from town, had removed his family for 
safety, but continued, with his servant, to occupy the house, there 
being a military station within half a mile of his farm. He had 
ridden into town, and, having turned his horse into my paddock, 
he (on coming for it in the evening) requested my wife to go and 
comfort Mrs. Hewitt, who was in low spirits, and did not wish him 
to sleep at the farm, having a presentiment that something would 
happen. " But," he continued, " as I have left the man there, 
I cannot desert him." He accordingly rode out, and in the middle 
of the night was awakened by the furious barking of his dogs. He 
incautiously went outside with his man to ascertain the cause, and, 
hearing Maoris talking in the bush around his house, was in the 
act of returning when he was shot down. His man iled from the 
place, and, leaping a bank and ditch fence, caught his sock on 
a stake, which held him head downwards in the ditch. This 
saved his life. It was very dark, the Maoris gave chase, thinking 
he was far ahead, and he escaped to the station. On returning 
with assistance, he found poor Hewitt's lifeless trunk. The head 
was gone, and the heart had been cut out. The head was after- 
wards placed on a pole and carried by the natives through the 
country as a trophy, together with that of Captain Lloyd, who had 
been shot at Taranaki a short time before. 



430 



THE DEFENDERS 




LIEUTENANT O'CALLAGHAN 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 431 



y 




lEUT. U Lallaghan. 




lEUTENANT WILLIAM G. O'CALLAGHAN, the 

son of Admiral O'Callaghan, entered the Royal Navy 
in April, 1855, as a cadet, having passed his examina- 
\ tion at the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, and was 
duly entered on the books of Nelson's immortal flagship, the 
Victory. From thence he was sent to the Baltic to take his part in 
the campaign against Russia in Her IMajesty's ship Hawke^ an old 
block ship of sixty guns. Soon after he was drafted to the 
ExmoiUh, of ninety guns, the flagship of Sir Michael Seymour, and 
was present at the bombardment of Sveaborg, the reduction of 
Narva, and the blockade of Revel and Cronstdadt. Returning 
home in October, he received the medal awarded for the Baltic 
campaign before he was thirteen years old. He was afterwards, 
appointed to Her jMajesty's ship Calaitfa^ of eighty-four guns 
a sailing line of battle ship, to which vessel Sir Michael Seymour 
had shifted his flag, as commander-in-chief in the China seas; and 
from the Calcutta he changed about to various ships, taking part 
in the war with China, which broke out in 1856. He was on 
board the Eucoiiiitcr, of fourteen guns, when she fired the first shot 
against the city of Canton ; was present at the first storming of 
that city, when the British force, being engaged by overwhelming 
numbers, had to retire ; took part in the bombardment and capture 
of the Bogue Forts, the French Folly, and Stameen Forts, besides 
several boat actions. He was sent to England, and changed to 
the frigate Actccoji, of twenty-six guns, and, again proceeding 
to China, was present at the final bombardment and storming of 
Canton, in 1857, in which action his captain, W. T. Bates, was 
shot through the heart. He served afterwards in the Retribution, 
when Lord Elgin, the British plenipotentiary, proceeded with 
a squadron consisting of the Retribution, Ftirious, and Cruiser^ 
with gunboats Dove and Lee, to open up our trade on the River Yang- 
tse-Kiang, and in the engagement had two officers and three 
seaman wounded, and a marine killed. He was then invalided 
home in July, 1859, but proceeded to New Zealand in 1861, and, 
liking the country, he left the Imperial service, and was sent by 
the New Zealand Government to Sydney, to aid Captain Bilton 
in bringing over a gunboat (the Pioneer), returning in her as 
first lieutenant. On arriving in the IManukau, the Pioneer was 
handed over to Commodore Wiseman, who put his own officers 



432 THE DEFENDERS 

and men in her. He then offered his services as a volunteer 
and was appointed lieutenant in the Taranaki Military Settlers, 
and took part with them in the capture of Kaitaki, Manutahi, 
Mataitawa, and other rebel posts round and about New Plymouth, 
and subsequently joined the Wanganui Rangers, under the late 
Captain Frederick Ross, AVhile in that company, he saw a lot 
of service, both at Opotiki, on the East Coast, and in the Patea 
on the West Coast of the North Island, being present at the 
engagements that took place at the Kiori-kino and the Hill pas, 
Katemarae, Kateonetea, Turi-turi, and Pungarehu. 

After acting as adjutant to the field force at Waihi, his position 
as senior subaltern in the expeditionary force, he thought, required 
consideration, and he naturally looked for promotion, the tardiness 
of which caused him to retire from the service. For his services 
in the navy, he received the Baltic Medal and the China Medal 
and clasps, besides £,-},o prize money. For his services in New 
Zealand, he received the New Zealand JMedal and 200 acres of 
land in the Patea district ; but, as he could not then settle on 
it, he accepted the office of clerk of the Magistrate's Court at 
Invercargill, where he is doing duty at the present moment. 



cc 



434 



THE DEFENDERS 




TROOPE R LI NGARD. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 435 



Troopei\_ "Lingard. 




iROOPER LINGARD, who had joined the Wanganui 
Cavalry, was awarded the New Zealand Cross for his 
gallant and determined courage in rescuing Trooper 
Wright, whose horse being shot dead, had fallen in front of the 
palisading surrounding the pa on Trooper AVright's leg, thereby 
holding him a prisoner. Trooper Lingard, seeing his position, 
immediately went to his assistance, and having with some difficulty 
extricated him, rode deliberately back to the palisading, and 
cutting away a Maori horse tethered there, put Trooper Wright 
thereon and brought him off the field, being all the time under 
heavy fire, thereby saving his comrade from being tomahawked. 
Trooper Lingard at the time was a very young man, and quite a 
stranger in the neighbourhood, consequently had neither interest 
nor friends to push his case, which made the honour of the decoration, 
awarded entirely on his merits, all the greater. 



436 THE DEFENDERS 



Captain Waddel. 




APTAIN WADDEL, of the Auckland City Guards, on 
the Qth of July, 1863 (then Lieutenant Waddel), had 
the honour of commanding the first escort of the 

Auckland volunteer forces that marched out to the front. 

After morning drill it was the custom to detail on parade guards 
as pickets for the night. Mr. Waddel, being in charge of the 
picket, was inspecting the men, when the late Colonel Balneavis, 
the then commanding officer of the volunteers, being still on the 
ground, received a telegram from the front instructing him to at 
once furnish an escort to act as convoy to several dray-loads of 
ammunition which was required at Otahuhu, whereupon the 
Colonel informed Mr. Waddel that his picket would have to 
perform that duty. The Colonel further said that rations would 
be drawn and everything be in readiness on their arrival in camp 
at Otahuhu. But on their arrival there the late Major Hunter, 
an old member of the volunteer force, merely inspected the ammu- 
nition and then dismissed the men to their quarters for the night. 
They were not provided with either blankets or overcoats, and at 
evening parade it was decided, rather than risk the chances of 
taking cold, to return to town. Many of the men still living will 
remember that night march homewards. After Major Hunter had 
done the honours in camp to Mr Waddel, his men were anxious to 
interview him. They were hungry, footsore, and angry at the fact 
that the rations served out were in a raw condition, and the inquiry 
was made, " Is this what Colonel Balneavis meant by saying that 
everything was in readiness r" ]\Ir Waddel replied, " Let us see 
what the others are doing." They then proceeded to the camp 
fires at the rear of the huts, where not only frying pans, but pot- 
lids had been brought into requisition, the men being hard at work 
making the best of the circumstances. Mr Waddel's men were new 
to military duty, and not inured to the rough experiences of camp 
life. The volunteers and militia of Auckland, however, were not 
long in becoming initiated, and rendered good service as the war 
proceeded. Lieutenant Waddel, who has since held many public 
offices, must, like many other Auckland citizens, remember with 
satisfaction this episode in his life when he was called upon to 
assist in defending the city from an enemy who were literally at its 
gates. 



cc 



438 



THE DEFENDERS 




PRIVATE J SHANAGHAN 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 439 



James Shanaghan. 




RIVATE JAMES SHANAGHAN joined No. 5 Company 
of Armed Constabulary, under Major Von Tempsky, on 
the nth of March, 1868, not having then attained his 
nineteenth year, and soon after was at the relief of Turi 
Turi Mokai, and took part in the many skirmishes in that 
neighbourhood. He was present at both attacks on Te Ngutu-o- 
te-Manu, and at the latter engagementwasnearto Lieutenant Hunter 
when Major Von Tempsky fell mortally wounded, and on the cry 
arising that the Major was shot, he and Lieutenant Hunter both ran 
towards the position the Major held when he fell to try and recover his 
body. Before they had got halfway across the clearing. Lieutenant 
Hunter also met his death, which caused Shanaghan to pause, and 
while attempting to carry Hunter off the field, several who had seen 
the occurrence hastened to his assistance and bore the body to the 
rear. By this time the men were in a very disorganised state, and 
on Shanaghan asking a comrade to assist him in a second attempt 
to bring in the Major's body, Captain Buck was the only one who 
responded, saying, " I will go with you, young fellow. Do you 
know the spot where the Major fell r" Shanaghan answering in 
the affirmative, the two proceeded to cross the clearing and reach 
Von Tempsky's body. The firing being still kept up briskly on the 
part of the Maoris, Shanaghan and Buck decided on getting 
away as quickly as possible, but as Shanaghan was in the act of 
picking up the body his left hand thumb was shot away, and while 
changing his rifle to his other hand, a second shot pierced his 
right hand, entering at the back, and lodging in the palm, at the 
same time striking his rifle with such force as nearly to knock him 
down. Captain Buck asked him where he was hit, when Shanaghan, 
turning round to show the Captain his hands, a third volley was 
fired, and Captain Buck fell dead at Von Tempsky's feet. Shanaghan 
then retired. Colonel IMcDonnell soon after this began to retire, 
finding it impossible to stop the fugitives. He began by collecting 
the wounded, and sent them on ahead, staying himself with the 
rear, fighting his way through ambushes nearly all the way out, and 
only reached the outskirts of the forest some hours after dark, when 
Shanaghan was borne on the shoulders of Colonel McDonnell and 
Sergeant Blake across the Waingongoro river, which was greatly 
swollen by the incessant rain. Shanaghan feeling nearly exhausted, 
started with a comrade for the camp at Waihi, two miles off, and 



440 THE DEFENDERS 

on arriving was taken into hospital. On their way they met 
Captain Gudgeon and Captain George McDonnell, who had 
been left in charge of the camp, and who were inquiring into the 
truth of a report in circulation that Colonel McDonnell was also 
killed. Shanaghan saj-s he owes his life to Colonel McDonnell, 
as it was entirely due to his untiring exertions and care that the 
wounded succeeded in getting out of the bush that night. It will 
naturally be a wonder to most of my readers why Shanaghan was 
not recommended for the New Zealand Cross, but this is only one 
case of many where justice was overlooked. 



442 



THE DEFENDERS 




PR. I. E. FEATHERSTON 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 



443 



P 



R. Featherston. 




R. FEATHERSTON, one of the recipients of the New 
Zealand Cross, was formerly Superintendent of the 
Province of Wellington. During the war, finding that 
the General, Sir Trevor Chute, had some difficulty in 
managing the Native Contingent, he volunteered his services, and 
accompanied the General on his memorable march round Mount 
Egmont as a non-combatant, taking part in all the hardships of 
that campaign. The following despatch from Sir Trevor Chute to 
the Governor fully explains the grounds upon which this much- 
coveted decoration was in this instance conferred, and never having 
hitherto been published, may be of some interest to his many friends 
and admirers. 

"Army and Navy Club, Pall Mall, 

" London, February ist, iSyj. 
"To His Excellency the Governor of New Zealand, etc. 

" Sir, — I deem it my duty to bring under the notice of your Excellency and 
Government the distinguished and valuable services rendered to the colony 
during the campaign on the west coast of New Zealand in the early part of the 
year 1866 by Dr. I. E. Featherston, late Superintendent of Wellington, and 
now Agent-General for the colony in Great Britain. 

"I have the honour to state for your information that this officer, who 
volunteered to accompany me on the expedition and to take charge of the 
native allies, rendered me valuable and important assistance in every respect, 
and was on all occasions most conspicuous for his bravery and gallantry. 
He was present at the capture and destruction of the following pas, viz., 
Okotuku, Putahi, Otapawa, Keteraarae, and Waikoko, and accompanied me 
in the march round Mount Egmont. I venture to bring more particularly 
under the notice of your Excellency and Government the intrepid devotion 
of this officer to the public service on the occasion of the assault and capture 
of that almost impregnable stronghold, the Otapawa Pa, the occupants of 
which were under the delusion that it could not be taken. The conspicuous 
gallantry displayed by this officer at the storming of that pa, in leading the 
Native Contingent into action, almost at the sacrifice of his own life, not only 
elicited my warmest approbation, but the admiration of the whole force present 
on that memorable occasion. As I have already acknowledged in my des- 
patches the eminent services rendered to me by Dr. Featherston throughout the 
campaign, I now consider it my imperative duty to recommend this officer in 



444 THE DEFENDERS 

the strongest terms for the distinctive decoration of the New Zealand Cross, in 
recognition of his meritorious and intrepid services during the period referred 
to, and more particularly at the storming and capture of that formidable pa, 
Otapawa, where I must in truth say Dr. Featherston so exposed himself in 
the service of his Queen and country as to become, as it were, a target for 
the enemy's fire, thus by his noble example stimulating the courage of the 
native allies. I deem it my duty to make this recommendation under Clause 
5 of the Regulations ordained m that behalf by Order-in-Council dated the 
loth day of IMarch. 1869, and published in the New Zealand Gazette of 
March nth, 1869 (No. 14). 

" i have the honour to be, etc, 

"Trevor Chute.*' 



446 



l^HE DEFENDERS 




NSPECTOR SCANNELL. 



OF NE W ZEALAND. 4/1 7 



J 



NSPECTOI^ bCANNELL. 




NSPECTOR SCANNELL, as a young- man preferring 
a military career, enlisted in the 57th Regiment, then 
en route for the Crimea, but was detained at Malta, to 
serve as orderly-room clerk until the peace and the 
removal of the army from that country. In May, 1858, his 
regiment was ordered to proceed overland, via Egypt, to India, 
to assist in quelling the Mutiny ; but he was again employed 
in the orderly-room at Aden for two years before he rejoined 
headquarters. On arrival at Bombay, he was appointed to the 
non-commissioned staff of the Indian establishment as quarter- 
master-sergeant of the Queen's Depot, and acted in that capacity 
up to November, i860, when he embarked with his regiment for 
New Zealand, arriving in Auckland harbour early in January, 
1 86 1, proceeding thence to Taranaki, then almost in a state of 
siege. He remained there, doing picket and reconnoitring duty, 
until the temporary cessation of hostilities, when his company was 
despatched to Wanganui to relieve one of the companies of the 
65th Regiment, under orders for England. 

While in Wanganui, he accompanied the expeditionary force 
under General Cameron to Alexander's farm, arriving at Nuku- 
maru in time to assist in repulsing the second attack made on the 
camp at that station. He was present at the action at Ketemarae, 
and in all the skirmishes that took place between Patea and 
Waingongoro River, the most advanced post occupied by the 
Imperial forces. Early in 1866, he served under General Chute, 
then commanding in New Zealand, who took the field intending 
to attack and reduce all hostile settlements between Patea and 
Taranaki. He was present at the attack at Otapawa, when 
Colonel Hassard and ten of his men were killed. Took part in all 
the skirmishing at and capture of Ketemarae, until the following 
July, when, having completed his twelve years' service, he claimed 
his discharge, to settle in the colony. He immediately after joined 
the Wanganui Bush Rangers, under Captain Frederick Ross, and 
was present at the skirmish when Captain Ross was so severely 
wounded, and for the next few months participated in all the skir- 
mishes and raids made on the enemy's strongholds, until the 
force, having acquired complete possession of the whole of the 
open country from Patea to the Waimate Plains, the natives 



448 THE DEFENDERS 

appeared so completely subdued that many gave in their 
allegiance. 

This was the state of things in the early part of 1867, when 
the Government, from a false idea of retrenchment, disbanded all 
their well drilled fighting men, substituting in their place a sort 
of volunteer militia for garrison duty, although it was believed 
by many that the natives were only biding their time to fight 
again. And as the eyes of the General Assembly began to open, 
they passed an Act embodying an Armed Constabulary force for 
field service, and Sergeant Scannell was the first enrolled, as 
senior sergeant of No. 2 company. In 1868, No. 2 company was 
despatched to Hokitika, to quell a disturbance amongst the 
digging community, and Sergeant Scannell remained in charge 
of part of the force until after the trial of the ringleaders. In June 
the natives began to show their intentions in the murders of 
Cahill, Clark, and Squires, and reinforcements of untrained men 
were sent up by the Government from Wellington. 

In August, 1868, the first attack on Te Ngutu-o-te-Manu was 
made, No. 2 division of Armed Constabulary with Sergeant 
Scannell leading. At this attack they lost four men and several 
wounded. He was also present at the second attack on the pa, 
which the natives had in the meantime strongly fortified, and our 
newly trained force were repulsed with great loss — upwards of 
fifty men and five officers being killed, besides the wounded. For 
his services on this occasion, he received his commission as sub- 
inspector of No. 2 company in the Armed Constabulary, and took 
part in all the operations that followed. On Colonel Whitmore's 
departure to avenge the massacre of the Poverty Bay settlers, he 
was made adjutant of the force left to defend the town of Wanganui 
under Colonel Herrick, and consequently held a command in the 
skirmishes at Taurangaika and the Karaka Flats ; and on the 
return of Colonel Whitmore, took part in the battle of Otauto. 
He was then despatched to Whakatane to penetrate the Uriwera 
country, in search of Te Kooti, under Colonel St. John, and took 
a prominent part in all the operations, capturing two strongly 
fortified pas and several native villages, traversing the country 
to Waikaremoana, from thence to Taupo and Tokanu, on to 
Lake Rotaira and Papakai, where Te Kooti's force was seen 
occupying a strong position under his generals, Te Heuheu and 
Tahau. He led the attack, killing fifty natives, and taking many 
prisoners ; but Te Kooti, although severely wounded, escaped in 
the dense bush surrounding his fortification. The European force 
being recalled from further pursuit, Scannell was appointed to ihe 
command of the Taupo district, made Resident Magistrate, and 
first-class inspector, and was gazetted to an equivalent rank in the 
New Zealand Militia. 



DD 



450 



THE DEFENDERS 




MAJOR RICHARDSON; 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 451 



M 



AJOR 



HiCHARDSON. 




lAJOR RICHARDSON, a descendant of an old Cumber- 
land family, arrived in the colony in the year 1864, and 
proffering his services to the Government, was appointed 

ensign in the Hawke's Bay Military Settlers, and in the 

latter part of 1865 was first engaged with the enemy at the storming 
of the Waerengahika Pa, under JNIajor Fraser, which engagement 
lasted from the 16th to the 2 ist of November, where we had six men 
killed and ten wounded. He was then despatched to the Wairoa, 
and took part in the capture of Te Maru Maru Pa, again losing six 
men, amongst them the brave Captain Hussey. Ensign Richardson 
by this time had not only made himself a general favourite, but he 
was further highly esteemed by his commanding officer (Major 
Fraser) for his intrepidity and coolness in action. Seven or eight 
days of desultory fighting followed this attack, during which time 
we lost at Te Kopani, by ambush, thirteen friendly natives killed 
and twenty wounded. In October, 1866, Ensign Richardson fought 
at Petane, near Napier, on the occasion of the natives threatening 
the township by taking up a position on two sides. Colonel 
Whitmore attacked the enemy at Omarunui, while Major Fraser 
held them in check at Petane. It was here that Fraser and 
Richardson, by manoeuvring, got to the rear of the enemy, and 
charging in amongst them, cut down twenty of their number, 
wounding five. For this, and the expedition used by Major 
Richardson in bringing reinforcements up from Wairoa to meet 
the emergency, he received the personal thanks of Sir Donald 
]\IcLean, and was soon after gazetted Sub-Inspector of No. i 
Division of Armed Constabulary. In March, 1868, Major 
Richardson took part in the engagement at Whakatane and 
Opotiki, reinforcing' Major St. John's force, and assisted in 
reducing the Otara and Te Ponga Pas. In the following June the 
Major was again under marching orders, his instructions being to 
intercept Te Kooti and engage the rebel and his followers at 
Te Konaki, on the Waihou Lake, but owing to the defection of his 
friendly allies, he had to retire under a heavy fire, which lasted 
from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

In the month of September, 1868, Major Richardson was engaged, 
under Colonel Whitmore, hunting up the chief Titokowaru, on the 
West Coast, and in November following, fought at Otoia, up the 
Patea River, not to mention the various other skirmishes that took 



452 THE DEFENDERS 

place in this district. In April, 1869, the Major was appointed to 
the mounted division, under orders for Napier, and reached that 
township a day or two after the Mohaka massacre, and received 
orders to join Colonel Lambert's division, already on the march to 
]\Iohaka ; but as Te Kooti was found to have retired upon AVaikare 
^loana, the mounted division was ordered to Wairoa to join Colonel 
Herrick's command, who was organising a force to cross the Lake 
in pursuit of Te Kooti. But after the punts had been built and 
other difficulties surmounted, the expedition was countermanded, 
and the force recalled to Napier. ]\Iajor Richardson, with his 
mounted division, was then despatched to Taupo, and joined the 
force under Colonel ]\IcDonnell, and soon came across Te Kooti's 
track, both at Tokano and Porere. At the latter place Te Kooti 
lost two of his fingers and thirty-five of his best men, while we lost 
the brave Captain St. George and Lieutenant Winiata. Following 
on, the force again surprised Te Kooti on his return from Taupo, 
at Tapapa, capturing nineteen stand of Enfield rifles and all his 
camp equipage, horses, etc., but Te Kooti himself again escaped 
to the bush country, where he was for a time constantly harassed 
by Pitt's, Westrupp's, and Richardson's command, until he finally 
escaped into the Waikato or King's country. In 1874 Richardson 
gained his majority, and in 1879 retired to settle down on his estate 
at Petane, near Napier, after nearly ten years of active service, 
taking part in some of the smartest engagements both on the East 
and West Coast. One matter worthy of note is, that the first five 
men on whom the New Zealand Cross was conferred, were members 
of No. I, the company to which Major Richardson was attached. 



DD"" 



454 



THE DEFENDERS 




FATH ER ROLLAND 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 455 



f^ATHER Holland. 




MONGST those attached to the colonial forces, and 
who never flinched from his duty, more particularly 
if danger was apprehended, was Father Rolland. 
^1 Although of a delicate constitution, no weather or other 
difficulty ever prevented him from accompanying the force, so as to 
be near the men in the hour of trial. He was present at both 
attacks on Te Ngutu-o-te-Manu, and on the occasion of the 
disastrous retreat consequent on the second attack, he not only 
\'olunteered his services to assist the wounded, but bravely took 
his turn in carrying the stretchers, so that none should be left 
behind. It was on the 21st of August, 1868, that orders were 
issued for all available men to hold themsQlves in readiness to start 
on an expedition before daybreak to attack the stronghold of Te 
Ngutu-o-te-Manu. The morning broke with torrents of rain, which 
delayed their departure, but about 10 a.m. the rain ceased, and a 
thick mist shrouded the whole country side. This being even 
better for our purpose than darkness, the order was given to start. 
The column consisted of detachments of Nos. 2, 3, and 5 divisions of 
Armed Constabulary, the Wellington Rangers, and Wellington 
Rifles, in all about 300 men, accompanied by Father Rolland. It 
was this march that called forth from Major Von Tempsky the 
following eulogy on Father Rolland, which appeared in the papers 
of the day. He said : " On a grey and rainy morning, when the 
snoring waters of the Waingongoro were muttering of flood and 
fury to come, when our 300 mustered silently in column on the 
parade ground, one man made his appearance who at once drew 
all eyes upon him with silent wonder. His garb was most peculiar ; 
scanty but long skirts shrouded his nether garments ; an old 
waterproof shirt hung loosely on his shoulders ; weapons he had 
none, but there was a warlike cock in the position of his broad- 
brimmed old felt, and a self-confidence in the attitude in which he 
leaned on his walking-stick that said — Here stands a man 
without fear. Who is it r Look underneath the flap of that clerical 
hat, and the frank good-humoured countenance of Father Rolland 
will meet you. There he was lightly arrayed for a march of which 
no one could say what the ending would be. With a good- 
humoured smile he answered my question as to what on earth 
brought him there. On holding evening service he had told his 
flock he should accompany them on the morrow's expedition, and 



456 THE DEFENDERS 

there he was. Truly there stood a good shepherd. Through the 
rapid river, waist deep, along the weary forest track, across ominous 
looking clearings where at any moment a volley from an ambush 
would have swept our ranks. Father Rolland marched cheerfully 
and manfully, ever ready with a kind word or playful sentence to 
any man who passed him. And when at last in the clearing of Te 
Ngutu-o-te-Manu the storm of bullets burst upon us, he did not 
wait in the rear for men to be brought to him, but ran with the 
rest of us forward against the enemy's position. So soon as any 
man dropped he was by his side. He did not ask, 'Are you Catholic 
or Protestant?' but kindly kneeling prayed for his last words. 
Thrice noble conduct in a century of utilitarian tendencies. What 
Catholic on that expedition could have felt fear when he saw Father 
Rolland at his side smiling at death — a living personification, a 
fulfilment of many a text preached r What Catholic on that day 
could have felt otherwise than proud to be a Catholic on Father 
Rolland's account? — Waihi, August 24th, 1868." 



458 



THE DEFENDERS 




GENERAL SIR DUNCAN CAMERON 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 459 



General Cameron. 




'ENERAL CAIMERON served throughout the Eastern 
campaign of 1854-55. Commanded the 42nd Regiment 
at the battle of Alma and the Highland Brigade at 
Balaklava ; on the expedition to Kertch ; at the siege 
and fall of Sebastopol ; and the assault on the outworks on the 
1 8th June, for which he received a medal and three clasps, was 
made a C.B. and oflicer of the Legion of Honour. He also received 
the Sardinian and Turkish ]\Iedal third class of the Medjidi, and 
was afterwards despatched to New Zealand in command of the 
twelve regiments in that colony, from 1863 to 1865, being finally 
recalled at his own request, in consequence of the Governor (Sir 
George Grey) and himself having disagreed on some important 
points touching their individual responsibilities. This far is 
certain, that a deal of mischief was done during the uncer- 
tainty that prevailed as to their separate duties and responsibilities 
in connection with the conduct of the war. The General, up to the 
time of his taking command in New Zealand, had been mainly 
employed in operations against civilised forces in the field, whereas 
in New Zealand he had to contend against a brave, determined, 
fanatical savage race, in the fastnesses of the New Zealand bush, 
who took every opportunity to waylay and murder all opposed to 
them ; whose fighting pas were a network of skilled underground 
engineering, difficult to approach, and still harder to take. When 
General Cameron first marched out to the front at Wanganui he 
passed the Wereroa pa without attacking it, which caused Sir 
George Grey to write to the General asking him how he could 
leave a strongly-fortified pa in his rear. The General replied, 
" That it would cost too many valuable lives to attack it at 
that time." And further, that he should require a much larger 
force before he attempted it. In this the General was right 
and he was wrong ; for had any Imperial force attacked it they 
would have done so from the front, and the sacrifice of life would 
have been great indeed. The British soldier Avas brave enough, 
but he had no knowledge either in bush warfare or ]\Iaori 
tactics ; even his uniform was a check to his entering the bush and 
taking advantage of his wily enemy. But when Sir George set 
his mind to take it he gathered together the friendly natives and 
European bushmen, who by following a knov/n track during the 
night through the dense bush arrived in a roundabout way just before 



46o THE DEFENDERS 

daylight on the Karaka heights, a spur of the range just behind 
the pa, and which from some points so commanded it that the enemy 
were easily driven out without loss to themselves ; consequently 
by a little stratagem he accomplished what was easy enough with 
bush rangers, but nearly an impossibility with newly-landed red- 
coated Imperial forces. Again, Sir Duncan, after fighting with a 
foe worthy of his steel, was disgusted with the foe before him. 
There was neither honour nor glory to be gained fighting with 
savages ; and yet, strange to say, more officers in proportion to the 
number engaged fell in New Zealand than in the Crimea. It was 
the settlers only, smarting under the loss of their hom.esteads and 
the lives of their friends and relations, that were fitted to' cope with 
the difficulty. They had something to avenge ; and when the 
colony clamoured for responsible government, they, on the with- 
drawal of the Imperial forces, rose as one man to defend their 
rights, and did so effectually — peace and harmony having reigned 
ever since the natives learned who were to be their future masters. 
To General Cameron, however, is due the conquest of Waikato. 
He advanced with military precision, sweeping the rebels com- 
pletely out of the country he occupied and thoroughly conquering 
it, and winning it for the Crown. As narrated in other pages, he 
on many occasions displayed great personal bravery, and well 
earned the gratitude of the colonists of New Zealand for his 
services. 



462 



THE DEFENDERS 







f"«r9'- .>^*t:,^j' 




-^ 



J^i-VjSuS^' 



LIEUT-COLONEL ST. JOHN: 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 463 



-r 

> 



-lEUT.-CoL. St. John. 




OLONEL ST. JOHN retired with the rank of captain 
from Her Majesty's 20th Regimentof the line, and joined 
the Colonial forces of New Zealand in 1863. lie had 
served with the 20th Regiment at the Crimea with 
considerable distinction, his services being commended in the 
army reports of that period. When the Waikato Regiment, known 
as Pitt's 400, was first raised in 1863, Colonel St. John joined as 
senior captain, and on the formation of the regiment, he received 
his majority. During the subsequent operations throughout the 
AVaikato, at Tauranga and Opotiki, he took an active part in the 
principal engagements. 

In 1868 Lieutenant-Colonel St. John joined the Field Force of 
Armed Constabulary as inspector, and during the campaign against 
the Uriweras in 1869 he led the left column of assault by the 
Whakatane Gorge, his division being ambuscaded several times 
throughout the advance, but owing to Colonel St. John's in- 
domitable pluck and dash, he succeeded in reaching the Ruatahuna 
with but little loss. 

When the Field Force were in quarters at Taupo, Colonel St. 
John, with a party of officers, being in advance of a reconnoitring 
party, narrowly escaped being cut off by several hundred rebels, at 
a place called Opepe, the small escort with him being all cut off but 
two, who escaped severely wounded. 

After the cessation of active military operations, Lieutenant- 
Colonel St. John held the position of private secretary to Sir 
Donald McLean, who was then Defence and Native Minister, and 
whom he survived but a short time, his death no doubt hastened by 
the fatigues and privations undergone in pursuit of the enemy. 
There was no pluckier fellow in the service, and as a marcher, he 
was unequalled. 



464 



THE DEFENDERS 




DR. J. M . GIB BS. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 465 



R. UIBBS. 




R. J. MURRAY GIBBS, who was in private practice at 
Waipukurau at the time of tlie Poverty Bay massacre, 
having- been ordered into Napier with the rest of the 
outsettlers, finding there was no medical man to attend 
to the wounded at Poverty Bay, placed his services at the disposal 
of the Government, and left Napier with the first relief party on the 
13th of November, 1868. Finding Mrs. Wilson, although despe- 
rately wounded, yet alive, he had her conveyed to town and attended 
to her, until called away by Captain Gascoigne, who with some 
friendly natives was following up Te Kooti, and his first baptism 
of fire was at the attack made on this arch-rebel's rifle-pits at 
Mangakaritu. It was here that one of our scouts (Thomas Lake) 
was dangerously wounded, a bullet entering below his left eye, 
coming out under the right ear, and he was carried ofF the field and 
placed in a gully at the back of the camp. While the doctor was 
attending him the native force moved off the field, and had pro- 
ceeded a considerable way before the doctor was missed. Captain 
Gascoigne, in his report of the 6th December, 1868, says: — "The 
natives, having been encamped at IMangakaritu for some time, 
suddenly determined to return to Turanganui, carrying their 
wounded with them. That he remained some short time to destroy 
stores, etc., and on coming up with the force he inquired for 
Dr. Gibbs, and was informed that he was still in camp attending 
to a wounded man ; that he returned and found the doctor sitting 
by Thomas Lake ; that he asked the doctor to make a rough 
ftretcher whilst he tried to overtake the natives, but meeting with 
McDowall, a mounted man, he brought him back to assist in 
carrying the wounded man out, as it was of the greatest conse- 
quence to get round the hill before they were observed by the 
enemy; that they carried him at their utmost speed for more than 
a mile, until, getting exhausted, the captain took McDowall's horse, 
determined to overtake the friendly natives and force some of them 
to return and assist ; that on overtaking them they refused to 
return until he threatened to stop their pay. Some men then 
returned with him, until they met Dr. Gibbs, with McDowall and 
the wounded man, they having contrived to carry him another mile 
down the valley. That from November Dr. Gibbs had been in 
constant attendance on the wounded, half of that time actually 
living on biscuit and tea, and for three days on fern-root, the 

D2D 



466 THE DEFENDERS 

enemy having cut off their supplies ; that during this period the 
doctor had a sunstroke from exposure, aggravated by severe work 
and bad living; that he considered that Dr. Gibbs's action in 
remaining with this wounded man after the whole force had left, 
more especially as he knew no one in the force would be likely to 
think of him but himself, is deserving of the notice of the Govern- 
ment. In fact, he knew of nothing better than his behaviour from 
first to last during the whole native war." Dr. Gibbs next served 
under Lieut. -Colonel Herrick at Waikaremoana, and afterwards 
with Lieut. -Colonel McDonnell throughout the Taupo campaign, 
as principal medical officer, and was recommended by the latter 
officer for the New Zealand Cross, " for gallant conduct under fire 
at the attack and capture of those two well defended positions at 
the Iwa-tua Range, Te Porere, and Te Heu-heu, on the 4th October, 
1869. That his gallant conduct and his constant anxiety to relieve 
the wounded during the five hours' hard fighting, until the position 
was stormed, was the admiration not only of the force engaged, 
but also of the enemy, for the attention he paid their wounded also 
at the close of the engagement." After the Taupo campaign he 
was appointed principal medical officer of the Taupo district, which 
position he resigned in 1873 to again attend to his private practice. 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 467 



Majoi^^ Turnei\. 




Beginning of the war — First tears of doubt shed — Major Turner 

wounded. 



URING the summer of i860, while travelling down the 
coast to the Wellington races, accompanied by Captain 
Blewett and Dr. Gibson, we were overtaken by a mes- 
senger who had been despatched to bring up two 
companies of the 65th Regiment then stationed there, the 
Taranaki natives having shown fight by the erection of a strong 
pa on land which Governor Gore Browne had notified his 
intention to take possession of. We arrived in Wellington on 
the day of the embarkation, which a great crowd had assembled 
to witness. The wives and children of the soldiers had received 
orders to take leave of the men at the barracks ; but one young 
mother, more anxious than the rest, had, despite all orders, taken 
up her station under the wharf, and as the troops commanded by 
Major Turner passed over, she held up her baby so that its father 
by going on his knees could kiss it. The sensation this circum- 
stance caused was indescribable, and the first tears of doubt and 
anxiety for the fate of those about to engage in the struggle were 
shed by that young wife.- In vain did the clergyman assure her 
that the troops had only to show themselves and all Avould be over. 
Those who knew the Maoris best thought otherwise, and the 
clergyman himself was but too soon convinced of his mistake, as 
the returning steamer brought back the commanding officer (Major 
Turner) seriously wounded, a ball having entered his mouth and 
lodged in his neck. Thus began a war which speedily assumed 
such proportions that the Governor considered it necessary to send 
to England for assistance, which was readily and liberally granted 
by the British Government, as ten regiments, with their commis- 
sariat staff and transport corps, were soon located in the Taranaki 
and Auckland provinces, the outbreak having been confined 
principally to those districts up to the summer of 1865, when 
the disaffected natives, finding the Imperial troops more than a 
match for them in the open country of the Waikato, left that 
district and joined the Wanganui natives in their bush fastnesses, 
determined to fight to the bitter end. 



468 



THE DEFENDERS 




SUB.- I NSPECTOR ROWAN 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 469 



UB,-I NSPECTOR TVOWAN. 



R 




UB-INSPECTOR F. C. ROWAN volunteered his 
services against the West Coast natives under 

Titokowaru in 1868, and commanded, as lieutenant, the Taranaki 
volunteers, perhaps the best body of volunteers in the colony. In 
August, 1868, he was present at the first attack upon Te Ngutu- 
o-te-Manu, and led one of the attacking parties with distinction. 
On the 7th September he took part at the second attack, and fell 
dangerously wounded, being shot through the jaw whilst foremost 
in the attack. He rejoined the force in 187 1, and was appointed a 
sub-inspector in the Armed Constabulary, in which force he served 
at Te Wairoa and White Cliffs until the year 1877, when he 
resigned the commission as senior sub-inspector, and left the 
colony. 



D2D* 



470 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN MACE; 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 471 




Capt. F. J. Mace. 



APTAIN MACE, who had been a resident in Taranaki 
for some years, distinguished himself so conspicuously 
on the outbreak of the war in that province by his 
intrepid conduct, as to merit from the Government of the 
colony the highest military distinction they could bestow on a 
colonial officer, viz., the New Zealand Cross, which honour was 
conferred upon him for conspicuous bravery in the performance of 
his duty throughout the war ; for most valuable and efficient 
services in conveying despatches through the enemy's country, and 
in acting as guide upon many important expeditions. Notably his 
conduct at the Kaitikara river, on the 4th June, 1863 ; at Kaitake, 
on the I ith March, 1864 ; and at Warea, on the 20th October, 1865. 
Captain ISIace served from the commencement of the war in i860 
under Captain Burton, watching for two days the enemy's approach 
to Waircka, thereby saving the lives of many of the outsettlers, 
who were collecting their cattle for safety. He acted as one of the 
guides to Captain Cracroft's party, who so gallantly carried the 
Waireka pa on the 28th March, and for this service the Government 
of the day presented Mace and his brother guides, Charles and 
Edward Messenger, with a revolver each. He then joined the 
Mounted Troop, and served through the Waitara campaigns under 
Generals Pratt and Cameron, he and his company's services being 
publicly noticed by both Generals on several occasions. He was 
further sent for and thanked personally by Governor Browne for 
his action at the capture at the Peach Grove. Captain Mace 
subsequently served under Colonel Warre, and was employed 
carrying despatches between New Plymouth and Opunake, 
twenty-five miles of which was through the enemy's country, where 
no troops were stationed. This service he performed several times, 
accompanied by twenty-five of his troopers as an escort. His troop 
was in every engagement and most of the skirmishes that took 
place, and was mentioned in most of the military despatches, and 
twice brought before the special notice of the Government by 



472 THE DEFENDERS 

Colonel Warre, and in a letter from the Defence Minister (Colonel 
Haultain) to Colonel Lepper he acknowledged that the past services 
of Captain Mace's troop were second to none in the colony. He 
had one horse killed under him at the taking of the Ahu Ahu pa 
and two others wounded under heavy fire on other occasions. In 
July, 1863, he was sent by the Government to Dunedin to raise 
men as Military Settlers, and returned with 215, these being the 
first landed in Taranaki. 

EXTRACTS FRO:\I DESPATCHES IN THE NEW ZEALAND 

GOVERNMENT GAZETTE. 

[Colonel Warre to IMilitary Secretary.] 

(No. 23, 1863.) 

"As I consider Mr. INIace's conduct deserves special notice, I beg to state 
that he has lately been in charge of the mounted orderlies as ensign in the 
Taranaki Militia and has frequently been of great service to me since I have 
been in command of the outposts. His courage is proverbial, and I myself 
saw him gallop after three or four Blaoris and shoot one of them." 

[Colonel Warre to Assistant IMilitary Secretary.] 

(No. 53, 1863.) 

"T must also beg to be allowed to mention the excellent conduct of Captain 
Mace, who with his troops were unceasing in their efforts to assist the wounded 
and distribute ammunition." 

[Colonel Warre to Assistant Military Secretary.] 

(No. 4, 1864.) 

" The mounted men under Captain Mace did the skirmishing through the 
thick scrub and fern for the troops." 

[Colonel Warre to Quartermaster-General.] 

(No. II, 1864.) 

" And especially to bring to the notice of the Governor the gallantry of 
Captain Mace, who on this occasion, with trooper Antonio Rodriguez, so nobly 
assisted the wounded men." 

[Major Butler to Colonel Warre.] 

" The Mounted Volunteers who accompanied me behaved throughout with 
their usual conspicuous courage and coolness. Of these I beg to name 
Captain I\Iace and Antonio Rodriguez, the latter of whom again distinguished 
himself by carrying the wounded men to the rear under heavy fire." 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 473 



Dr. G^ACE. 




R. GRACE arrived in the colony in the month of July, 
1 86 1, with a detachment of engineers and infantry, who 
were landed at Taranaki. The following day he was 
placed in charge of the town hospital to attend the 
wounded consequent to IMajor Nelson's attack on Puke-te-Kauere. 
On General Pratt's arriv^al from Australia the doctor was attached 
to the Flying Column under Major Hutchinson, which had its head- 
quarters at Waireka camp, from which point these flying columns 
swept the whole country round about, being daily engaged with 
the natives in preventing a concentration of their forces against 
their contemplated attack on the township of New Plymouth. Dr. 
Grace was also present at the attack made on the pa erected on 
Dr. Rawson's land, and from his kindness of disposition and 
readiness to give his services to all, he bscame a great favourite 
with the whole colonial force. Being now on the General's staff 
he was more or less present in every affair that took place at this 
period, and was soon after placed by Dr. Mouatt in charge of the 
field hospital at Waitara, where the first ambulance corps was 
organised. On the 28th of December he marched with the advanced 
guard of the 40th Regiment to Matarikoriko. The skirmishers 
had taken up their position at dawn of day so well supported both 
in rear and flank, as to give them that feeling of security that for a 
moment they piled their arms, but they had hardly done so when 
the natives fell upon them, rising suddenly out of the scrub immediately 
around them with fearful yells. Taken completely by surprise, 
the 40th began to waver, and would probably have fled, but were 
saved by the doctor, who, not daring to leave his wounderl, cried 
out, " Tipperary boys to the rescue. Give them the ba3-onet. 
Ireland for ever ! " This brought the men to their senses, and like 
magic the tide was turned and the credit of the British army saved. 
For this act of cool courage he was thanked by General Pratt 
in orders. 

Dr. Henry, of Wellington, and Drs. Gibbs and Carroll, of New 
Plymouth, also saw a deal of hard service and were many times in 
imminent peril. 



474 



THE DEFENDERS 




CAPTAIN BOWER 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 475 



Captain Bowei\. 




APTAIN ]\L N. BOWER, who had seen long service 
in the Crimea, on arrival in this colony, was (in 
June, 1863) made sub-inspector of the Colonial Defence 
Force, and inspector in the following year, captain in 
the New Zealand IMilitia on the 6th June, 1864, and of the Auck- 
land Militia, on the 3rd February, 1865. He served as adjutant 
of the Colonial Defence Force, under Colonel Xixon, until the 
force was disbanded ; was adjutant of the flying column under 
General Carey, accompanied the column, under General Cameron, 
from Te Rori to Te Awamutu ; was present at the attack and 
capture of the village of Rangiaohia, and was with Colonel Nixon 
when wounded. He served with the ist Waikato Regiment at 
Tauranga ; was district adjutant at Opotiki ; took over Fort 
Colville, ]\Iaketu, from the Imperial forces, on their withdrawal 
from New Zealand ; served with the force under Colonel Harring- 
ton at Pye's Pa, and attack and capture of the village of Ake Ake 
and others. He also served with Lieut. -Colonels McDonnell and 
St. John, as district adjutant and quartermaster of the field force 
expedition to Ohinemutu, Rotorua, and to the field force at Wairoa, 
Hawke's Bay. He was ordered to Poverty Bay after the massacre, 
and served until the fall of Ngatapa under Colonel Whitmore. 
He was afterwards made adjutant of the Waikaremoana field force 
under Colonel Herrick ; and, lastly, served as adjutant and 
quartermaster of Taupo field force, under Lieut. -Colonel Roberts, 
until the force was disbanded. 



476 THE DEFENDERS 



pEI^GEANT pi ILL. 




lERGEANT HILL, of No. i division of the Armed 

) Constabulary, obtained the New Zealand Cross for his 

I 

I 

intrepid conduct at the relief of the Jerusalem Pa, at Mohaka, on 
the loth of April, 1869. Constable (now sergeant) Hill accom- 
panied the Wairoa natives, who, under their chief, Ihaka Whanga, 
proceeded to relieve Mohaka, then under attack by Te Kooti. 
Constable Hill volunteered with a party to run the gauntlet of the 
enemy's fire, and dash into the pa, then so sorely pressed. This 
was a desperate and dangerous service, and it was in a great 
measure due to the example set by Constable Hill (who led the 
party) that it was successfully carried out. During the subsequent 
portion of the siege. Hill so animated the defenders by his exertions, 
that the repulse of Te Kooti may be attributed to him ; his conduct 
being spoken of with admiration by the natives. 



478 



THE DEFENDERS 




ASSIST. -SU RGEON WEBBER 



OF NEW ZEALAND, 479 



AssiST.-Sui\GEON Webber 



VERYONE acquainted with the late Dr. Webber, of the 
Taranaki Military Settlers, knew him to be one of the 
bravest of the brave, and to such, the following anecdote 

' will not be needed to convince them of the fact, that 




though an excellent surgeon, he was by no means at heart a non- 
combatant officer. 

In 1 865, while quartered at the White Cliffs, Taranaki, a subaltern 
and twenty men (whom he accompanied as medical officer^, were 
sent down to the wrecked steamer Alexandra to save her from 
pillage by the natives in the district, and while dispersing some 
Maoris on the beach, were suddenly fired upon by a party in 
ambush from the cliffs above. Finding themselves between two 
fires, and at a disadvantage owing to their exposed position with 
a hidden enemy in their rear, the officer in charge took prompt 
steps to get his men under cover. To do so a projecting cliff had 
to be repassed, as it stood between them and the camp, in rounding 
which they would again be exposed to the close fire of the ambush 
party in addition to the fire from the natives in front, who were now 
fast returning. Consequently our men had to run the gauntlet. The 
doctor being appointed to the command of the first party of five to 
make the trial rounded the point safely, when the supposed non- 
combatant was seen returning alone, and taking up a position on 
the point of the cliff, defied the rebels to hit him, while he coolly 
emptied his revolver in return. Luckily for him, at this moment 
he was seized by the second party on return, and quickly dragged 
into safety, with a brief but terse reminder, that it was not apart of 
his duty to be shot at. This brave and generous doctor, gallant 
and genial soul, beloved alike by officers and men, has finished his 
earthly campaigning, but his memory lives in the affections of 
every member of his company who survives him. 



48o 



THE DEFENDERS 



'-W^ 



« 




^M 







i (■.«■_ :vyx-ts\i\. 



LIEUTENANT GUDGEON. 



OF NEW ZEALAND. 481 



y 



lEUT. LrUDGEON. 




lEUTENANT GUDGEON, the author, arrived in New 
Zealand on the loth of January, 1850, having resigned 
a Government appointment, after seven years' service in 
the Income and Property Tax Office, Somerset House, 
London. He took his passage in the good ship Berkshire, which 
vessel being laid on for Taranaki direct, he made that district his 
home for the first ten years of his pilgrimage, settling down as a 
bush farmer on one of the furthest back sections in the district, six 
miles at least from the township. Finding his family increasing, 
with no chance of educating them, he, in 1859, removed to 
Wanganui. He had not been there many months when the war 
in Taranaki broke out, and he had just cause to congratulate 
himself on his removal, as the two little boys, Pote and Parker, 
who were the first to fall under the tomahawk of the natives, 
were the daily companions of his children, going to the same 
infant school together, their parents occupying the adjoining 
sections. 

The war after a time left the district of Taranaki and travelled 
northward to the Waikato, and in 1864 broke out in Wanganui, 
when all capable of bearing arms were called upon to enrol, and 
he soon found himself in the enviable position of a full private in 
the Wanganui IMilitia, doing alternate night picket duty until he 
was appointed quartermaster and commissariat officer to the 
colonial forces with rank of lieutenant. Being on the commanding 
officer's staffs, he was one of the first to hear of the movements and 
disposition of the colonial forces, and every circumstance as it 
occurred, having oftentimes the painful duty of conveying very sad 
news from the front to the wives and children who remained in the 
township. The ]\Iaori war was very distasteful to the Imperial 
forces, and no wonder either, as most of the regiments had come 
flushed with victory, direct either from the Crimea or the Indian 
Mutiny, and were disgusted with the guerilla bush fighting of New- 
Zealand. As they had not suffered by the rebellion they had 
nothing to avenge. No hard earned property destroyed ; no 
homes broken up; no wives- and children slaughtered ; no honour 
to gain. Consequently they looked upon the Maori as a foe 
unworthy of their steel. This feeling it was that led eventually to 
the withdrawal of the Imperial forces. Then it was that the 
Government fought the natives with our colonial lads, who were 

D3D 



482 THE DEFENDERS 

as much at home in the recesses of the New Zealand forests as on 
the open plain. They soon terminated the war, which but for the 
attempt to capture Te Kooti would have come to a close long be- 
fore. In September, 1869, the war being virtually over, Lieutenant 
Gudgeon applied for and obtaining leave left Wanganui for the 
Thames goldfields, residing there till the end of 1879, when he 
settled down in the city of Auckland, and collecting together his 
manuscripts, published his reminiscences of the war, the doings 
of the Maoris from 1820 to the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi 
in 1840, and this present volume; and if, in so doing, he has 
passed by anyone whose deeds deserve recording, or has been 
guilty of errors, either of commission or omission, in the descrip- 
tions he has given of the services he has chronicled, let it be 
attributed principally to the innate modesty of the colonial forces, 
Avho, in most instances, referred the author to their comrades for 
the information he sought rather than give it themselves. The 
author trusts, therefore, that whatever mistakes may be found in 
these biographies they will be looked upon as unintentional, and 
not arising from any want of inclination to do justice to all the 
men who so gallantly defended New Zealand. 



MAORI HISTORY 



A NATIVE ACCOUNT 



Pahi:ha-^ttaori gffiars in ^Tclu 2ealani) 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL McDONNELL 



OF THE NEW ZEALAND MILITIA 



Hucfelanb 
H. Brett, Printer and Publisher, Shortland Street 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



DEDICATION. 



THIS BOOK, CONTAINING OUR HISTORY, IS MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 

BY 

KOWHIA NGUTU KAKA 

TO THE 

OLD RAXCtATIRA PAKEHA TRIBE 

AND TO THE 

VOLUNTEERS AXD IMILITIA 

WHO ARE NOW RESIDING IN OUR COUNTRY, CALLED BY THEM 

NEW ZEALAND 

BUT BY US 

TE IKA O MAUI. 



INTRODUCTION. 




N the following pages, I have endeavoured to give a brief Maori 
account of the early colonization of New Zealand, as also a history 
of the native wars that have taken place in this colony, which I 
gathered from a Maori chief, who was an eye-witness of many of 
the events recorded, and had learned from others on good authority. In every 
instance I have strictly adhered to the facts related, and have allowed my 
Maori historian to draw his own inferences from them. Of course, many of 
these inferences will be found absurd, as, for instance, the missionary who 
denounced Kahu and his people for fishing on the Sabbath, and assured them 
that they would "all go to hell and be burnt with fire for ever and ever, just 
like their wicked forefathers, who knew not Jehovah," did not mean to insult 
them. He merely did what he conceived to be his duty ; while Kowhai 
Ngutu Kaka's inference was that as these fits of cursing, so dangerous to the 
tribe, might come upon these missionary wizards at any time, it was necessary 
for their own safety to destroy them. As a rule, the early missionaries were 
well-meaning men, and some were high-minded and self-sacrificing; but some 
were what we might expect men to be who, taken from inferior positions in 
society, suddenly found themselves at its head. Power is always a dangerous 
temptation, and a narrow theological education does not lessen its force. 
Religious enthusiasm was largely mixed with spiritual pride, and as time 
lessened the former it increased the latter in too many cases. Despite the 
idiosyncrasies of those early soldiers of the Church, they were, with few- 
exceptions, faithful servants of their INIaster, and we cannot but admire the 
heroic self-sacrifice and devotion to duty of the pioneer missionaries, who 
were the bearers of the banner of the Cross in primeval New Zealand. 
Unfortunately, the Christian graces of the missionaries did not at first make 
so much impression on the natives as the rough-and-ready methods of the 
runaway sailors, who were amongst the earliest colonists, and were the 
progenitors of the class of Europeans still known as pakeha-lNIaoris. The 
Maori thought the Maori pakeha a good sort of fellow, and the missionary a 
mere visionaiy. His judgment was wrong in both cases; but it was his own, 
and I have studiously avoided giving my own impressions. What 1 have 
written are merely Maori ideas, and what I know to be such. 

In the same way, I must not be considered responsible for what Kowhai 
Ngutu Kaka says about the folly of distinguished Imperial officers, or of 
Colonial Governments. I am no more responsible for his opinion of these 
persons and institutions than I am for his opinion that Te Ua caused the 

EE 



494 MAORI HISTORY. 

wreck of the steamship Lord WorsJey by his incantations. In like manner, I 
leave him to say what he really thinks about confiscation and other matters. 
In short, I only wish to be regarded as the translator of the thoughts of a 
people in regard to ourselves whom I know thoroughly. I understand their 
language and traditions. I have fought with them and against them. I have 
dealt with them as a settler, bought land of them as a Government officer, and 
sold it for them as their agent. I have lived amongst them as one of them- 
selves, helped them, and have been helped by them in peace and in war. I 
know their good qualities and their bad, their knowledge and their ignorance, 
their wisdom and their folly. I have often taken an active part, and often a 
leading part, in public matters, where European and native interests came into 
collision. I am no Philo-Maori, nor am I blind to the faults of my own 
countrymen. I think if we had acted more on the motto " Be just, and fear 
not" in our dealings with the Maori it would have been better for both races. 
I believe our intentions have been excellent, but most of them have gone to 
pave a well-known road. All I can hope is that the road will never reach its 
terminus. Purgatory is fair enough for both pakeha and Maori. We have, I 
fancy, just reached that stage, and I think I have done no harm in showing 
how the natives of New Zealand think we have got there. 

Thomas McDonnell. 



MAORI HISTORY. 495 



1 




mi 





CHAPTER I. 

I\Iy Taheivha ancestry, and hoiv I manage to prove my claims to 

land. 

AIM descended from a long line of ancestors. The first 
mortal or man ancestor of mine was the offspring of 
a great Tanewha, who lived in the whirlpools and 
dark caves about Tongariro. From such a source 
is my origin, and as such it has been acknowledged by the 
Native Land Courts, one of your legal institutions ; so I hope 
that no one will doubt this account of my original and immortal 
descent. I have, too, with my tribe, based our rights — well, 
I wall say our claims, as it is a better word than rights — to 
many a block of fair land. I always took money when it was 
offered to me on account of my claim from commissioners. As 
the fact of having sold and accepted money was certain to secure, 
if not the entire block, an interest therein, I always took as much 
as I could get. When in Court, to support that claim, I always 
swore to the truth on your Bible. I rubbed my nose well on it 
(our form of kissing, or substitute for it), and then I traced my 
descent from that old and ancient Tanewha. In the main my 
accounts did not differ much, and I always claimed my Tanewha 
for my ancestor. I always won my case, as I always sold to the 
Government. I invariably did thus, thanks to a teaching I had 
had from my Tanewha ancestor, who appeared to me in a dream, 
and said, " All this country was mine when I dwelt in Tongariro. 
You are my descendant, so grasp all you can. If you don't others 
will. Stick to your Tanewha ; quote him well ; chant songs of no 
meaning. People don't like to expose their ignorance, and they ' 
will agree with you as to what you say is the meaning, for the less 
they know the more stubborn they will be to agree to it. Go to ! 
Arise, my son ! The Courts wait for you ! Go, and the white 
Christian race will protect you ! Obey their behests, and love 
yourself, even as they love each man themselves. E Jio/io !'' 
(Farewell !). And he vanished. But I often see him in my dreams, 
and his teachings are ever the same. My ancestry, eighty-nine 
generations back, each generation marked on this notched stick ; 
the top and biggest notch is my Tanewha's mark, made with a 
stone axe by himself. IMy mother was a Waikato ; my father, the 
one who begat me, for I have many fathers, originally came from 
Ngatiruanui. The tipuna (grandfather) of my mother's sister was 
a Uriwera chiet, who again was the grandson of a Ngapuhi, who 
had killed an Arawa chief under the great Hongi-Hika. Fortunately 
for me this Ngapuhi grandfather of mine ate a portion of that 



496 MAORI HISTORY. 

Arawa chief, so by our law he became entitled to his estates, to 
which I have a large right, and to Taupo and the Lake district (as 
your Courts acknowledge). So, as I explain to the Court, I am 
entitled to receive advances on the land occupied by the Ngapuhi, 
Arawa, Uriwera, Ngatiruanui, Rauru, and Waikatos. I could 
give you my own mother's ancestry, but it is totally different to 
that of her sister's. My father's ancestry was again different. 
Through him I claim at the Thames and Maketu, and Whakatane, 
and on a yet undiscovered goldfield. I cannot say I know where 
it is situated ; but no doubt my Tanewha does, and will tell me in 
time to send in my claim, so I am in no hurry. ]\Iy father's father 
died, his mother threatened to marry again, so my father married his 
own mother to keep the estate in the family. Then she died, when 
in her right he became possessed of the manor which has by right 
descended to me. So you see I am a large land owner, and always 
am willing to sell to anyone, but prefer the Government to buy. 
Further, I am related to all the Hauhaus and Kingites, and until 
the last few years have fought against you. That is over now for 
me, and now I will tell you why I have addressed you. It has 
long been my wish to seek out a good European, if I can find one, 
who understands our ways, and get him to put into your language 
what I tell him in mine, but who at the same time can be 
trusted to keep my real name a secret. Well, I have found this 
European translator, seen and talked him to attention, and told 
him that he must put down what I say word for word. I will give 
our history of the past war, and the fights, and the causes that led 
us to fight against you. Governors have written, premiers have 
written, generals have written histories of the war. JNIissionaries 
have written. Some of them have told the whole truth, others 
have when it suited them. Rusden has written, ugh ! such a 
book ; but, alas ! the majority of the writers have lied and cheated. 
Before I commence my history of the fighting, as witnessed by me, 
for our history, will you consent to publish it when it is sent to 
you r I shall only speak the truth. What I have witnessed I will 
speak of as that I have seen, and what I have been told as that I 
have heard. IMy book will be better than the books of those 
pakehas who have written solely from what they have been told or 
read of. 




MAORI HISTORY 497 

CHAPTER II. 

Our history — Captain Cook — The arrival of the viissioncrics, 

WILL commence with, I will say, one hundred years 
ago. j\Iany years ago (it may be one hundred years or 
more, for Alaoris do not remember dates or time,) a people 
who called themselves missionaries came to our shores 
and distributed themselves all over our country. Until the arrival 
of these persons we had, on the whole, lived a happy life. In the 
spring we cultivated our yam and kumera fields ; we searched and 
obtained the substantial fern root that was to us, when pinched by 
failure of our crops, a never-failing source of food. There it grew, 
and at all seasons of the year, but especially in the spring and 
summer months, it was eaten by us. The fern root of these days 
is not what it once was, as the pigs brought here by the pakehas 
have almost entirely destroyed the good kinds by their eternal 
rooting. With bundles of this dried root our people who resided 
far inland used to come in the season to their recognised fishing 
places on the coast, and there live on fresh fish, dried fish, and the 
fern root they had packed down with them, until it was time to 
return and weed their kumera beds, and snare the rats, who at 
this time began to burrow in the kumera hillocks in search of the 
young and sweet roots. It was a necessity with us to snare these 
little animals, as otherwise they would have destroyed our planta- 
tions. 

It is generally believed, though it is an error of the pakehas, 
that we principally lived on fern root ; but we only used it in 
conjunction with other food, except when we were hard pressed. 
We ate these rats ; they were game to us in their season. They 
were totally unlike the large pakeha rats who live on offal and 
sewerage. Our rat was fat, tender, and sweet, living only on 
nutritious roots. He was to us an article of food — a delicacy — 
what the pheasant and hare is to the pakeha ; only we ate ours 
when it was pure and sweet ; they eat theirs when it is decomposed 
by long keeping ^ and stinks like a dead hawk. But yet they 
express disgust at us because we steep maize and potatoes in fresh 
running water to make them soft. What a blind and self-conceited 
race the pakehas are ! I have known many Europeans, the late 
Sir Donald AIcLean, Parris, and other pakehas, eat our steeped 
maize ; ay ! and enjoy it greedily ; but I have never known a 
Maori attempt to eat a putrid pheasant or a decayed hare. Well, 
as I was saying, we lived merrily. We had our moaris — 
long slender spars we used to swing from by ropes attached to the 
top of it. It was firmly fixed in the ground on the frrassy and 



498 MAORI HISTORY. 

mossy banks of our rivers and streams, J\Iany ropes were fastened 
to the head of it, and our men, women, and little ones used to swing 
off the ground and, when over the cool river, let go the rope and 
be plunged into the Avater. It was great fun. This way of taking 
our bath lasted all the summer months. Then we had kiwi and 
weka hunting, pigeon and kaka (parrot) snaring and spearing, eel 
spearing, and fish spearing by torchlight on the sandy and muddy 
flats of our rivers. There was no dearth of sport for ourselves and 
our young ones. 

At the fall of the leaf, and in the winter, we liv^ed on the harvest 
we had gathered in the summer and autumn. We had our games, 
too. The kaihotaka (humming top) was a great amusement to all, 
and the different tones sounded by these tops as they flew off the 
n-round and bounded in the air from the lash of the muka (dressed 
flax) whips, sounded like the string of a narp when one of them is 
struck singly. AYe had the haka, too, and the dance. We loved 
music — not the discordant scraping sound of the fiddle I have 
he£ird played in a public house, danced to by intoxicated pakehas, 
who at one time, it was thought by us, were so maddened by its 
horrible noise that they tried to drown its scrapings by shouting 
and gesticulating. We know better now what it all meant. Not the 
crashing sound of drums and brass bands, or the bugle. No, such 
was not our music. Our music v^as what even our oldest warriors 
and priests used to listen to with pleasure The flocks of little birds 
who welcomed the rising and sang the settmgsun to rest, mingling 
their liquid notes with the distant hum of the waterfall and the 
rippling of the water of our mountain stream, as it laced rapidly 
on to tiie sea over the pebbles. Such was our music ; but our bird 
bands have now gone for ever. Nothing softens the crashing souiid 
made by the water as it is hurled over the precipice, and the 
murmuring of the brooks creates a desolate feeling in our hearts. 
When I think and muse over these shadows of the past my soul 
grows dark ; then my heart begins to throb and my right arm to 
tingle, and I exclaim, " Oh ! had not my sinews been cut by the 
pakeha r Oh! why did he ever come to disturb us in our happy 
country r AVhy did not our ancestors foresee our ruin, and slay 
all who first touched our shores r Why did not our sacred Tanewha 
warn us ? Too late ! alas, too late ! \Ve cannot kill them now," 
Although, when we found them out, we had a try for it, as in 
the course of our history I will tell. 

Let us return to our missionary. When those people came here 
first we were very much surprised at their appearance and bearing. 
We had seen Captain Cook and his sailors. They were a cheerful 
and merry tribe — good-natured, very afl'ection ate (especially to our 
women), and gave us a quantity of useful things without asking for 
payment, such as hooks, axes, iron hoops, etc. We liked this tribe 
very much. Buc this new tribe, the missionary, puzzled and vexed 
us. The majoi ity of them w^ere very solemn, and had a gloominess 
about them as if all their relations had been eaten and they were 
poworless to get their revenge. We asked our priests, " Are they 



MAORI HISTORY. 499 

spirits : " Some replied they were good spirits, others that they 
were bad spirits, others ag'ain that they were a mixture of good 
and bad. "Say j'ou sor" said a chief named Poata. "AW-11, 
then, let them be killed. We are quite good enough, and want no 
more evil." A "hui" (gathering) took place to discuss this view 
of the question, but I believe the meeting broke up without doing 
anything definite in council. That meeting years ago did then 
what the pakeha meetings of Parliament do now. They met, they 
talked, they ate, and drank — though they did not get tipsy — and 
did nothing ; but after it was over the women of the people had to 
work extra hard to replace the quantity of food that had been 
wasted. A great many meetings took place in different parts ot 
our country, and it was generally settled that the missionary tribe 
should be allowed — though tolerated would be a better word — to 
try and persuade those who were willing to listen to their incanta- 
tions or prayers. Our country was a free country, and everyone 
did as he liked, so long as nothing- was done injurious to the 
welfare, prestige, or mana of the tribe. .Mark that. But a few 
missionaries were killed, and that some of them were eaten is true. 
You will say that this was wrong, but I say it was right and only 
just in many instances. Listen ! Some of our chiefs, bold, brave 
men, were somewhat of short temper, and tliough good-natured 
enough and keen for a joke, would on no account stand undue 
familiarity. They had a high-spirited, though very affectionate, 
race to lead — not control, mind — or guide, and to have put up with 
insult without avenging it according to its nature would have been 
fatal to a chief occupying a leading position ; and not only so, but 
injurious to the tribe, as it would render it contemptible to its 
neighbours. Taking this into consideration, will any reasonable 
person be astonished at the following action taken by my great- 
grandfather Kahu, as fine an old warrior as ever led men to battle. 
One day, as he was returning from a whapuku fishing excursion, 
in which some visitors, Ngapuhi chiefs and their favourite wives 
had accompanied him by invitation, he was met by a missionary on 
the beautiful surf-beaten beach of Tatahi, and as the men of the tribe 
dragged the large red canoe, fish and all, ashore, this person thus 
addressed my great-grandfather : " You are a wicked, bad man. 
You have not listened to my teachings ; 3^ou have broken the 
Sabbath commandment by going over to fish. jNIy God is angry. 
You and your people will all go to hell, and be burnt with fire 
for ever and ever, just like your wdcked forefathers, who knew 
not Jehovah. Repent, or be lost!" All eyes were turned from 
this man's face, and became fixed on my great-grandfather, who 
had been threatened by this missionary that he would be burnt 
with the fire that was now burning- up his ancestors, male and 
female ; that he was to be cooked with fire, and luvcr to be done. 
Xot a doubt existed — could have existed — in the hearts of the 
tribe as to what the result would be. No harm had been done to 
this stranger of a stranger tribe. He had asked for, and obtained, 
a piece of land in our tribal district to build upon ; houses had 



500 MAORI HISTORY. 

been built for him and his gods ; yams, kumeras, lish, crayfish, 
shellfish, eels, pigeons, kakas, and rats, each in its season, had been 
largely heaped up for him, as he said it was good to give to him and 
his god ; and then, without any provocation at all, he had cursed my 
great grandfather ! True, this man would be killed, and his flesh 
would be cooked with fire and sent to the neighbouring tribe, who 
would, of course, hear of this awful cursing. Each tribe would 
have its tana muru (robbing party), who would come and ravage 
the settlement, dig up and trample our kumera and yam planta- 
tions ; blood would flow from wounds received and given, and 
perhaps it might be necessary to have someone killed to wipe 
away the disgrace of this cursing. My great-grandfather's mats 
and kiwi mats would all go, as they would be brought from their 
places of safe keeping" and exjoosed to view. These robbing 
parties it would never do to allow to return empty-handed, for my 
great-grandfather Avas a powerful chief, and the tribe would feel 
insulted if they and their chief were not well robbed, as otherwise 
it would appear as if their mana (prestig'e) was so small that it was 
not worth taking notice of. 

So far so rig-ht ; but otherwise it would be a great loss to the 
whole tribe, and the man who was the cause of all this coming 
trouble was one we had befriended. Yes, it e\'idently was about as 
nasty a piece of kohuru (unprovoked maliciousness) as ever we have 
been told of or dreamt of. "Lay hold of him," cried my great-grand- 
father ; " take him out of his kotiroa (long" coat) and other clothes.'' 
This was done more quickly than a boiled kumera is taken out of 
its skin. "Remove his head and place it on to the short pole in 
front of our big' house ; stick it upright, and cook the rest of his 
body in a priest's sacred oven." This order was quickly obeyed, 
and in less time than it takes to remove the feathers from a fat 
pigeon the man of incantations was in an oven, and prevented 
from creating further mischief. He had done quite enough as it 
was. Some of him we ate, but the most part of him was cut up 
into many portions and sent away to the tribes far and near, to 
show and to prove that my great-grandfather was not a chief to be 
insulted with impunity, or a man to allow his ancestors to be cursed 
for nought. Every day for a whole moon after this tauas camfe upon 
us, robbing us first and then condoling with my great-grandfather, 
and showing their respect for him to such a degree that when the 
tauas left off coming we had not a kumera left, nor had my great- 
grandfather a flax or kiwi mat in his house. 

A few other missionaries were, by distant tribes, killed at once 
by the tribes they had taken up their abode with, as they said, 
" Who could tell when a fit of cursing might seize them and cause 
the same trouble to fall on them as has fallen on us r " Some of 
these missionaries were afterwards eaten out of curiosity to see 
what they tasted like, but they were not approved of, as I have 
heard tell. The rest of the missionaries met when things had 
cooled down a bit, and told us through some of our slaves, who 
had been baptised and made catechists of, that a letter was being 



MAORI HISTORY. 501 

written to King- George (George the Fourtlii, who would send war 
parties in big- ships, and batter us. We believed this, as it was 
natural and right that the English king chief would want payment 
for the death of one of his wizards, and we felt uneasy, though 
why he should have sent that style of men to our shores to curse 
us we could not tell. On the receipt of this news, two lines of 
action were recommended to us by our chief men. The first was 
to kill all the missionaries, and cook the lot ; then they could not 
make personal complaints against us when the ship of King- 
George came. We decided, however, not to molest them further, 
and to await the current of events. 

Then King George's ships never came to get utu (payment) for 
the missionaries who had been killed ; and we afterwards found 
out, from other Europeans, that King George had never heard any- 
thing- about us. By this time many of our inferior men had 
joined their churches and ways of praying ; and other ships 
brought fresh tribes to our shores. You must know that 
the missionaries had names for our people. Those who were 
baptised, and said they believed all they were told, were 
called missionaries. Those who would not be baptised were called 
by them Teweras (devils) — a nice name for us, don't you think r 
But, when these other people came, these wizards of priests said they 
were devils too, just as we were called devils ; and we were glad 
to hear it. Anyway, we would be even with themi now, and give 
a welcome to the new tribe called the Pakeha Devil Tribe. 




502 MAORI HISTORY. 

CHAPTEPv III. 

Devil Pakchas. 

lEFORE I g-o into the matter of tlie new tribe of pakeha 
rewera (devil pakehas), I must relate to you a new code 
of laws laid down for us to follow by this wizard tribe 
of missionaries lest, by neglecting them, we incurred 
the anger of the new gods, whose powers were being made known 
to our people. The Ten Commandments we had already been 
made acquainted with, and, on the whole, we thought them good. 
But we were much puzzled about the new laws made for our tribe 
and people. We were not to spin humming-tops on Sunday, or 
peel kumeras or potatoes. They were to be peeled on Saturday 
evening, or we must boil them in their skins. We were not to 
gather firewood on a wSunday, or lish, or bathe, or go into the 
woods to get tawharas (fruit), or catch eels ; and if any traveller 
came to our villag'e on Saturday evening', he was to be asked if 
he meant to continue his journey on the morrow, and, if so, he or 
they would not be permitted to rest there, but would have to move 
on, as it would be desecrating the Sabbath. 

I remember hearing that, one season, a native of our village, 
who had been created a teacher of the new religion, broke our law 
with a betrothed maiden, and then took shelter with his chief 
wizard missionary. The tribe resolved at length to ask for him, 
fully expecting that, as he had broken their own commandments 
about taking other people's goods, to say nothing- about his having 
broken our laws, too, that no difficulty would present itself. But this 
wizard missionary would not give the transgressor up to be punished 
and spoke to us of a woman who had sinned, and who was going to 
be stoned to death for the offence, but who was pardoned ^vithout 
payment. That settled the question, and they dragged the J\Iaori 
who had committed the wrong to the clear place in the middle of 
the village, where he was speared throug'h and through by the 
chief to whom the young woman had been betrothed. But had 
this Maori teacher of new incantations been a chief, or a brave 
man, he would have known how to meet his antagonists, and have 
warded off the blows aimed at him ; then the tribe very likely 
would have interfered to save him. As it was, all the kaiaka 
tanga (science) was on one side, and he fell ignominiously, as a 
woman falls, without defence worth calling such. As the man 
who now lay dead from the spear wounds was of our tribe, we 
prepared to place Vvim in the fork of the puriri tree in our waihi 
tapu (sacred place), but the missionary begged us to let him have 
the body, saying he would bury it in a hole he would dig for it. 



MAORI HISTORY. 503 

that at last our chief consented. " It will be something new to 
g^aze upon," said he ; so a hole was dug in the ground, then the 
dead man was put in a long box, which was nailed down to 
prevent him getting out, as we thought ; then the missionary put 
the box in the hole, first of all writing- a direction, as we supposed, 
on it, and then covered him up, after performing an incantation, 
and told us all he had gone to heaven. 

Well, we welcomed the first devil tribe, and each chief and 
head of a hapu (family) exerted himself to obtain a pakeha ; wives 
were given to them to induce them to settle down and live with us, 
and be " our pakehas.''" It is true that some of them, as we look 
back now, were rough, and we found that some of them had, from 
motives of policy, left their own tribe without saying " hekona" 
I'good-bye) ; but it was no use writing- other people's names on 
bits of paper in our country, as nothing- could be got by it, and 
there was nothing worth stealing they could carry away. AVe 
think they were good men, the most of them ; they worked hard, 
and their v>^ives bare them lots of children for our tribe, and they 
treated their wives well, as a rule. Only one man, a whaler, beat 
his wife on one occasion for nothing. But when her relations 
heard of this they belaboured him so soundly with the butts of 
their spears that he was ill for some time. His wife afterwards 
told us that he had been drinking some waipiro (stinking water). 
We afterwards found out what this waipiro was, but did not 
drink it for many years. It has since proved to be our greatest 
curse, but we drink it whenever we can get it. These pakehas 
of ours laughed at the missionary wizards and Avould not attend 
their incantations. Nevertheless, on the whole, we preferred our 
devil pakehas to the missionaries. Thus we lived on until other 
pakehas came, who were an improvement on the former ones, 
as we thought, and who brought their jDakeha wives and children 
with them. 



504 MAORI HISTORY. 




CHAPTER IV. 

A terrible crime — Arrival of a Governor — Treaty of Waitangi — War in the 
North — Hoiv ive were taught r<piulialio!i — Causes that led us to ivar — 
Land purchase and spoliation. 

'OTHING stands still, and -guns were broug"ht to us as 
an article of trade. Iron hoops had been discarded for 
tomahawks. A flint musket was a valuable article, but 
a double-barrel flint gun was a weapon to be turned 
over and over again to be admired ; and pistols with a large bore 
were precious, indeed, and showed to us that the pakeha knew how 
to get rid of his foes by a sudden surprise, when it became 
necessary. 

To prove the value that we placed in muskets about the year 
1830, I will relate the following story, and will tell it as it was 
told to me, but I can vouch for its truth. There lived on the 
Hokianga River two men who were sawyers. Both were pakehas 
belonging to chiefs. They had several muskets and some pistols, 
and each had a native wife. A slave man had been given them 
by the chief, who had great authority. He had, with his .people, 
consented to be baptised, and his name went home to the Wesleyan 
Mission Society. The chief was a good man, though his temper 
was somewhat gusty and uncertain. He seized a double-barrelled 
gun and shot a man one day at the Bay of Islands, because he 
got the better of him in some argument. Well, one day, as these 
sawyers were heaving a log on to the saw-pit, something- g-ave 
way, and the log fell on one of the men, hurting his leg badl3\ 
The other, with his wife, went down the river to get assistance, 
leaving his mate and the slave. The injured man during the 
absence of his mate, had proof that his domestic arrangements 
were all going wrong, and that the slave had been making a fool 
of him. On his companion's return, he told him ; but his wife had 
eloped with the slave. Recovering from his hurt, the sawyer and 
his mate went to the chief to see about getting back his wife and 
to have revenge on the slave. The result of the conference 
was that the chief promised to punish the slave, provided that 
his pakehas gave him one musket afterwards, and one pistol as 
payment in advance. This bargain was agreed to. The slave 
and the woman had gone to the Ahu Ahu, a settlement not far 
from Ohaeawai, to seek protection. The chief, accompanied by 
his friend Hehi, went in search of them, and found them in 
the above-named village. With fair and oily words the chief 
induced the slave to return with them to Hokianga, telling 



MAORI Hi:STORY, 505 

him nev^er to mind the pakehas, as no notice would be taken of 
their complaint. Xearing the entrance of the bush that divides 
the country in this locality, they halted to roast some potatoes in 
the ashes of a fire they made. After partaking of these, the chief 
said to the slave, " Go on," and the slave said, " Lead on." 
The chief rose to go, the slave following him, carrying the bundles, 
Hehi bringing up the rear. Suddenly Hehi brought down his 
weapon on the man's head. The blow was not sufficient to 
stun him, and he sprang upon the chief, who had turned 
round to face him, and as they clutched each other both rolled 
on the ground. Hehi now despatched the slave, the chief holding 
him tight. They cut his head off, and pitched his body into 
the fork of a tree, and came on to where the sawyers lived. 
It was night when they got to the house (a wooden one). The 
pakehas arose and began to get them some food. " I have come 
for my musket, and I want one too for Hehi," said the chief. 
" Not till you have revenged us for the wrong the slave did us," 
replied one of the men. The chief, who had been sitting on the floor 
of the house, now arose and, letting the head roll off his lap, 
said in a stern voice, " There is your head ; give me muskets." 
And they were given. I don't know if this account was sent 
home to the society of the wizards, but if it wasn't it ought to 
have been. 

Nearly all the new arriva'is bought land from us. Some oi 
these pakehas paid fair prices ; others obtained a right to 
thousands and thousands of acres for very little. jMissionary 
Williams, Davis, and a score of others, bought land — Captain 
McDonnell, R N., Judge Maning, Russell, St. Aubin, Busby, 
and others. But, be what they gave little or much, we were quite 
satisfied with it at the time, and knew what we were doing. Then 
the New Zealand Company bought land, and settlers continued to 
arrive. 

At last a Governor arrived. This was in the year 1840. The 
Governor's name was Hobson. A paper called the Treaty of 
of Waitangi was signed by a few chiefs, who had only a right to 
sign for themselves, and not for the New Zealand Maoris as a 
whole. But it is doubtful, in spite of what has been said and 
written, if these old j\Iaori chiefs really understood the true 
meaning of what they did sign. I don't believe they did. It was 
all great rubbish and nonsense. 

After a time new laws were made. Ngapuhi, objecting to these 
laws, and seeing, with a troubled spirit, our independence slipping 
from us, cut down the flagstaff — the emblem of the Queen's 
authority over these islands at the Bay — and had a fight, which 
ended in the defeat of the Queen's troops, and the sacking of 
Kororareka town. The red-coat tribe were driven away; but 
the sailor tribe of Her IMajesty's ship Hazard, commanded 
by Captain Robinson (or Robertson), fought like braves and 
Robinson slew several of our men in a hand-to-hand fight 
at the corner of the church, on Kororareka beach, anc' 



506 MAURI HI^IUKy. 

the marks of his cutlass are to be seen on the posts of the church- 
yard there to this day. After this victory of ours we erected a pa 
at Okaihau. The soldier tribe came to attack it, and boasted that 
they would eat their breakfast inside it. Tamati Waka Nene, 
Wiremu Repa, and Te Taonui, of the Popoto tribe, attempted to 
dissuade the English commander from attacking the pa in front, 
and said, " Let us go to the rear, where there are no rifle-pits, and 
only a slight fence.'"' But he would not listen to them, such was 
his self-conceit. And then the bugle sounded, and this red-coated 
tribe came on like a pack of fowls when grain is thrown to them. 
Oh, what a brave but foolish tribe ! 

Hone Heke was in the pa with 250 men. Kawiti lay in ambush 
outside, in some scrub, with twice seventy warriors, all clothed in 
the pillage of the Bay of Islands town. "Wait till you see the 
eye of the enemy!" cried the chiefs. "Wait, be brave! Wait, 
be ready ! Now, give them their breakfasts ! Haere mai ! Haere 
mai ! Bang ! Fire ! Ha ! ha ! ha ! " And fifty men lay dead 
and wounded before the pa, not twenty feet from the palisading. 
Then they fell back. At this time, Kawiti charged with gun and 
tomahawk. Alas ! this was a fatal mistake. A bugle sounded, 
when the enemy, now reinforced by a number of men who had not 
joined in the assault on our pa, faced about, and came at our 
people with a rush, grinding their teeth, with their bayonets fixed 
on their muskets. And then it was all over. Down went Kawiti's 
choicest warriors. The ground was strewn with them. Kawiti 
lost half his men in that charge. We never tried that move again. 
Once was quite enough. On the return of the troops to camp, 
we afterwards heard that Tamati Waka Nene was so enraged at 
the useless sacrifice of men that he tore from a Maori whare a long 
stick, and hit the commander of the Queen's forces a blow on the 
head with it. 

We left the pa that night, and built another at Ohaeawai. The 
soldier and sailor tribes drew up big guns from the Bay of Islands 
to batter it down. But all the posts of our pa were of puriri ; they 
fired plenty of balls at us, but they did not knock down our pa. 
Then they rushed it, but we drove them back with a killing fire, 
and they retreated, leaving their dead and dying, whom we 
tomahawked. We left that night, after Pene Tawi had lit a kauri 
gum fire on the breast of a wounded soldier — the only instance of 
torture resorted to in that war. 

Then we went to Ruapekapeka (Bat's hole) Pa. Here we in- 
tended to take a stand, and give the Queen's troops a good thrashing 
and drive them into the sea. We had constant intercourse with 
the missionaries at this time, and no settler pakeha was touched 
by us. Not one hoof did we deprive them of. As our allies passed 
through pakeha settlements they bade them "Good day," and came 
on. The reason for this was threefold, as I will explain. First of 
all we had invited these pakehas to come and dwell amongst us, 
and we thought they all belonged to different tribes, like ourselves. 
We understood there was English Church, Wesleyan, and Catholic 



MAORI HISTORY. 507 

(the wizard missionary tribe of three hapus= families). Jews had 
not then arrived. They are a clever people. We are of this race. 
These families hated each other, it is true ; but then it is natural 
for families to disagree, though of one tribe. Then came the tribe 
of inferior pakehas, called " rerewas " (devil pakehas), because they 
would not attend to what the wizard tribes taught. Then came 
the superior pakeha — " rangitira," gentleman tribe — and the 
children of these old pakehas are respected to this day. Then the 
red -coat tribe, and then the sailor (Captain Cook) tribe. Ah ! these 
last were a fine lot of men — worth ever so much more than the 
red-coat tribe. Afterwards we found out, but not so very long 
ago, that all these people and tribes really comprise one tribe. It 
was very puzzling to us, and is now. The third reason was, we 
feared to do any wrong to our friends lest payment be demanded 
of us, and taken, if we did not gave it. This was a very good 
reason. 

How we came to lose the Ruapekapeka Pa will seem to you very 
absurd now. But it was the innocent fault of the missionaries. I 
feel sure if they had known of our doings they Avould have warned 
us. We never did them the injustice to think that they behaved 
treacherously to us in this war. 

We generally understood (for we had been taught by the pakeha) 
that the seventh day being Sunday was set aside as a day of rest, 
as was stated in the Ten Commandments ; and in the enemy's 
camp the missionaries had, they informed us, performed divine 
service, and prayed with and for the army of the Queen. Well, 
one Sunday we all went out of the pa to have prayers too — to pray 
for ourselves — and only a few of the devil ones remained inside. 
No thought had crossed our minds of misfortune, when all of a 
sudden the army of the pakeha were inside and outside our pa. We 
fought, but it was of no use. We were beaten, and lost heavily, 
and our stronghold was captured by the soldiers. 

This was the last fight worth recording, and shortly afterwards 
peace was made and all were friends again, only that the Queen's 
tlagstaif was not attempted to be re-erected until many years after- 
wards. We would not have that. No heartburnings were felt, 
because no land was confiscated. 

It was after this war with Hone Heke that the pakeha passed a 
law to prevent Europeans selling us guns and ammunition. 
Perhaps tliis was a wise act on their part. But I could tell you of 
pakeha traders and whalers who paid little or no attention 
to it. They used to get out double-barrelled guns in cases, 
hidden in bales of blankets, and plenty of powder and 
shot. A score of guns and a hundredweight of powder was 
as much as one could get secretly from our friends the traders at 
one time ; but we often got a ton or so of powder from the American 
whalers when on the eve of starting' home to their own country. 
The ships used to lay off and on the coasts from Coromandel up to 
the Bay of Plenty and Poverty Bay. Plenty of tobacco, too, we 
got in that way. 



5o8 MAORI HISTORY. 

The Northern natives were not so well off as the East Coast 
tribes. I remember some of those Ngapuhi chiefs, anxious 
to be allowed to purchase openly, sailed from Hokianga to 
Auckland to see the Government. For a chief to make that 
voyage in the days I speak of (thirty and more years ago) 
was a great event. Well, they at last got to Auckland, after 
great expense and trouble, and had an interview with the 
Government, related their errand, spoke of their past and present 
loyalty to the Queen of England, and hoped that permission would 
be given to them to buy powder and shot. After some talk they 
were informed that this permission was allowed them, and they 
returned highly elated with the success of their mission. Fancy 
their disgust, and how they were laughed at when, on going to the 
traders to purchase ammunition, they were informed that though 
permission was accorded them to buy the prohibition had not been 
taken off against selling ! They had been put off with this in Auck- 
land, and sold in a rascally manner. Nice treatment for men who 
helped the pakeha in his time of need with men and guns. 

Letters were now received by us, and communications were sent 
to the chiefs in the different districts to the effect that a commission 
would be appointed to inquire into the various land transactions 
between the pakeha and the Maori. So that if we liked (for so we 
read it, and our racecan quickly take a hint) to repudiate our bargains, 
we could do so. This commission sat. We claimed back all our land 
we had formerly sold to the pakehas, and got most of it. We felt 
ashamed after this to visit our pakehas for some time, but a great 
many of them went away and never came back any more. But 
the Government said we might do this unjust thing, and rob them. 
So it was not us who really were to blame. When the Maori 
people declared war against the Government years afterwards 
(a war that has cost millions of money to prevent us regaining the 
lands they had for the most part robbed us of), we had a vivid 
remembrance of who taught us repudiation in the first instance. 
Nothing-, as I have before said, stands still, and some things travel 
in circles. If anyone starts a wrong, it will come back to him 
again, and we all get punished in turn for our robberies. The 
Government bought, with a strong hand, our fair tracts of land for 
from one penny up to fivepence an acre ; but they had far better 
have purchased it in an honourable way — ay, and given us 
twenty pounds an acre — than have fought with us for it. 

I will try as well as I can to explain the later reason we had for 
going to war. First of all, we thought it would be easy to 
vanquish and kill the pakehas. AVe looked upon them as m.erely 
a large number of thistles, easily cut down and rooted up ; and, 
after we had endured much wrong, the thought of an easy victory 
was very fascinating to our nature. But the chief, the very chief 
reason of our commencing to fight — the reason that had attracted 
so many tribes, and attached them to the King movement — was 
the unjust manner in which our land was being torn from us. 
There were no Native Land Courts in those days to even make a 



MAORI HISTORY, 509 

semblance of doing justice ; but one man was appointed the land 
purchase officer for the Government. I am only a native, and am 
not able to go into all the pakeha policy of those dark, black days, 
which ought to have been bright days for us. 

At last these land purchases brought trouble at the Waitara ; 
but if Cooper, who was subordinate to the chief officer of the 
Government, had been left to manage native affairs in Taranaki, no 
war would have arisen there ; and if Searancko had been left alone 
in his district, no trouble would have arisen in the AVaikato. But 
these subordinate gentlemen were shifted about, and tlieir decisions 
altered and amended by their chief, who made the Government 
believe that the future welfare of the country rested solely upon him 
— as if the welfare of a country depended upon one man! What 
fools the pakehas are ! Well, as 1 said, tlie land purchase policy 
caused a disturbance at the Waitara. The rightful owners refused 
to sell, but the tribes which had no claim sold, and the land was 
taken possession of in the name of the Queen. This time the rightful 
owners took up arms to defend their rights. The tribe rallied up. 
And this is how the war commenced ; but it had been smouldering 
a long" time before it burst into the flame that has scorched our 
country and has taken so much blood to extinguish. 



Vr 




5IO MAORI HISTORY. 



CHAPTER V. 

Organising the King movement — A man buried alive — War in TaranaJci — 
Imperial proclamation — War in Waikato — Orakau Pa. 

UR one great motive in organising this political 
movement was to unite the Maori race and bring- them 
together as one people. J\Iany of our wisest chiefs 
foretold failure in this. They urged that the tribal 
independence was too strong". There were tribal jealousies and 
ancient feuds to overcome. To entirely do away with these latter 
was impossible. And then, who would be chosen to rule over us 
all as the King Chief r 

There were two great tribes in this country before whom all 
other tribes must give way. The first was Ngapuhi, who as a 
whole comprise, roughly speaking, all the tribes north of Auckland 
— very powerful tribes, several thousands strong in their day. The 
hapus were usually about two hundred to five hundred strong-. The 
Rarawa tribal boundary extended to the North Cape and to the 
mouth of the Hokianga River; the warlike tribe of Ngatiwhatua, 
at Kaipara, Riverhead, and Hauraki. Then, who could withstand 
the Ngapuhi from Hokianga, where even the great Hongi Hika 
met his death trying to conquer the river, and Ngapuhi of the 
Tokirau, Bay of Islands ? Did not Hongi Hika, on his return 
from England, dressed in the armour King George had given him, 
lead all these warriors to battle, and slay from the Aucldand hills 
— those rich volcanic kumera grounds — right away to the barren 
lands of Ngaiterangi, at Tauranga, proceeding on to the Arawa 
country, swooping on to Ahuriri, Hawke's Bay, where they slew 
the Ngatikatiungunu, and made them fly like dust before a gale ? 
Then putting to one side a slight repulse, fearfully avenged on the 
confines of Waikato, returned to their own districts along the coast 
from Auckland, in their huge sea-going kauri war canoes. Such 
a fleet was never seen before, nor ever will be again, laden with 
spoil — the captive women of many a hapu, and the flesh of their 
enemies. 

Waikato knew too well, for the bones of many of their warriors 
whitened the soil of Ngapuhi, the geographical streng-th of their 
country. To g'et there nothing could be easier ; but to get back 
again across the narrow strip of land was another question alto- 
gether. Then the Ngapuhi were better armed, and had Ictirned much 
that the Waikatos and other tribes had not had the chance to learn. 
Under these circumstances there was small chance that Ngapuhi 
would consent to recognise a Waikato King. However, a deputa- 
tion of diplomatic chiefs, wizards, tohungas (no missionaries), and 



MAORI HISTORY. 5U 

warriors, known and trusted for their wisdom, and whose wordr, 
and speech could be made as enticing as the fat pigeons fed on tho 
" miro " berry are to a hungry man, was sent to sound and to tempt 
the Ngapuhi. Ngapuhi met the Waikato heralds on the Hokianga 
river, at Opara, and with haughty patience listened to all that the 
Waikato deputation had to say. It is related that all the fat of 
the tuis and the pigeons in the " miro" season was as naught to 
compare with the oiliness of the Waikato speeches. If only the 
Ngapuhi would consent to be the backbone, the sinew and mana of 
the Waikato King. 

"Your speech," replied Ngapuhi, " is as a sperm whale for fat- 
ness ; but you can return, and take back our reply. If we ever 
elect to join our tribes under one head, w^e have the race of Hongi 
Hika to fall back upon, and Matiria shall be our queen ; but we 
choose to live as we are, and under the Queen of England, and at 
peace wnth our friends the pakehas. AH the pakehas are ours." 
We knew what this meant, and that Ngapuhi perceived that wo 
intended to go to war, and wished to intimate to us that old battle- 
fields could be fought on again. It was enough ; and we turned our 
attention south, and Waikato drew all the southern tribes into tho 
meshes of her net, excepting the Arawa ; but even some of tho 
hapus of the Arawa were induced to join when it came to fighting 
in their locality, and at Tauranga, when half of Ngatipikiao came 
over to assist us at the Gate Pa, at Tauranga. But our wish was 
to confine the war to the neighbourhood of Waikato. At length 
the Taranaki, Mokau, and the brave Ngatiruanui tribes joined, and 
so did Ngatiraukawa ; but the Lower Wanganuis and Ngatiapa 
were undecided for a time, and swayed to and fro like a tall tree in 
the wind, but the friendship for the pakeha prevailed. The confi- 
dence these tribes had in Sir George Grey in the old war of 1845 
remained firm, and though he was absent from the colony his 
words and advice remained with them. Then there was Dr. Fea- 
therston, Sir William Fitzherbert, and other old pakeha friends, 
who had proved themselves to be "rangitiras" (gentlemen). And 
no doubt all this, combmed with tribal dislike to old enemies, 
turned the scale, and they elected to abide by the Queen of England, 
whom they had never seen. We looked upon these people as 
" lick plates " of the pakehas and cookies. But what cared Hori 
Kingi, Alawae, Kawana Paipai, and ]\Iete Kingi. They laughed 
at us, and said " taihoa" (wait). 

Strange as it may seem, no one at this time appears to have 
warned the Government that the King movement meant war ; that 
it was a plot to kill all the pakehas and drive them into the sea, 
and recover our land that they had stolen from us through their 
agents. During this time we were allowed to purchase arms and 
ammunition, the prohibition having been taken off, and we laid in 
a heavy stock of powder and guns. 

We cast our eyes back, and saw nothing but cheating and taking 
advantage of us. Even in small things it was the same. The large 
P-weight belonging to the steelyard that would weigh up to 5oolbs., 



512 MAORI HISTORY. 

was used by dishonest traders to weigh our wheat with the small 
steelyards that weighed up to 2 5olbs., but when anything was sold 
to us by weight the p's were reversed. It was the same system, 
and our innocence in the dark ways of the pakeha, and our credulity 
and ready forgiveness of injuries were utilised to our disadvantage. 
We had noticed also that the Government were not brave enough, 
nor had not confidence in themselves to carry out the laws that 
they made. The cry was, " We are afraid to send policemen here, 
lest," as they urged, " they be cooked and eaten." 

I have said that the Government were afraid to carry out their 
own laws. I could give many instances of this, but 1 will content 
myself by relating one. It was about the year 1857 o^" 1858 that an 
old man fell sick at a village on the Wairoa river, in Hawke's Bay. 
It happened to be planting season ; and though the sick man was 
a chief the tribe could not delay their planting, so they left one of 
their number to look after him until he died. His death was daily 
expected, but he lingered on. The native deputed to look after 
him was angry because this old man would not die, and he thought 
he would be too late to put in his own corn and potatoes. " You 
ought to die, as you are keeping me here doing nothing," said the 
man to the sick person, who would reply, " Perhaps I may die 
to-morrow." But the miorrow came, and still he was there. At 
last the man got a spade, an old blanket, and a prayer-book. He 
put these into a canoe, and then carried the old man and placed 
him in it, jumped ir. himself, and pulled down the river for a short 
distance to a sandy point, got out and dug a hole, placed the old 
man in it, read the burial service over him, and covered him up 
alive ! He then returned to the village, and from there went up to 
the plantation, where his tribe were. He told them that he had 
buried the sick man. " AVhen did he die ? Why did you not tell 
us, so that we could have a ' tangi ' (cry) over him r " he was asked ; 
but all they could get was that he had read the burial service over 
him. At last they got at the truth of this dreadful murder. The 
head men of the tribe, Paora Rerepu and others, sent to the Magis- 
trate at Napier to send up policemen and take the native who had 
committed this crime, but no notice was taken of the information 
or request. The natives, therefore, held a meeting, but were 
puzzled to know what to do. At last a young chief got up and 
said he would end the difficulty. The murderer was placed with 
his back against a cabbage tree. The young chief then loaded his 
double-barrelled gun, and took his position about one hundred 
yards distant. " I am," he called out, " going to fire two shots at 
the murderer. If I hit him, there is an end of the matter ; if I don't 
hit him, he shall go free." And he fired at him, and the bullet 
went clean through his brain, and he fell dead, and was there and 
then buried. It was apparent to all that it was the Government 
who were afraid to act. 

The big fighting began in Taranaki about land some time in the 
3^ear 1 860. W^e commenced by killing some men and children. All 
the Kingites were involved. To seek payment for this, a force. 



MAORI HISTORY, 513 

composed of soldiers and settler-soldiers, marched up from Taranaki 
to attack us at Waireka. Soon after the fighting commenced the 
soldiers went away, leaving the settler-soldiers to stem the attack. 
We now hurried on, and the fight grew hotter and hotter. I must 
tell the truth in our history. Well, these men beat us ; but still 
we might have had better fortune had it not been for the unexpected 
arrival of some man-of-war sailors, who attacked us from another 
quarter. They rushed at our pa and climbed over the palisading, 
regardless of the storm of bullets we sent at them. We lost heavily 
in this remarkable fight, but we killed many of the enemy. 

The war grew, and all the settlers were driven into town. We 
tomahawked many a pakeha. The soldiers now sent away, by 
force, the settlers' wives and children to Nelson. When we heard 
of this we said, " The town will be abandoned soon," as we had 
no doubt all the men were going to march away in a body, when they 
had sent away their women and children. But one never can calcu- 
late what pakehas will do, except that if we laid an ambuscade they 
would be certain to walk into the midst of it. Sentries were now 
placed round the town, and settlers were forbidden by the troops 
to go and save their houses from being burnt, and their stock from 
being killed and driven away. It was very considerate of the 
troops for us. To prove that the alarm caused by us was very 
great, I will give you one or two of the proclamations issued at 
this ^ime. 

PROCLAMATION. 

Dated 20fh April, i860, signed by Colonel C. E. Gold, commanding the 

forces, New Zealand. 

" The inhabitants will in future be required to have a candle or lamp at 
their front windows, ready to Ught in case of alarm, and are desired to secure 
their doors and lower windows. The pohce to see to this." 



PROCLAMATION, 

"The INIajor-General hereby gives notice that it is imperatively necessary 
that all persons should come within the lines of entrenchment at nightfall ; and 
that, in the event of alarm, all women and children repair at once to INIarsland 
Hill. It is also requested that lights are then put in windows of all houses. 

" By command. R. Carey, 

" Lieut. Colonel, Deputy Adjutant-General, 

Headquarters, New Plymouth, 
"October i6, i860." 



" Many complaints having been made to the Major-General that Europeans 
are iii the habit of intriguing with the wives and daughters of the friendly 

FF* 



514 MAORI HISTORY. 

i\Iaoris in the pa in the neighbourhood of the town, which not only creates 
ill-feeUng, but is not unhkely to lead to the murder of the person so offending 
and to the withdrawal of these Maoris and their families from their allegiance 
all Europeans are cautioned against the continuance of such practices, which, 
if persevered in, will oblige the IMajor-General lo issue orders that no European, 
excepting the medical attendants and others specially sanctioned, shall enter 
into any of the pas. And, on the other hand, that no INIaori, male or female, 
shall pass the barrier into town without a pass from Mr. Parris, Assistant 
Native Commissioner. 

'•By command. R. Carf.v, 

" Lieut. •Culonel, Deputy Adjutant-General. 
Ileadqu.artevs, New Plymniuli, 
" November 23, i860." 

Brown, Atkinson, Stapp, and others fought us bravely at Waireka, 
and had it not been for Atkinson and his toas (braves), who pre- 
vented us from killing more of the 57th Regiment wlien we killed 
Lloyd and his men and cut off their heads, we would not have been 
beaten back. At Puketekauri, too, when the 40th Reg-iment were 
defeated, their loss in killed and wounded would have been much 
heavier than it was had it not been that the settlers saved them. We 
got a fine lot of rifles and animunition that day. We understand that 
the Queen of England instituted an Order for any act of " con- 
spicuous bravery." The Order is called the " Victoria Cross." 
There is no order for " conspicuous caution " yet instituted. 
However, in a fight a soldier was hit by us badly, and could not 
get away with the other wounded. He would have been tomahawked 
by us, but a man — an ordinary pakeha — named Antonio, at a fearful 
risk of his life, rushed to the rescue, and getting the wounded 
soldier upon his back, carried him away to a place of safety. This, 
we all said, was a brave act. Listen to the result. Antonio, after 
he had got the man out of danger, gave him up to an officer of the 
Imperials, who was recommended by his Colonel, and afterwards 
received the Victoria Cross. Antonio got no reward until the New 
Zealand Cross was instituted, when he received one for his brave 
act in 1864. 

Seeing the state of things that existed, we sacked and burned 
homestead after homestead, for we knew, or thought we knew, that 
Atkinson and Stapp with their men had been sent away to Nelson 
lest they should sally forth and molest us in our work of destruction. 
After some weeks had passed (but not until we had destroyed the 
whole of the settled district] General Pratt, the English General, 
arrived with his tribe of soldiers. " Now," we said, " we will have 
some fighting-," For so we thought. 

Soon after this we erected a pa, as we were tired of burning 
houses and waylaying and tomahawking people. We determined 
to await the attack of the troops. Day after clay passed on, but all 
remained perfectly quiet, and our European clothing began to get 
shabby and rotten. At last the General commenced a sap. A big 
roller was made, and the friendly natives under Parris, the Civil 
Commissioner Now, I am pledged to tell the facts. Well, then, 



MAORI HISTORY. 515 

these friendly natives under the Civil Commissioner were our good 
friends. When the Civil Commissioner told them what was going 
to be done they let us know all about it, though the Civil Com- 
missioner did not know that all he told them was conveyed to us. 
Then we assisted the troops to make their sap and bridge over the 
bad places approaching to our pa. Yes, I believe that without our 
valuable assistance they could not have done even what they did. 
I daresay you who read this will think that I am joking ; but listen. 
Fascines were required of green manuka brushwood in large 
quantities. Now, this manuka grew upon our land, for we had 
driven the pakeha from it, and by right of conquest it 
had become ours ; but, as the troops did not like to fetch 
it themselves, they asked the friendly natives to get it for 
them. These natives did not wish to take our brushwood 
without our permission ; but it was no use to us, so we 
had an understanding in the following manner. We cut the 
brushwood, and tied it up into the different sized bundles that 
General Pratt and his army required, and we really did try hard 
to please them, lest they should take their custom elsewhere, and 
send to Auckland or Nelson for what they required, as they did 
for their fuel. After we had stacked the fascines, the friendly 
natives came and fetched them away, first paying us the cash they 
had obtained from the commissariat. We were well paid for our 
labour. We returned a portion of this money to them to purchase 
clothing for ourselves and our wives and children, and the next 
time they came to get more fascines, they brought us blankets, 
shirts, and trousers for us, and underclothing for our wives, and 
little clothes for our children ; so the sap progressed steadily, and 
did nobody any harm ; and when, after a time, it came too near, 
we left that pa and built another one. 

I think it was soon after this that the fighting commenced near 
Auckland, and war parties, from Rangiriri and other strong places 
of ours, sallied forth to kill anyone and everyone they came upon. 
The first people we killed were at a place called Burt's Farm. It 
was occupied by a farmer, his wife, and children. Our war party 
came upon the little children, whom they found playing in the 
woods near the house, and tomahawked them. We then killed 
the others. One of the men, however, I fancy, got away. We 
were very successful, and killed a good many children and people 
by surprising them. We thought the pakehas were veiy foolish 
in not sending their families to safe places. 

We now assembled in force at Koheroa, and made strong rifle- 
pits. A new general (General Cameron), who had fought with the 
Russians at the Crimea, came to fight us with his tribe of soldiers. 
This general was a different man to General Pratt. He did not 
sap up to our position here at the Koheroa line of rifle-pits, but 
with his tribe of soldiers, charg-ed up and into our earthworks, so 
that it was doubtful at one time who would win, our enemies 
fought so well. But now this general came up in person and 
encouraged his men — ^just as our chiefs encouraged our men — and 



5i6 MAORI HISTORY 

so they charged us, with strange yells, and alas ! we were beaten, 
and lost heavily. We retired in disorder, leaving our dead and 
wounded. Some of them were bayonetted ; but this is right in 
war, for what is the use of fighting unless you kill your man when 
you have got him down r To do otherwise would be to waste all 
your efforts to get him into a position so as to be able to kill him 
properly, and the pakehas who blame us and their own people for 
this are very foolish, and write nonsense merely because they don't 
know what lighting is. We knew that there were some settlers 
living at the ]\Iauku, so we sent a large party from Rangiriri 
to tomahawk them. As we were on our way there, we came 
across a INIagistrate (Armitage), who had been appointed by Fox 
(now made a big rangatira) to spy upon us. So we killed him, as 
a warning to others, and then continued on our way. On our 
arrival at the houses of the settlers, we found they had left ; but 
the garrison stationed at the Mauku Church Redoubt came out 
to attack us, and a battle took place on some cleared land, which 
resulted in their defeat. We killed a good many of them, and 
chased the remainder back to the redoubt. We laid those of their 
dead we could find in a row, after w^ell tomahawking the bodies, 
stuck up a stick and placed the courier-bag we found on one of the 
officers on the top of it, and went back with our dead and wounded 
to Rangiriri. Our chiefs were very angry at the loss of men we 
had sustained, as they termed it a useless figiit, though we had 
come off victorious. 

After the fight at Koheroa, we entrenched ourselves strongly at 
Rangiriri and JMeremere, having had to retreat from AVhanga- 
marino. The main body of the enemy were at Queen's Redoubt, 
and now we harassed their convoys as they used to pass between 
Queen's Redoubt and other parts, and cut off stragglers, whom 
we tomahawked. One day we caught two soldiers going up from 
Queen's Redoubt to Pokeno. We caug'ht them, and chopped them 
up. After this the enemy were more careful how they strolled 
about looking at our country. 

To keep the enemy from getting to the rear of our people at the 
Thames, and at the rear of Meremere and Rangiriri, we commenced 
to build a strong pa at Paparata, and to dig a line of rifle-pits near 
a bush. This position was about twelve miles from Queen's 
Redoubt and about five from Pickard's Redoubt, where they had 
an Armstrong gun that overlooked Meremere on the Waikato. 
This gun was a great nuisance to us, and we laid an ambuscade 
for Pickard, but it was unsuccessful. General Cameron sent two 
officers to spy us out at Paparata. These men came in the night 
and hid themselves, and returned the next night. Had it not been 
a very wet day we would certainly have found them. As it was, 
we discovered where they had been the morning after they left, and 
found a compass and a box of preserved fish and some empty tins. 
This made us feel uneasy, as we did not know what information 
they might carry to the General or the Governor, and it was partly 
in consequence of this that we decided to abandon this place. One 



MAORI HISTORY. 517 

of these officers was Von Tempsky, the other was ]\IcDonnell, You 
will hear more about these two men anon. 

Rangiriri and Meremere were now attacked. This was a dreadful 
battle, and the loss on both sides was very severe. The flower of 
Waikato fell here. Our rifle-pits were carried by a series of charges, 
but were not taken until the red blood flowed like water. Then the 
soldiers tried to storm our redoubt, but were repeatedly repulsed, 
and each time with great loss. ]\Iany of us escaped by swimming 
the Waikato river, and going by the lake in rear ; but those inside 
the redoubt could not get away so easily ; so they at last, after 
having done all that brave men could do, hung out a flag of truce 
and surrendered. " Shall we be all killed in payment for the loss 
sustained by the enemy r " we asked one another ; but we were well 
treated, and our wounded were well looked after by their doctors. 
And then some of us thought that perhaps that if this class of men 
had been the first to arrive in this country we might all have lived 
in peace. But, alas ! that could never have been, for our doom was 
pronounced on the distant day when Captain Cook first came to 
New Zealand. PVom that day our fate was sealed, and we know 
now that in a few short years w^e will have to follow the moa and 
our ancestors to oblivion. To oblivion r No ; to a better and 
happier world, where there are no bad pakehas to trouble and 
perplex us, and when the natural ignorance of the JNIaori and the 
unnatural ignorance of the pakeha will be enlightened. 

After Rangiriri fell overtures were sent to us for peace. But 
while these neg'otiations were being talked over, and before any- 
thing' was settled, a large body of troops was slipped past us and 
took possession of Ngaruawhia, at the junction of the Waikato 
and Waipa rivers. This movement was carried out so suddenly 
that we only saw the advantage that had been taken of us after it 
was too late to try and prevent it. It was a smart trick. This we 
attributed to the Governor. Others said it was the General's doing. 
But whoever was to blame for this, there were the troops in 
possession, and when we sent to tell them that it was not fair, and 
that they were to return, they refused to budge. So we determined 
to fight it out — as, by the way, we all along had made up our minds 
to do — but we wanted to gain more time after our defeat, and engage 
the enemy in talk. Large parties of soldiers were sent up the 
Waipa river to different parts, and up the Waikato, and the troops 
spread over the country like a stream that had overflowed its banks 
in a flood. Many skirmishes took place, in most of which we were 
beaten, but we made up our loss for this b)^ laying ambushes and 
by firing on the steamers from the banks of the river as they passed 
up and down. This kind of warfare suited us. Soldiers always 
walked right into our traps, they are so stupid. We shot and 
tomahawked scores of men in this way during the war, but we 
could not, as a rule, contend successfully against them in the open 
ground ; but then they were always better armed and provided 
than we were. 

We now erected two strong pas at Paterangi and Pikopiko, to 



oi8 MAURI HIS'IORY. 

bar the advance of the Queen's troops on Te Awamutu, Rangi- 
aowhia, and Kihikihi, the heart and lungs of Waikato. General 
Cameron now began to concentrate his men at Te Rore, and big 
guns were brought up, and huge mortars, and we saw that a 
tremendous battle would soon take place, for we had more than one 
thousand men in these pas, all of them warriors and eager for a 
fight — the greatest number ever concentrated together at one time 
ag-ainst the enemy in the Waikato or at any other place in our 
country. Our pas were double palisaded and rifle-pitted. The 
pits were deep and roofed over with logs eighteen inches through. 
These again were covered with bundles of tightly-bound fern, and 
a thick layer of earth was shovelled over the whole and tramped 
smooth. Only small holes were left for the men to fire through. 
Each of our pas was flanked, and the strength of one part was 
made equal to the other. Our rear was protected by a swamp, 
and the only approach was up a gentle slope from the position 
taken up by the enemy. A good dray roacl extended from the 
rear of one of the pas to our farms at Rangiaowhia, Te Awamutu, 
and Kihikihi, from where we were kept supplied with provisions. 
Having made our fortifications complete, our young men amused 
themselves by firing at the steamers, and this at last became so 
serious to our foes that they had to get iron sheets to protect their 
men with. But still we made our bullets whistle about their 
heads. AVe kept a good watch for an attack to be made, for we 
felt certain of beating them off with ease. About this period the 
Governor arrived at Te Rore, and told the General to attack us, 
but the General would not obey the Governor. How it would 
have been I cannot tell, but we felt certain of defeating him if an 
attack had been made. However, nothing of this kind \vas 
attempted. One or two men used to take pot shots at us with 
their rifles, but nothing more. 

Traitors, however, were at work. A half-caste, for a fi;w 
shillings, betrayed us, and offered to show the general a way 
round our pas, so that he could get to the back country and cut 
off our supplies, rendering our positions useless. We knew 
nothing of this until one day a, mounted man rode into our camp 
covered with dust and foam, and astounded us all Avith the 
information that Te Awamutu, Rangiaowhia, and Kihikihi were 
in the hands of the enemy, and that severe loss had been inflicted 
upon us at the village of Rangiaowhia, and that a number of 
people had been burnt in a house there; also that a number of 
jorisoners had been captured. On receipt of this news we put on 
our belts and at once evacuated our pas, and fell back inland of 
Te Awamutu, where we found the troops had encamped. We 
wept bitterly over our dead in the burnt and once beautiful 
village of Rangiaowhia, and prepared to dislodge the enemy from 
the position they had taken up at Te Awamutu mission station. 
It was on a Sunday morning the troops attacked Rangiaowhia, 
and on the following day we advanced from there to give them 
battle. We attacked them in three columns, and drove in their 



MAORI HISTORY. 519 

pickets. Then the troops poured out ot their camps and came 
at us. A short conflict took place. They drove us at the point 
of the bayonet to some distance, to a swamp. Here we rallied 
and had another fight ; but two bodies of cavalry, one on each 
side of the troops on foot, charged us, and one party of cavalry 
came upon us in a corn field. Then we had a bad time of it, and 
our m.en were cut down with the sword right and left. Our other 
wing and centre had been defeated. We were utterly routed Avith 
heavy loss. Our killed numbered twenty-five men, and we lost 
m.any in wounded and prisoners. Soon after this Tamihana Tara- 
pipipi sent in messengers to the General. A correspondence ensued, 
but nothing came of it. 

On the sam.e evening of this battle, as a party of our scouts were 
in am.bush at a bush on one side of the cornfield where our dead 
warriors lay about, we noticed two mounted men, one without arms 
and the other apparently a cavalry officer, ride up, quietly dismxount 
and fasten up their horses, and proceed to investigate the bodies of 
our dead. We could not understand their conduct, for they were 
far away from the troops. They then separated, and went looking 
all over the fi.eld, meeting agam. At last the one not in uniform 
called out in a loud rmging voice, " E hoa m.a ko au tenei ko 
Pihopa haere no mai, ko au tenei Ko Pihopa Herewini." (Friends, 
this is I, the Bishop. Come tome in safety. This is I, the Bishop 
Selwyn.) " Ha," we said, " it is Bishop Selwyn with a soldier officer 
come to gaze on our dead. Let us call them to us, and then 
tom.ahawk them." Som.e of us were afraid to kill the Bishop, 
others were for letting a volley fly at him. He and his companion 
were not m.ore than two hundred yards distant, but while we were 
making up our minds as to what we should do they proceeded to 
untie their horses. The Bishop called out once more, and then the 
two got into their saddles ; and now we sent a volley of fifty guns at 
them, but ihey rode rapidly away, apparently uninjured.* 

We now m.ade other pas, and the fighting went on. Kihikihi 
was occupied, and troops were located in redoubts all over the 
country. 

The last big fight we had in the Waikato was at Orakau. Here 
again we lost heavily, but if the most wonderful blunders had not 
been made not one man ot us had escaped, and this fight would 
have annihilated us. As it was we put our women and children 
and wounded in the centre, and surrounded them with our band 
of warriors. ^Vatching our time, all of a sudden we marched 
out of the pa in a dense column right over the heads of a small 
portion of the Regiment (I think it was the 40th) guarding this 
outlet. This movement, as we had calculated, took everyone 
by surprise, and we got clean away from the whole ot the 
troops in array against us. Still our loss was heavy, but we 
had taken our mana (prestige) safe with us. The General had 

* Bishop Selwyn rode O'at in the evening after t!ie light accompanied and guided only l)y 
Sub Inspectoi McDonnell, ofihe Mounted Defence Toice, to afford relief to a wounded Maori 
who had been cut down that day. 



520 MAORI HISTORY. 

offered terms if we would surrender, but Rewi, the chief in 
command, replied " Never ! We will fight for ever and for 
ever." This was because of our lands. We thought after the 
defeat at Orakau, and seeing our fine country and pastures 
in the occupation of our foes, that indeed our affairs seemed hope- 
less. We could not afford to lose any more of our men. There 
were none to fill up the gaps made in our ranks. This was not the 
case with the pakeha. If he blundered, as he nearly always did, 
and lost men, ten replaced every one he had lost. Nevertheless 
we fought on, lest we should become worse than slaves. Far better, 
we thought, to die in battle than lose the heritage that had 
descended to us from our ancestors. 



MAORI HISTORY, 521 

CHAPTER VI. 

Hauhau religion — War on the West Coast, Wanganui district. 




[jjT was about the year 1863 or 1864 that a revelation was 
made of what we thought to be the real God. We had 
been told of so many different religions, and at different 
times, that each one was right and the other was wrong, 
that we were puzzled. So at last a man called Te Ua determined 
to search the foundation stone of all these creeds, and extract a 
religion for himself and the race. He did so, and the result was 
this new religion, which was named " Hau," and his disciples were 
called Hauhaus. We worshipped before a pole placed firmly in 
the ground, and rigged as a top-mast of a ship. 

It had been manifested to us that we were the ten lost tribes of 
Israel. We chanted our prayers in an unknown tongue, as we 
marched and danced round, trusting, with all faith, that, sooner or 
later, we would be able to comprehend the meaning of the apparent 
gibberish we gave utterance to. A spike nail was driven into the 
pole or Niu, about three feet from the ground, upon which we used 
to hang the head of one of our enemies we had killed. " Paimariri " 
was our watchword, and " Riki '"' was our god of war, and the spirit 
of Joshua was our guiding general. It was a very nice, cheerful sort 
of religion. Te Ua, our prophet, caused the Lord Worsley steamer 
to come on shore near the AVhite Cliffs, by his prayers of Hau ; 
but the spirit of the angel Gabriel forbade him to kill any of the 
passengers or crew. 

Our form of prayer was a chant after the following : " God the 
Father, Hau ; God, the Son, Hau, Hau ; God the Holy Ghost, 
Hau, Hau, Hau. Attention, save us ; x'Vttention, instruct us ; 
Attention, Jehovah, avenge us, Hau ; Jehovah, stand at ease, 
Hau ; fall out, Hau, Hau ; Paimariri Hau, big rivers, long- rivers, 
big mountains and seas, attention, Hau, Hau, Hau." 

We were then sanctified by the Three in One. Each person 
now touched the head hanging on the spike nail in the Niu, as 
they revolved round the pole, and the prayers weie over for that 
time. Then, if about to start on an expedition to seek the 
enemy, Joshua's spirit led us forth, and he who had told the moon 
and sun to stand still led us forth with power to smite the Gentile 
and our spirits assisted him. 

The first Hauhau fight was near Mount Egniont, and was 
fought bravely by us. Here we killed Captain Lloyd and se\'eral 
men, and cut off their heads for our Nius. Some of our people 
that were faint-hearted got hit, and we lost two killed, who at once 
became orderlies for Joshua to help us. We now fought the battle 



522 MAORI HISTORY. 

of Mutoa, about which such a fuss has been made. It was more a 
tribal faction fight than anything to do with the pakehas. The 
friendly natives were very clever indeed to twist that fight into 
the form they did. 

The war in the Wanganui district commenced by our throwing 
down the challenge by killing several pakehas and slaying 
Mr. Hewitt at Kai Iwi. AVe called Mr. Hewitt out of his house 
one night when all was still. He came out with his man-servant 
to see who it was calling to him, and then we seized him and cut 
off his head for our Niu, but the servant escaped. This was our 
signal for fighting', and we now awaited the attack of the troops at 
our pa, the " Wereroa," which we had made exceedingly strong 
with double palisading, covered in rifle-pits and strong earthworks. 
There were three pas — one big" centre one and two smaller ones 
flanking the centre one. 

One morning our scouts brought in the news that the pakeha 
taua (European force) was advancing to attack us in thousands. 
Our men at once assembled, and we planted an ambuscade in a 
karaka grove near to Nukumaru. Soon after the taua came in 
sight, kicking up the dust with their feet. But in place of coming 
to attack us, as we had made up our minds they would, they pitched 
camp near to some tall flax and toitoi, not far from where our 
ambush was concealed. The chief in charge, Hone Pihama, sent 
at once to the pa to inform the garrison. A conference was held 
on the spot, and it was decided to attack forthwith, which we did. 
We shot down the outlying picket and tomahawked several men. 
Then a general charge was made, and a small party rushed on the 
General's marquee, thinking to catch and kill him ; but owing to 
some of our people (so it was said at the time) having disregarded 
the commancls of our high priest, the attempt was not so successful 
as it ought to have been. The real victory, however, remained 
with us, as the General moved his army to the sea coast after this 
and never again attempted to fight us near the bush. 

The next fight we had with this commander was between 
Papawhero, Patea, and Kakaramea. The army of the pakeha was 
on the line of march to somewhere, but just as they filed through 
the sand hills and drew near to a small swamp, they were attacked 
by the Pakakohe tribe, who, by the way, had sneered at the attack 
that the Ngarauru had made on the army of the pakeha before at 
Nukumaru. The Pakakohe, however, were defeated, and nearly 
annihilated. It was a brave but very foolish thing for their 
chiefs to lead these men (about one hundred) to attack in broad 
daylight about one thousand, who were wide awake and on the 
line of march, especially when they had over one hundred cavalry 
with them. The result ought to have been foreseen. The 
Pakakohe were horribly beaten, and lost sixty of their best men — 
cut down by the troopers — for nothing-. It was like the charge we 
read of made at Balaclava — a brave but foolish affair. 

A few more fights took place between Patea and Taranaki, but 
as General Cameron would not permit his troops to attack us near 



UrAORI in STORY. 523 

tlie bush, where our pas were, no battles of any importance were 
foug'ht. But we sent out parties to lay ambuscades daily, and 
succeeded in killings a few carters and military trainmen now and 
then. It kept our young- fellows out of mischief, and in good 
humour and training to be ready to seize any chance that might 
present itself to inflict a severe blow on our enemies. Thus we 
instilled a fear of us, by constantly tomahawking and shooting 
down from ambushes. 

About this time our friends, the Upper AVanganuis, sent us word 
that a European force, and some traitors of our race belonging 
to the Lower Wanganuis, had taken possession of Pipiriki. 
They were under the command of an officer I'lMajor Brassey), who 
had made a name for himself in India. Queen's troops were also 
sent to Tauranga and Maketu, and the Arawas (the traitors !) 
were enrolled for service under Hay and McDonnell. Colonial 
troops were also sent to Poverty Bay, under Fraser, Biggs, and 
George. 



524 MAORI HISTORY, 




CHAPTER VII. 

Defeat of the English troops at Gate Pa (Tauranga) — Fight at Malietu — 
Battle of Motata — A spirit's ivarning tiiiheedcd — The result, defeat and 
heavy loss — Fight iiig at Tauranga — Te Kooti — Escape of prisoners 
from Kaivaii and the hidlis — Capture of Wereroa Pa by His Excellency 
Sir George Grey, K.C.B., Governor of New Zealand, ivith a scratch corps 
of Colonials and Maoris. 

HE Ngaitirang-i, our allies, now induced half of 
Ngatipiako, a hapu of the Arawa tribe, to join them 
in an attempt to drive back the invaders of their 
district, now at Tauranga. Only a few paltry skir- 
mishes had taken place as yet, and the Ngaitirangi had not yet 
tried their strength with the troops. That was to come, as will 
be seen. When the hapu of Ngatipiako and , Ngaitirangi 
assembled we advanced to within a short distance of the camp 
and town at Tauranga, and dug a straight line of shallow rifle 
pits across a narrow strip of level land and stuck some tokorari 
(flax sticks) in the earth we had shovelled out of this ditch. Behind 
this we built a small square redoubt of sods, but made no loop- 
holes or palisading, and well in rear of this w^ erected a flagstaff 
on the level and open ground. We had about five hundred men, 
and here we awaited the attack. AVe were about three miles from 
Tauranga Camp. There was no bush near, and we had to go to 
the river beach for firewood. After waiting a few days more then 
half our men left — owing to a diff"erence of opinion amongst our 
leaders — and fell back to Te Ranga, Those that left urged that 
our position was not tenable, but weak and dangerous, and that 
when we were attacked the enemy would drive us into the mud 
flats that were on each side of our position, which the pakehas 
afterwards named the "Gate Pa." There had been an old 
stockyard here at one time, but all that was left of it was one 
of the gates, hence, I suppose, they called it the " Gate Pa,'"' but it 
was no pa at all. 

One morning we discovered that one regiment — a thousand 
strong it must have been — had got to our rear. We were 
on a narrow strip of land, with water on both sides of us, an 
enemy in our rear and an enemy in front. Our chiefs now took 
in our position, which was very similar to that of a snared 
rat or parrot, but we determined to make the best of it. The 
attack was about to commence from the front. We could see them 
dragging up their big guns to fire at our flax-sticks. It put us in 
mind of a man trying to tomahawk a mosquito or namu (sandfly). 
Our chiefs told us to keep low in the ditch, and not poke our heads 



MAORI HISTORY. 525 

above tho level, and let the enemy fire away at the redoubt and 
flagstaff. Perhaps they might continue firing till evening, when 
we might get an opportunity to slip away. This was good advice, 
so we followed it, and waited for results. 

The uproar soon commenced, and we had a lively time of it ; but 
we sat and smoked our i)ipes. The cannon roared, the big mortars 
banged away, and so did the little ones ; the rifles cracked, and 
the shower of lead and iron and bursting shells rattled over our 
heads. Every now and then a report like thunder was heard loud 
above the din. This was the hundred-and-ten pounder Armstrong 
gun, making a big noise, and the shrieking of the shot as it flew 
along, here and there skimming up a long piece of grassy sod that 
covered us with dust, made us think it would be well to be out of 
reach. "We picked up several of these projectiles some miles in 
rear of our position next day nearly two feet long. Well, they 
kept up til is furious fire, but it did us no harm. Not one of us had 
as yet been touched, and the day was getang on, and our courage 
began to improve. 

We cannot make out, even to this day, how our enemy in rear 
escaped the fire of the tribes in front (the 43rd Regiment and 
Naval Brigade]. Towards the evening the enemy in front came on 
with a rush and a cheer, and charged up to our ditch, AVe saw 
them coming", and passed the word along. When they were close 
upon us, we ran into the little redoubt behind us. We could get 
no further, for the enemy in our rear (the 68th Regiment) now 
advanced, firing volley after volley, intending- them for us, but they 
passed on to their friends in front, who returned them with interest, 
thinking it came from us ; but we had not fired at all. Then both 
sides retreated from each other, and then, and not till then, we rose 
and gave them the contents of our guns, and they fled in haste, 
leaving their dead and dying- with us, some of them having been 
shot down by their own men. 

We treated their wounded well, by the order of a Ngaitirangi 
chief, and gave Colonel Booth, of the 43rd, a resting place for his 
head, and placed a calabash of water near him to slake his thirst. 
We considered that the slaughter of these men was a judgment 
from heaven. We only lost three men, and one or two were 
slightly wounded ; but the enemy lost about thirty killed, and their 
hospitals must have been filled with their wounded. We left the 
battlefield early the next morning. This victory for us was, I 
regret to say, the only set-off" against other fights that ended in 
sad defeats for our race. 

At this time the Bay of Plenty tribes, the Ngatiawa, Whaka- 
tohea, Ngatipukeko, and Ngatiporou — in all 800 strong — marched 
up the coast from Opotiki, Whakatane, Ohiwa, Matata, and other 
places to do battle with the Arawa and Europeans stationed at 
Maketu and P^ort Colville. On we came, and nearly caught two 
officers, who were stupidly enough out shooting ducks at Waihi^ 
but they escap«^d from our fire. vShortly afterwards we were 
engagecl in a smart skirmish, in which we lost four men, but we 

GG 



526 MAORI HISTORY, 

must have killed many of the 43rd Reg-iment. The next day 
a rifle-pit was taken possession of by a few men — twelve in 
all — and they kept up a sharp fire upon us all the day. These men 
were officered by McDonnell and his brother William. Only one 
man came to support them, and we tried to slioot him down as he 
advanced to the pit, but we could not hit him, although we con- 
centrated the whole line oi fire upon him as he came forward at a 
sling- trot with his gun at the trail. He was a brave man, though 
a traitor to us. We afterwards learnt that he was Pohika Taranui, 
the fighting chiei oj Ngatipikiao, of the Arawa. There were 
hundreds of men on the cliff above the pit, but after a little firing- 
in the early part of the morning they did not trouble us much. We 
could not make it out, but so it was. When the sun fell the men 
in the pit got up and ran aAvay one by one, and our whole line of 
pits in the sandhills opened fire upon them, but they all got away 
alive. That night we crossed over, and took possession of the 
ground occupied by the enemy the day before. All this day and 
for a week afterwards there was daily fighting and skirmishing- 
between us and the Arawa and the few men under Hay and 
McDonnell. The troops in Fort Colville did not trouble us much, 
but fired a lew shots at our rifle-pits with a big gun. At last a 
man-of-war ship steamed up and shelled us from the sea ; but none 
of us were hit, but albeit the shells and firing prevented the Arawa 
from following us up, and in that way served to cover our retreat, 
for which we w^ere very thanktul. 

When we got as far as Otamarakau, on the beach, a little 
steamer (colonial gunboat Sandfly) that had been in chase of u<^ 
fired a shell as we w^ere rounding a clift, which hit and killed four o: 
us, making our losses in killed twenty-two men ; but we had — 
must have — killed a great many ot the Arawa — so our leaders 
said. Night fell, and we camped at the Matata, not thinking- the 
Arawa were after us. 

Strange to say, on the same day our people had defeated the 
troops with such slaughter at Gate Pa, we received a worse defeat 
at the hands of the Araw-a and their pakeha leaders, for the next 
morning early they foil like a tremendous landslip upon us. We 
made a short stand, and then turned and fled. The ebb tide was 
at its swiftest in the Matata River, and those who escaped the 
bullets from the carbines of Hay's men, and the long-handled 
tomahawks of the cursed Arawa, tried to swim across the river, 
but many were swept out to sea over the bar, and were strewn 
along the coast afterwards — food for the seagulls and sharks. We 
fost about eighty men ; only one prisoner was taken- -a chief named 
Aporotanga. He was shot dead the next day by the wife of the 
head chief of the Arawa, old Winiata, who fought his last fight at 
the battle of Matata. This was only right, and proved her affection 
for her husband was sincere. Shortly after this battle, we all turned 
Hauhaus, and were called Kingites no more for a long time. 

Soon after the defeat ot the united tribes at the Matata, the 
Ngaitirangi and Pikiao, who had won the victory at the Gate Pa, 



MAORI HISTORY. 527 

commenced to strengthen their position at Te Ranga. Rifle-pits 
were dug, and earthworks had commenced to be thrown up, when, 
one morning before daylight, one of our women, who had lost her 
husband at the Gate Pa fight, said that she had heard voices in the 
distance. We turned out and listened, but could hear nothing, 
and so rebuked her, telling her it was the distant noise of the surf 
on the beach. But she replied that the noise she had heard was 
the voices of a war party on the march to attack. We derided her, 
so that she got angry and left, taking her two sons with her But 
we knew afterwards that it was the spirit of her husband which had 
made her hear the music as a warning to move off with his sons, 
for the enemy were soon upon us with a vengeance, and we had 
barely time to man our first line of rifle-pits when they charged up 
Avith fixed bayonets. We lost very heavily, and fled, leaving more 
than one hundred of our warrio's to be buried in the pits they had 
iviade. This victory completely did for us on this coast, as the 
best men of Ngaitirangi and Pikiao were nearly all killed, and we 
paid dearly for our strange victory at Gate Pa. 

A g-reat deal of fighting was going on at Turanga, Poverty Bay. 
Jlie European commanders were Big'gs, Fraser, and George. 
Many pas were taken, and scores of our people were made prisoners. 
In fact, all the news that we got from that quarter was most dis- 
heartening. Of the prisoners made there some were sent to the 
hulk in Wellington, while Te Kooti was, wnth many others, sent to 
the Chatham Islands. Te Kooti was a nobody at this time, only 
rather notorious as a horse thief. Pie eventually became a great 
man, as I will relate in due course. The prisoners taken in the 
Waikato, Turanga, Rangiriri, and other places were sent to 
Auckland and placed on board a hulk there. 

And now a curious thing' happened. All the prisoners w^ere 
removed from on board the hulk and sent to the Kawau, and these 
ridiculous pakehas thought that they would remain there quietly, 
while the mainland and liberty, a few miles off, were beckoning 
them to come over. So one calm evening they quietly rowed over 
in boats. They then borrowed a few spades and old g'uns, and 
quietly entrenched themselves on some ranges, much to the terror 
of the neighbouring settlers and of the Aucklanders. 

I will now relate how the Wereroa Pa passed away from our 
hands, and how our famous chief Tataraimaka was taken prisoner. 
General Cameron's army, or part of his tribe, was stationed at 
Xukumaru, in a large redoubt, and we watched their proceedings 
from our stronghold — the Wereroa Pa. We watched the roads too, 
and laid ambuscades for carters, orderlies, and in fact anyone and 
anything we could safely kill and capture. On the whole we were 
very successful. At one time Ave nearly caught Major Rookes, who 
commanded the jNIilitia of Wanganui, Alajor Nixon, and \o\\ 
Tempsky, who were out reconnoitring on the Okehu stream. AVe 
drove a volley into them, and had it not been for Major Nixon 
and Von Tempsky, who kejDt us back, we would have tomahawked 
them and got their horses. These two officers did not g"et the 



528 MAORI HISTORY. 

Victoria Cross, because they did not belong to the Imperial troops, 
but a similar act was performed by a brave man, Colonel McNeil, . 
a staff officer in the Waikato, who saved Vosper, a trooper in the 
Defence Force, when they were fired upon by an ambuscade. 
For this act he earned and obtained the Victoria Cross. Our 
bullets, it was considered by the Oueen, I suppose, could only kill 
and wound Imperial and not coloiiial men. What sujDerstitious 
people the pakehas are ! 

We now heard that the Wanganuis, who had been stationed at 
Pipiriki, were coming to attack us, having been excited thereto 
by McDonnell, who commanded them. Soon after the receipt of 
this news, a woman brought us a letter from Ilori Kingi, j\Iawae, 
and Kawana Paipai, telling us to surrender the pa to them at 
once. A few of our people seemed inclined to listen to these 
chiefs, especially the Nga Rauru, who were related to them. 
After this we received a number of messages from McDonnell, 
who, with a mixed force, was now camped at Okehu. At length 
the Waitotara tribe, urged by their chief Pehimana and others, 
agreed to surrender this pa to the Wanganuis, and a day was fixed 
for the occasion. But one of McDonnell's officers rode to the 
Nukumaru camp, where he had some men, and told the officer 
there in command (Colonel Logan) what was going to happen. 
Colonel Logan at once thought he would get the pa surrendered 
to himself. So he collected his staff and, with the officer who 
had brought him the information, rode off to the Wereroa, and 
asked the natives to go out of the pa, and let him take it. 
But this did not please us, so we told him to return at once to 
his camp, or we would fire upon him, and we manned the works. 
So they rode back. They had not long been gone when the 
Wanganuis came in sight. But we refused to give up the pa 
now, as we thought they had been playing us a trick to get us to 
give it up to Colonel Logan. That night McDonnell came by 
himself right up to our pa, but as he arrived, a large party 
of our men went out of the principal gate, with torches, and 
were astonished at seeing this officer. We did not know what to 
think,, but he at once told us who he was and what he had come 
for, and asked us to keep our word to the Wanganui chief and to 
him. The strange coolness of this proceeding staggered us 
exceedingly, and some of our older men said it would be the 
wisest thing to kill him at once ; but we suspected an ambush. 
Our priests had told us to take food to our relations, the 
Wanganuis, and now desired us not to hurt McDonnell, but 
to escort him back, and take the food with us as a present, 
and Pehimana promised to visit the united camp in the 
morning. So we escorted McDonnell back to his camp, and 
left ojr presents of food there. But when the morning came 
we observed that Colonel Logan had moved ujd a lot of his 
troops from Nukumaru, between our pa and the camps of the 
Wanganuis, and intercepted Pehimana on his way there and 
again demanded that the pa should be surrendered to him and 



MAORI HISTORY. 529 

not to the Wanganui chiefs. He turned round to IMcDonncll, 
before our envoys, and asked him, saying, " Why am I not in 
the Wereroa Pa r" to which he got the reply from McDonnell, 
" I cannot tell you. There stands the pa, you can go and take 
it." Colonel Logan then ordered Rookes, who commanded the 
Wanganui force, to return to AX^anganui and not take the pa. At 
last this mixed force returned, but came back again after Colonel 
Logan had gone to Nukumaru. Rookes, McDonnell, Kawana 
Paipai, Tamati Puna, and Kemp were invited by us to the 
Perekamu village, below the Wereroa, in the valley behind it, 
and we again entertained the question of the surrender. But 
we feared what the Pakakohi would say, who lived at the 
Putahi, some distance off. If the consent of this tribe could 
have been gained, we would not have cared for what all the 
tribes of the Ngatiruanui might say or do, as we felt our hearts 
warm towards our relatives, the Wanganuis. So we proposed 
to McDonnell that, as he had risked coming- to see us, he might 
as well go and talk it over with the Pakakohi tribe at the Putahi 
stronghold, and he at once said he would. We found horses for 
him, Tamati Puna, and Kemp, and off they started, Kawana 
Paipai and Rookes remaining in the Perekamu village. On 
McDonnell and the two chiefs who accompanied him reaching 
the fiat below the Putahi Pa, they were met, as had been 
previously arranged, by a scout, who desired them to dismount, 
and leave their horses and saddles on the flat below, as they 
could not ride up the steep bush hill. They were told also that 
they must discharge their revolvers, and leave them with their 
saddles. They fired off their revolvers, but returned them to 
their waist belts, and then ascended the hill. 

On their arrival at the pa tliey were met by the priests and taken 
round the niu, and they joined in our prayers, etc. After this they 
were left alone in a small house, while the tribe assembled to 
discuss matters. The result of the deliberations was that Tamati 
Puna and Kemp should be sent back to Perekamu in the morning, 
but that ]\IcDonnell should be killed for having come to ask for 
the pa, and who, as they were informed, had been the chief cause 
of getting this expedition up. In the evening we re-assembled in 
our big runanga house, and then sent for McDonnell and the two 
Wanganui chiefs. Our chief priest, Te One Kura, now stood up 
and told McDonnell he must at once unbuckle his sword and give 
it up. McDonnell said in reply th£it he would do no such thing, 
but asked for the Wereroa Pa, or he would take it, and spoke to us 
all as we had never been spoken to before. Much talking now 
took place, and Kimball Bent, a deserter from the 57th Regiment, 
pressed us hard to kill McDonnell at once, but our talk had not yet 
finished. Tamati Puna rose to speak in favour of his pakeha, 
saying, "You must kill Kemp and me first, if you have to kill 
McDonnell." Kemp afterwards said the same. This we thought 
was the speech of warriors and brave men. McDonnell drew his 
sword out of its sheath, loaded the revolvers, and then handed them 

GG* 



530 MAORI HISTORY, 

to his companions. We did not interrupt Kemp or Tamati. At 
last daylight began to dawn upon us. We had been talking the 
whole night long. Presently there was a loud cry, and then a volley 
of musketry. None of us knew what it could mean, and we all 
rushed outside with our arms, and met a body of the Tangahoe 
tribe, who lived at INIanutahi, who had come to firing a prisoner (a 
57th soldier) they had taken as a companion for Kimball Bent. On 
our return to the pa McDonnell, Kemp and Tamati had gone. We 
sent after them, but they had got their horses and galloped away. 

After this the Governor, Sir Georg'e Grey, came up, and again 
the negotiations were re-opened for the surrender of the pa, but v\-e 
refused. Aperahama te ]\Iaiparea, who is now alive and knows 
this, now invited Sir George Grey to come up to the pa, and ht 
would give it to him. Sir George Grey rode up with several 
officers. General Waddy (we saw that he had one eye like our chiet 
Titokowaru), Colonels Logan, Rookes, McDonnell, Dr. Buller, and 
other Europeans. This aggravated us, as we did not wish to see 
Waddy and Logan. We manned the pits of our pa, and would 
have ended the matter there and then had we not feared for the 
Maiparea, who was between the pits and the Governor of New 
Zealand. We saw him. looking' down our barrels, or we would 
have shot them all. After this the Governor sent McDonnell twice 
in one day to tell us to surrender ; the second time, as he returned, 
he just missed a party who would have tomahaAvked him as he 
ascended the Wereroa hill from^ Perekamu village. He took 
another track that he had not taken before, and so escaped. We 
all thought this very strange luck, that boded bad for us. 



MAORI HISTORY. 531 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Takiiif; Ihe Wereroa pa — Capture of Opotiki — I\Iurder of Volhncr — Murder 
of the creiv of tin Kate — General C/iute's lainpuign against us in 1866, 
aided and abetted by Dr. Featliersion. 




UR Pipiriki allies now attacked Major Brassey, so as to 
cause our pa to be relieved, but this morning, after the 
news had reached us, Sir George Grey and a large force 
appeared in front of the Wereroa, while a detachment 
was marched secretly round our position, taking the bush for it. 
These last captured a large number of our warriors at Areiahi — 
fifty-five men and all their guns and ammunition. Rookes and 
McDonnell did this. We know now that these two officers had 
found out this road during their stay at Perekamu village. It was 
a great mistake not to have killed them when we had the chance, 
and Sir George Grey too, when we could have done so without any 
difficulty. The defenders of the Wereroa now abandoned their 
strongholds, and the Queen's troops — though nothing had been 
done by them to capture it — were now placed in possession, and the 
prisoners were sent to Wellington and placed on board of a hulk in 
the harbour. Our great Taranaki chief, Tataraimaka, was one of 
them. The prisoners soon got tired of living there, so they picked 
out the bow port-hole and swam ashore one rough and stormy 
night. A few got drowned, but the majority got away. We all 
laughed at this, and gave Tataraimaka — a sly old warrior — great 
credit for the way he had planned and effected their escape. 

This is the true history of how the Wereroa Pa was captured by 
Sir George Grey Rookes, INIcDonnell, and Mete Kingi were the 
officers. Mete Kingi was made a General, but none of us could 
make out why, as Rookes and McDonnell did the fighting and 
captured the prisoners, while Mete remained in camp. 

Just before this time we discovered, or thought we had (it was all 
the same to us after we had made up our mindsj, that the Rev. Mr. 
Grace, who used to live at Taupo, and Rev. Mr. Volkner, of 
Opotiki, had been acting treacherously to us. So their death was 
resolved upon by Kereopa, who was then our high priest of 
Hauhauism, and the tribes of the Bay of Plenty met at Opotiki 
to decide how the sentence should be carried out. We had at this 
time boiled quantities of peaches, and, letting the juice ferment, 
we drank it, and it made us brave to act, and filled us with energy. 
Many of us held the opinion that Volkner was a good man. He 
was gentle and very kind to all. Many of those who were his own 
natives knew that he would not do anything- underhand, or to our 
hurt. He had always recommended us not to join in the fighting, 



532 - MAORI HISTORY. 

and he had kept aloof from interfering in land questions. If all 
the other missionaries had followed his example, and had minded 
their own business, Volkner might not have been sacrificed, I 
always thoug'ht we made a great mistake in taking his life away 
from him, as he was not our enemy, being a German. But alas ! 
so it was. Judgment was pronounced by Kereopa, and Volkner 
was hanged. When nearly dead Kereopa cut his head off, 
swallowed his eyes, and filled the communion cup of the church, 
which we had found, with his blood. The chief men and women 
of our people were then drawn up in two files inside the church, 
and the silver cup was passed round. Each person drank or wetted 
their lips with the contents, returning the cup to Kereopa, who 
drank what remained. The Rev. ]\Ir. Grace had pleaded hard for 
Volkner's life, with many tears and to his own peril, but without 
avail. We intended to hang him too, but somehovi^ we let him 
escape. Kereopa said it was a great mistake. We would have 
killed him, and in all probability cut his body to pieces. 

After this we captured and shot a half-caste, Fulloon, a Govern- 
ment agent, in a vessel, the Kate. We killed all the crew, by 
direction of Horomona, a Hauhau prophet. Most of the leaders 
in Hauhauism distinguished themselves in this way, but w^hen the 
pakehas caught them they always hanged them. But it was only 
one of our many methods of fighting our enemies. When a 
man goes to fight, he goes to kill, and it does not signify how he 
kills his enemy, so long as he does kill him. If he won't kill his 
.enemy when he catches him, what is the use of going to fig'ht P 
A man goes to fish for whapuku. Well, he catches a fish. What 
does he do with it ? Does he let it go again ? That would be a 
foolish thing ! No, for if he did, he would be laughed at, and people 
would say he was mad. So he eats it. What else did he catch it 
for } And so with fighting. When you go to kill men, kill them, 
and don't make fools of yourselves. 

The Government now prepared to take " utu " (payment) for 
the death (murder they called it) of Volkner; the Wanganuis 
were commanded by McDonnell. Major Atkinson was War 
J\Iinister, and gave instructions to Brassey and Stapp, who 
commanded the expedition, to give us a bad time of it, and to 
hang and kill those who had taken part in Volkner's death. 
As 1 wish to tell the truth, I must confess that this was sensible 
of Major Atkinson. He meant fighting to be fighting ; there 
was not to be any catching and letting go again, and that 
kind of nonsense. I wonder how long the war would have 
lasted if each side had acted in this way ! We heard of all 
this from our friends, who were friends of civil commissioners, 
and prepared for the reception of the expedition. This punishing 
force sent to fight us arrived in the Bay of Plenty in their ships 
off the entrance to our river of Opotiki. We had a success 
against them at first, for our Hauhau priest, Kereopa, caused the 
little steamer to drift on shore near the bar, by his incantations 
to Joshua. All the pakehas on board the steamer got on shore, and 



MAORI HISTORY, 533 

some of them made a small pa on the top of a hill for their protec- 
tion, and another party of them took possession of one of our burying 
places. We intended to attack them in force, as all the other 
steamers had gone away, the wind was so great, but it came 
on to rain and it grew quite dark before we had settled our plan. 
The next morning we attacked them, but after firing a few shots in 
return they embarked in their vessel again. The heavy flood from 
the rain the night before drifted their vessel, though they had full 
steam up, right out towards the bar. They got aground broadside 
on, and we took possession of the sand-hills and rained bullets 
upon them, Kereopa encouraging us to the tittack. Night again 
fell, but it rained and thundered, and the lightning was all round 
the vessel. The storm was raised by the incantations of Kereopa, 
who wanted us now to rush the vessel ; but it was postponed till 
the following day. The next morning one of our people, who was 
suddenly inspired with the idea that he was gifted with supernatural 
powers, went up to where the vessel lay high and dry to sing the 
paimariri hymn to complete the destruction, when a rifle bullet 
laid him dead on the sands, and the enemy got possession of his 
body. This rather surprised us, as he had told everybody he was 
ball-proof. Next morning the steamers returned, and the whole 
of the enemy landed. We met them on the beach, but we could 
not stand before them. We fled, then rallied, and then broke 
again, their attack was so impetuous. Our villages and settle- 
ments were attacked, taken, and destroyed, and we lost a number 
of men. Our cattle w^ere eaten, our kumeras were dug- up by the 
Wanganui (who, I am sure, never ate such fine kumeras before). 
Our pigs — such fat ones ! — and poultry went the same way. Then 
our horses were caught, appropriated, and used by the enemy to 
ride us down with and kill us. At the Kiorikino Pa we recognised 
our best horses in a charge that some of them, with men on their 
backs, made upon a number of us who had made a sally from three 
large pas on the hills to relieve the besieg'ed in the Kiorikino Pa 
that Stapp and T\lcDonnell had surrounded. They cut down a 
number of us, and then the pa was taken and many more 
of us were shot. AVe were now followed up to Ohiwa, where 
Raku Raku gave INIcDonnell and his men information as to the 
whereabouts of Kereopa and his disciples. PVom the intelli- 
gence thus obtained, the force was divided, and a simultaneous 
attack was made on two of our positions. Kereopa was not, 
however, caught, but some of our best men were killed. Only one 
man was wounded, and he was shot dead by the Wanganuis, by 
order of INIcDonnell. But the only thing this man had done was 
to assist in hanging A'olkner. Then Smith, a civil commissioner 
too (most wonderful !), and ]\Iair, of Orakau Pa celebrity, with the 
Arawa, had captured, after hard fighting- at the Teko Pa, the men 
who had killed Fulloon. This was also called a murder, and the 
prisoners were brought to Opotiki to be hanged by Major Stapp ; 
but they were, for some reason or other, with our great chief 
Mokomoko, sent to Auckland and put to death there. 



534 MAORI HISTORY. 

War now commenced on the West Coast. General Cameron 
had gone home. He was tired of fighting, for we would not give 
in, because there were too many Pakeha-]\Iaoris working for us, 
and because the land that had remained to us from the Government 
sharks had all been confiscated. " We will never give in now,'" 
we said. General Chute and Dr. Featherston sent to Opotiki for 
]\IcDonnell, the Native Contingent, the Patea Rangers under 
Xewland (all tried Taranaki warriors), and the fierce Wanganui 
Yeomanry Cavalry. These men arrived at Wanganui, and the 
following is the pakeha version of the arrival of the Native 
Contingent, which I would pass over as of no account, but for a 
circumstance that occurred afterwards, which proved how very 
selfish the pakehas are when JNlaori interests are concerned : — 
" Immediately the steamer cast anchor His Honour the Super- 
intendent of Wellington, Walter Duller, Esq., R.jNI., Major Von 
Tempsky (Forest Rangers), and others went on board to welcome 
our native allies. Foremost to meet them was the undaunted 
British chief, i\Iajor McDonnell, the able leader of the contingent; 
next came Ensigns Gudgeon and Walker, the old veteran (general) 
Mete Kingi, Captains Kemp and Aperaniko, Adjutant Wirihana, 
and others. They were agreeably surprised to find their old 
friends, Dr. P"eatherston and Mr. Buller, ready to give them a 
right hearty welcome, and, after many congratulations, disem- 
barked to meet their more intimate relations and friends. The 
Putiki natives have won the admiration of the European 
community for their unflinching loyalty, and will, I hear, after the 
withdrawal of the Imperial troops, form an important branch of 
the colonial force." 

Such was the reception by the Government of the War.ganuis 
under McDonnell. The following account by this officer will tell 
you how the Government treated these men for "their unflinching 
loyalty,"' and the encouragement they received at their hands. 
McDonneirs memo, to Dr. Featherston at the request of the latter : — 
'' On the 29th December, 1866, the Native Contingent crossed from 
Putiki, the native settlement on the other side of the river 
Wanganui, where they camped ready for marching. The following 
day they fell in, but on the word ' quick march ' they to a man 
grounded arms and remained standing. Kemp, their native 
captain, stepped forward and said, ' The men of the Native Con- 
tingent, not having received any pay for three months, refuse to 
march until paid. Many, perhaps, will get killed, as we are always 
placed in the front. This is as it should be, but we want our pay 
for the past before we enter on the future.' This I felt to be just, 
and could not blame them. I made a short speech, in which I 
acknowledged the unfairness of not having been paid, but I said 
that to speak of such matters on parade, and at the moment of 
marching, was hardly fair to me, or to General Chute, who was 
waiting for them at the Wereroa to advance on the enemy. I had, 
i told them, no (iovernment money in my hands — I only wished I 
had — but that I had one hundred pounds I had saved up of my 



MAORI HISTORY. 535 

own mon(^y in the possession of a friend wlio was g'oing" to invest it 
for me. 'I'hat under the circumstances I would foreg'o tlie invest- 
ment and distribute the sum among"st them ; it would purchaser 
pipes and tobacco for the campaign, if no more, and that on their 
return to Wanganui they would receive their pay in a lump, and 
could enjoy themselves at their ease. ' But do not,' I added, 'disgrace 
yourselves now.' I fetched the money fone hundred pounds} and 
placed it on the ground. 'There is all I have ; you are welcome to it ; 
pick it up, and in one hour's time parade again. But if any of 
you get drunk that man shall remain behind, and of course will 
not have the chance of capturing- any horses.' There was a general 
rush forward and a scramble, but the money was equally divided, 
every man, I believe, got an equal proportion, and to the hour 
they were again on parade. If any of them were shaking on their 
legs, or had to lean against their comrades to shoulder their rifles 
I did not notice it — but they had brought very little tobacco. I 
afterwards got my money back in driblets, excepting about ten 
pounds. As a whole it was a dead loss to me." McDonnell sent 
in this account to the Government, and was told by an authority 
that some mark would be given to him for his services ; but he 
informs me that he has not even got the ten pounds back, let 
alone the " mark ! " Comment is superfluous. The contingent 
refused to march until they were paid. IMcDonnell went at five 
o'clock in the morning to His Honour Dr. Featherston, who was 
in bed in the Wanganui Hotel, and asked him for the pay due, or 
even ;^ioo of it. Dr. Featherston begged him to get them to 
march without it as he had no money, and could not get any, and 
was at his wits' end what to do, as he had promised to join General 
Chute that day in company with the contingent. IMcDonnell said 
he could raise ;^ioo of his own money, but if he happened to be 
shot in the coming campaign who would see it paid to his family? 
Dr. Featherston promised he would see to this, and McDonnell 
obtained the cash and gave it to them. 

Well, in January, 1866, the whole army of this general took the 
field, and he and Dr. Featherston pitched their camp on the site 
of the famous Wereroa Pa. On the 3rd of January they all 
marched for Okotuku Pa, where the Ngarauru awaited them, eager 
for the fray. While the enemy were pitching their tents, we came 
out of the bush to do a little tomahawking; but McDonnell and 
Featherston, with the Native Contingent, attacked us, and drove us 
back into the bush, and before we could rally they had possessed 
themselves of our pa at the top of the hill. We afterwards heard 
that Dr. Featherston took the sacred dove at the top of our niu. 
By the time we had collected ourselves together in the bush, to 
endeavour to retake our position, the enemy had retired to their 
camp below on the level ground. A\^e now set to work to fortify 
our position. We gathered all the firewood that lay in heaps about 
our plantations (our winter reserve), and stacked it up closely 
against the palisading of our pa, and then remained perffvtly 
quiet, so that our enemy might think we had gone right away. 



536 MAORI HISTORY. 

The next morning the army marched up the wooded hill, and 
presently stood in front of our pa, which was at the narrow end of 
the plateau. We kept quiet, as we wished the enemy to come 
quite close, when we Avould pour one volley into them and slip 
away. But two Europeans and one Maori, whom we had noticed 
the previous day, attempted to take the pa by themselves. We 
thought they were out of their mind. We let them come within 
twenty yards, and then fired a whole volley at them ; but just at 
that instant they tumbled into an empty potato pit, and so saved 
their lives. [The three men here spoken of were Ensign Gudgeon, 
William McDonnell, and Winiata.J The troops now charged our 
pa, but we could only send them a straggling- volley, as we had no 
time to reload properly ; and then our palisades were scaled by 
the soldiers. We now slipped out of our pa at the rear, after 
losing a number of our men. Only one man of ours was taken 
prisoner, and we have heard he was afterwards shot. 

Why need I relate the whole of the campaign of this victorious 
general and his army r The storming of Putahi Pa, the plan and 
approaches to which we found afterwards had been remembered 
by one of the pakehas who visited this stronghold at the time of 
the Wereroa Pa negotiations, and which information he now gave 
to General Chute and Dr. Featherston. We expect he got well 
rewarded for this intelligence, as he went nigh to lose his life in 
obtaining it ; but we understand jNIcDonnell was wounded in this 
engagement, and lamed for life. Then Otapawa was taken, the 57th 
Regiment being led by the brave Major Hazzard, whom we shot as he 
entered our works sword in hand, leading his warriors like a chief. 
The march round the mountain of Taranaki and the fight at 
Waikoukou followed. It is not a pleasant task to have to record 
how in less than five weeks we were all scattered to the winds, and 
all our pas and settlements utterly destroyed and burnt. This 
dreadful General and his men never slept, and did not fight 
in accordance with the laws of warfare laid down by civil com- 
missioners for pakehas to follow. So we complained to one of the 
civil commissioners, who then went to have an interview with the 
General, who was then camped near Taiporohenui, after defeating 
us at Otapawa, and tried to reason with him. But we heard that 
the General spoke to this commissioner in such a way that he 
left in a hurry. When we were afterwards informed of this by 
Wiremu Hukarunui, a neutral, but our friend and intelligencer, we 
feared that a new state of things had succeeded to the old, and that 
commanding officers of armies were no longer to be under the 
control of civil commissioners and pakeha-Maoris. " If this is the 
case," said we, " our game is up." We could not stand that kind 
ofthing. 

We, to speak truly, looked upon Chute and his army as the best 
fighting force we ever had to oppose, or that had ever been in 
array against us. Bush or open it was all the same to them, and 
the 57th Regiment and 14th and i8th Royal Irish fought with the 
colonial troops, amongst whom were many old warriors of the 



MAORI HISTORY. 537 

Hikitipiti (65th) like proper devil-pakehas. Many months elapsed 
after this campaign, but as no one came to take possession of 
the country, and as we were informed by our pakeha-AIaori 
friends that the commissioners and the bishops had said that it 
was wrong to confiscate our lands, we took heart and returned to 
the district, and rebuilt and reinhabited our pas and settlements, 
forgot our past troubles and prepared to resist any attempts the 
pakeha might make to settle upon the country that General Chute 
and his men had conquered. But the remains of General Cameron's 
army tribe still occupied positions near the coast at Patea, Kakara- 
mea, INlanawapou, Tangahoe, Waingongoro, and in Taranaki. 
But these, we thought, would follow General Cameron when the 
ships came back that had sailed with him to England, for we are 
but a simple people in some things. 



.538 MAORI HISTORY. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Campaign under McDo:inell — Pokaikai — Survey of district — Fight at 
Hairini — At Rolorua — Waikato defeated. 



OAV I will give you an account of the fighting under 
McDonnell and his Bush Rangers and Wanganui 
Cavalry, and the means he took to steal our country 
by surveying it. It will be but a short account, as it 
is ver}^ painful to have to relate how we were duped and beaten 
by this man and his force. 

First of all, jNIcDonnell met some of us at the Kauwae, Wiremu 
Ilukanui's place, and asked us to give in. This is an act of his 
that we thought weak and unworthy of a warrior. But, aias ! how 
we were deceived in him. Colonel Hauitain was the War Minister 
at the time, and the instructions he had given to McDonnell were, 
we heard, that he should get the district surveyed, and kill as 
many of us as he could if we objected, as, of course, Colonel 
Hauitain, being an old warrior of vast experience, made sure that 
we would. Having- heard all this and more from our pakeha- 
]\Iaori friends, what business had this cunning man, McDonnell, 
to try and get us to make peace, so that he and his men might rob 
us with impunity r This is what we thought then, though we 
hoped at the same time that the civil commissioners would 
take care of our interests. Well, we pretended to McDonnell 
that we would think over what he had proposed, and that one of 
our principal chiefs, Ngahina by name, a Hauhau priest, should 
go to Wellington. But we arranged, in the meantime, to shoot 
McDonnell down, by a well planted ambuscade, the following 
morning, as he returned to Patea from the Waingongoro camp. 
This settled, we at once sent off a messenger to consult with the 
civil commissioner as to the future. Now, this commissioner, 
Parris, was a hundred miles away, at Taranaki. McDonnell left 
the next day for Patea. Our ambuscade, seventy strong, of 
Ahitana's people, divided into two parties, and planted themselves 
so that McDonnell should get between them on the banks of the 
Waihi stream. The trap was beautifully arranged for his death ; 
nothing could have been better planned, and when McDonnell 
and his few friends, six altogether, including Carrington, the 
chief surveyor, rode up, we let them get just past the first 
ambush, and then poured a volley into them at thirty paces, 
calling- out aloud to our Hauhau god " E Riki Kawea, 
E Riki Kawea ! " to make the bullets go straight to 
their mark. Then the second ambush fired at them, crying out 
" O Joshua O Joshua ! " but, though we sent volley after 



MAORI HISTORY. 539 

volley after them as they wheeled and galloped back to 
Waingongoro, we missed them all. In revenge for this very 
natural attempt of ours to kill him, jNTcDonnell sent a woman to 
spy out our pa, Pokaikai. We tore the woman's clothes, and sent 
her back. ^IcDonnell then sent us a very curious letter of hidden 
meaning, like to our own Hauhau letters and sayings, which we 
write to this day when we wish to nonplus and puzzle the pakeha, 
and confuse them ; like that saying of Te Whiti's, " the potato is 
cooked." McDonnell's letter told us he was coming- to visit us. 
We received this note in the morning', and the following- is a copy 
of the letter : — 

" Camp, Manawapou, Tangahoc. 

" To THE Enemy, — 

" Salutations. — In a short time I will truly visit you. You will then see me. 
Why do you plot to kill me and my women 1 The kao (preserved kumara) is 
dried. Sleep, that the taha (calabash) be filled; that the journey be success- 
ful. There is a whale on the sea ; spear him for the tribe. From your 
friend, 

" MCDOXXELL." 

We said, " This man IMcDonnell is a fool to come and visit us ; 
we will show this note of his to the commissioner, and ask him to tell 
us what it means." But it is true that it was ourselves who were 
bewildered by McDonnell, for in the grey dawn of the very next 
morning he kept his word and did visit us. Our pa, Pokaikai, was 
entered into pell mell, and after a short but fierce struggle and a 
few shots we had to fly out of it. The ground was hard with white 
frost, for it was in the cold weather of August. Many of us were 
shot down and killed, and all our women and children were taken 
prisoners . we had to fly naked. We lost our clothes, our weapons 
and ammunition ; our pa and houses were burnt, except one house 
which they left to shelter a woman who had been wounded AVe 
also lost AlcDonnell's letter, which he found in a meeting house, 
so that we could not show it to Parris, the commissioner, to whom 
we carried our sad, sad tale of complaints. Village after village 
and pa after pa were taken at all times of the day and night. When 
our scouts would tell us McDonnell was at Waitotara, fifty miles 
away, that hour he would drop upon us with his bands oi trained 
men, Wanganui Troopers, and Ross's and Newland's Wanganui 
and Patea Rangers, who were all as bad as himself. They laid 
ambuscades for us, and thus Ave lost more men. It was not fighting- 
according to pakeha rule, and again we complained to the civil 
commissioners. But we tomahawked away whenever we got the 
chance, and occasionally we killed some of his men. 

Now we were told by the Commissioner, Parris, that a Royal 
Commission was coming to try ]\IcDonnell for not fighting b}- 
Commissioner rule, and in attacking us at Pokaikai and 
elsewhere. We all said " Kapai " (good), and prepared to 
assemble and give evidence against this commander and destroyer 
of our people. We pretended, too, that we wished to make peace, 



540 MAORI HISTORY. 

and a truce was proclaimed for the purpose. The Roval 
Commission sat, but all the Civ'il Commissioner proved was 
that a woman had been accidentally hurt with the point of a 
bayonet at the attack on Pokaikai, by a man named Bezar, who 
did not belong to the force ; that she had been well attended to 
afterwards, and that Bezar, who had accidentally hurt her, had 
taken her to himself with her consent and the consent of her tribe, 
for a wife.; that she was now J\Irs. Bezar, and that shortly she 
expected to present him with a son and heir. Now the Civil 
Commissioner had reported that this woman had been brutally 
murdered, by command of INIcDonnell. It is true we had told 
Parris all this, but we told him a good many things, and 
to our credit be it said, he believed them all. The Commission 
could not hang McDonnell, we regretted to find ; so they acquitted 
him, and said he had done quite right. So they then departed to 
their homes, and the woman, JNIrs. Bezar, went home with Mr. 
Bezar and bare him a son, and the Commissioner Parris got on 
his horse and went home too ; and the Government wrote to 
iSIcDonnell that the Commissioner, Parris, now said that he 
could not make peace with us, and that he could go on with 
the fighting. That very night McDonnell and his devil pakehas 
laid an ambuscade for us, but we laid one for them too, and, 
strange to say, we both picked on the same spot. The ambuscades 
met and fought, but we were beaten, and lost some men ; but we 
wounded Captain Ross, the ofhcer we afterwards killed at Turi-turi 
]\lokai. We all attributed this, at the tiine, to anger on the part 
of McDonnell and his men for liaving been tried by us — the 
very men that he and his bands were paid to fight and destro}-. 
Verily, O pakeha, you are a puzzle to us ! 

Our large fortified village of Pungarehu, a mile in the forest, was 
now^ attacked at daylight. We lost over thirty-five men, and many 
were w^ounded and taken prisoners, one of whom was put to death. 
Many other places were attacked, and we severely wounded 
McDonnell's brother William. ^McDonnell now erected a platform 
at Waihi forty feet high, and when the surveyors were sent to 
survey the banks of the Waingongoro river, Avhere the scrub was 
high and good for our ambuscades, the prisoners were told off to 
do sentry-go on the top of this platform, and told to keep a good 
look-out for us and report if they saw any danger, but that if the 
survey party got fired into that they would be at once hanged. We 
knew McDonnell's men would obey him gladly, so Ave did not 
interfere any more with the surveyors, lest our relations should be 
hanged by McDonnell's men. Well, we were getting tired, and 
had all but given in, as our country was opened up and conquered 
again right away to Warea, and drivers used to trade in safety 
right away over our land to Taranaki, and no one molested them. 
The roads, too, were safe. We had discovered that INIcDonnell 
was a man of his word, and he had promised to leave us alone so 
long as we behaved ourselves. Our prisoners he released, and they 
returned to us by consent of Colonel Haultain, the War Minister. 



MAORI HISTORY, 541 



CHAPTER X. 

Civil interference — Successful attack on Te Ngulu-o-te-Manu with old 
force— Defeat at same place — Death of J 'on Teinpsky and others — 
More civil interference. 




BOUT this time Waikato sent an armed force of two 
hundred and fifty picked warriors to fig-ht and get 
revenge on the Arawa tribes living at the Rotorua lakes. 
Ui Waikato got the better of the Arawa on three occasions, 
and drove them to their pas at Rotorua ; and began to plunder the 
country, and threaten to attack Tauranga, and had got the better 
of some troops who attacked them there. So JMcDonnell was 
taken away from the West Coast and sent to command his old 
Arawa tribes. He soon organised a band of that brave and loyal 
tribe to the Queen, but disloyal to their own country, and attacked 
us on the mountains above Lake Rotorua, at Hirini. Here a 
desperate fight took place. We stood firm for some time, but the 
Arawa scooped the brains out of one of us whom they had shot, 
and smeared their faces over with them, and then, urged by their 
native and pakeha chiefs, charged us. We could not stand this 
sight ; we broke and fled, and were hotly pursued by the Arawas. 
We lost heavily, and did not pull up till we reached the head 
waters of the Thames. 

Now, during McDonnell's absence from the Ngatiruanui country, 
the people of our race had been made uneasy from the action of a 
Government officer, who began to preach to us ; and by this 
time McDonnell had returned from Rotorua. Things were ripe 
for disturbance. The name of this man was Booth, and he had 
once been a catechist. Some of our men stole horses. An attempt 
was made to capture the young chief who took them. One was 
caught by Booth, but he afterwards escaped ; when, in return and 
revenge for the insult, we killed three men who were working in 
the bush. This led to revenge again, and to get payment 
McDonnell attacked us at the Ngutu-o-te-Manu, defeated us, and 
burnt our fortified village. We lost nine men in the attack. Our 
pa was burnt, including our large new place of worship. 

After we had killed three pakehas in the bush, whom we knew 
afterwards were called Cahill, Squires, and Clark, we thought of 
trying to surprise the Turi-turi Mokai Redoubt, near Te Alata- 
ngarara. The commander of this pa lived outside the earthwork 
in a small whare, near where the canteen was. We sent some of 
our people the evening before, under the pretence of selling some 
onions, to have a look at the defences, and to ascertain, if possible, 
if Ross, the captain, was going to sleep in the whare outside the 

HH 



542 MAORI HISTORY. 

redoubt. Our spies returned, and reported that the ditch was in a 
bad state, and that Ross and the canteen man were each in the 
habit of sleeping in their own whares outside and that the planks 
over the ditches of the redoubt, serving as a bridge, had not been 
moved for some time. Early in the grey dawn we approached, 
crawling stealthily up, and had all but got into the ditch when a 
sentry challenged, and we heard the click of the lock of his rifle, 
and then he blazed away at us. The door of Ross's house now 
flew open, and Ross appeared with his sword and revolver. We 
fired at him, but he flew to the entrance of the redoubt, shooting 
one of us dead ho had just crawled inside; and where a bloody 
fight took place, Ross cheering his men, some of whom leaped, 
half asleep, over the parapet of the redoubt into our hands. These 
we at once killed. Ross now fell in the entrance, and we dragged 
him into the ditch and cut out his heart, but the man who did this 
fell dead. We tried hard to get at the rest, but several men in one 
corner of the earthwork swept it clear, and we lost some of our 
warriors ; but help was now on its way to the redoubt from Waihi 
camp, and we had barely time to collect our wounded and dead, 
leaving three in the ditch at the entrance of the redoubt that had 
been shot by Ross in the hand-to-hand conflict. Ah ! he was a 
brave man. I think we killed six men, besides Ross and the 
canteen man. Our loss in killed was five we carried away, three 
we left in the ditch, and eight wounded. Had the captain been 
inside this redoubt our loss would have been heavier. The people 
living at INIatangarara only knew of our intention to attack this 
position the evening before we attempted it, and detained an officer 
at their village (Northcroft, one of the bravest of the pakehas) who 
seemed desirous of going to Turi-turi Mokai to sleep there, as he 
was on his way to the Waihi camp. Tuwhakaruru was accused of 
bringing this about, but he did not know of our intention until 
after we had attempted it and failed. 

During the absence of IMcDonnell at Rotorua, the Wanganuis 
came to visit us at our settlement at the Ngutu-o-te-Manu, and 
there we all made a compact of peace with each other — a tribal 
peace that had nothing to do with the Europeans or their 
Government. Few pakehas know of this ; but there are some who 
do right well. After the successful attack on the Ngutu-o-te- 
Manu, McDonnell made another attack, and we defeated him with 
great loss at the same place, but the Wanganuis, as a whole, and 
many of his new men left him in the forest, and did not help the 
pakeha, but ran away to the stream of Waingongoro, and then 
remained in perfect safety till the column came out of the bush. 
The Europeans separated in the forest, and retreated with their 
wounded. We soon found, as the column commanded by 
McDonnell retreated, that he had not many men. ]\Iost of them 
had gone, all but Roberts and Livingstone and their band of 
warriors, who fought bravely, but who were cut off from 
IMcDonnell, who was encumbered with wounded ; so we left 
Roberts and his men, after we had fought them, and followed 



MAORI HISTORY. 543 

McDonnell's force, and pressed them in rear and on both flanks ; 
but his brave band fought hard, and shouted to us to come nearer ; 
and INIcDonnell called to us in Maori all the way, and taunted us ; 
and thus we fought from noon till night, until they got out of the 
bush. Then they turned on us, and g"ave us a parting volley as 
we were in the act of dancing a war dance, that wounded some of 
us. AVe returned to our dead — a few — and to theirs — a great many 
— twenty. It was a good victory for us. 

It is not true, however, that we tortured the wounded, but we 
tomahawked them. The bodies we collected together, and heaped 
them up upon two altars. Von Tempsky's body being placed on 
the top of one of them, and then we burnt them, and the smoke 
went up in a cloud to the sky. Then we crossed the Waingongoro 
River, and had a skirmish at Tangahoe, where we dug up the dead 
bodies of the men who had been buried, and cut off their limbs, 
and cooked them in a fire, and ate them, and made soup of them ; 
and we burnt many houses. 

McDonnell now wished to make prisoners or all the men from 
Tai Porohenui to Waitotara, as he thought the Pakakohe tribe 
would join Titokowaru ; but the Resident Magistrate prevented 
this, and went to see the tribe at Hukatere. The Pakakohe, of 
course, were going to join, but wished for time, so they talked with 
their tongues, and the Resident INIagistrate foolishly believed them ; 
and on his return to Patea published the following notice, which 
amused us considerably : — 

NOTICE. 

" The undersigned chiefs of the Pakakohe tribe pledge themselves that they 
will give protection to all Europeans, men, and women, and children in their 
district, namely, from Waitotara to Mokoia Taurua, Warematangi, Te One 
Kura, Paraone, and Rangihaeata. James Booth, R.M. 

" Patea, loth 6—68." 

Heiaha i Korero tia ae; which means " comment is needless." 



544 MAORI HISTORY 



CHAPTER XI. 



The fight at I\Ioiiiroa — Gallant defence of Wereroa redonhl — Defence of 
Wanganui — Poverty Bay massacre — Moturoa pa — The comparative 
value of heads. 



^1 



ITOKOAVARU advanced and built a pa at Moturoa, 
at the edge of that bush. Here we were attacked 
by another man, Colonel Whitmore. This caused 
us to think we had perhaps killed McDonnell, as 
he was not present. Colonel AVhitmore proved himself to be 
a good warrior and cautious. The officers and men under him 
made a gallant attack on our pa at iSIoturoa, but we defeated 
them with heavy loss. Whitmore and Roberts encouraged their 
men, but the defeat was complete, and we chased them away, 
right away in the open, nearly as far as the Wairoa, Roberts 
and Newland, with their hapu division, keeping us back. These 
men were those who had fought so well at the Ngutu-o-te-]\ianu. 
Our victory cost us only one man, who had left the pa to go and 
tomahawk a wounded pakeha, but he was shot dead in the act. 
This man was he who had killed Broughton, the interpreter to the 
troops, because he came to propose terms of peace to us inland at 
Kakaramea, about the year 1865. We did not torture the wounded, 
but we tomahawked them all and burnt their remains on the altar, 
as we had done before at Ngutu, and the sweet savour ascended 
to the heavens. The burnt bones were afterwards collected and 
buried at the Wairoa church by their own people. We laid twenty 
bodies on our altars, and got thirty-five stand of arms. Colonel 
Whitmore had fought at Poverty Bay, Wairoa, Hawke's Bay, and 
other places, but he had 10 learn that the tribes living south 
and east of us, of Ngatiruanui, were as puwha (sow thistle) when 
compared with our savage warriors. 

Titokowaru, before the above victory, had determined to advance 
on Wanganui. This was resolved upon, and the expedition 
started ; but, though the plan of attack was cut and ready, and 
three columns of two hundred each had got their orders, certain 
events had happened, and fresh councils prevailed. Te Oti 
Takarahgi, of Kaiwhaike, sent us word that all the Wanganuis 
and the whole of the tribes from the Wanganui Heads to Otaki, 
had been roused at the intelligence of our advance that had been 
conveyed to the Putiki chiefs by McDonnell at midnight. He had 
been communicated with by Colonel Fraser, from Patea, and 
the tribes were now assembling to take the field under Colonel 



MAORI HISTORY. 545 

McDonnell, Kemp, Kawana Paipai, and Te Hakeke ; but he (Te 
Oti Takarangi) said that he would have to smother his feelings 
if his relative ]\Iete Kingi and Wanganui. were attacked, as he 
would have to stick by them. The next day, so very rapid had 
been this collecting together of men, our scouts brought us 
the information, as we were on the line of march to Waitotara, 
that McDonnell, with the contingent, and 500 warriors under 
Kemp, Paipai, and Haimoana Hiroti, was erecting a redoubt on 
the site of the old Wereroa Pa, and that they had been fired upon. 
After this we gave up the idea for some time, and this is the cause 
why we did not attack Wanganui that time ; but we heard that 
the news of our approach had caused great alarm and consterna- 
tion in the town. 

Shortly after this the Wanganuis were removed from this 
redoubt to Patea by Colonel Whitmore, and it was garrisoned by 
a European force from Wanganui, officered by Powell, Broughton, 
Witchell, and others. AVe now made up our minds to attack 
them, take the redoubt, and tomahawk them all. We made sure 
of an easy success, when we would then march on and sack 
Wanganui, and have a fine time of it. AVe attacked, but though 
we foughtvfor many hours, w-e w^ere repulsed so often that we got 
sick of it, and Broughton enraged us by his taunts, asking us in 
Maori, after each repulse, to " try it again." At length we with- 
drew, for we were beaten, strange to say. 

Soon after this the redoubt was abandoned, and many stores 
were destroyed in a hurry, and the canteen keeper was well nigh 
ruined. We were much surprised at this, but suspected a design ; 
but, when we found that the place had really been left, and that 
the way had been left clear for us, we again made preparations for 
attacking the town of Wanganui, and crossed the Waitotara, being 
now reinforced by the Ngarauru tribe, led by Uru te Angina and 
other braves, and came on to Kai-Iwi stream, which we crossed ; 
we plundered and burnt as we went. Nevertheless, flushed as we 
were by our successes, some of our warriors did not approve of 
pushing the pakehas to desperation. We thought they would 
defend their wives and children, and there were some good men in 
Wanganui ; those, for instance, who had so well defended the 
Wereroa Redoubt when we attacked it, and, though we were six 
hundred strong, had beaten us off. We heard also that a body of 
the 1 8th Royal Irish, under Captains Dawson and Butts, had come 
from Wellington, and held the stockade at Pukenamu. We 
pondered over this, though w^hy everything had been left clear for 
us to advance, as it were, wdth impunity, our leaders and priests 
could not make out. The cavalry, too, were in Wanganui, 
and our experience of these men, before whom the brave 
Pakakohe tribe went down, the time they attacked General 
Cameron on his line of march at Patea, had not been forgotten 
by us. We knew also that if we were successful of the 
rich spoil we would get, and that what had occurred at Taupo in 
the time of Te Wherowhero, who slew 250 persons after they had 

HH* 



546 MAORI HISTORY. 

been prisoners with his own hand, every now and then refreshing" 
himself with a draught of blood, would have been surpassed by 
many who longed to. make a great name for themselves, the 
slaughter would have been great. But if we proved to be unsuc- 
cessful — what then r How could we have retreated r And we met 
the scouts of the Wanganui army under Colonel McDonnell, his 
brother William, Wirihana Puna, Pini, and Haimona Hiroti at 
Kai Iwi, and exchanged shots with them from the bush ; so that it 
was plain we could not surprise the town at night as we intended. 
Besides, to tell the truth, we were much divided in opinion, and 
our priests had dreams and some of them saw bad omens, and one 
bad omen in war time is very demoralising. I recount these things 
because some have doubted the intention of Titokowaru, Toi, Tito, 
Hauwhenua, Ihaka, AVharematangi, and others to sack and burn 
the town of Wanganui. But twice it was resolved to do this at our 
councils of war, and no mercy was to be shown to anyone. But 
the action taken each time saved that settlement ; and of this there 
is no doubt at all, as the panic there was very great. 

Colonel Whitmore was absent at this time. He had had to go 
to Poverty Bay to see after Te Kooti, who with his band of 
warriors, had escaped from the Chathams. This we heard of by 
a special messenger from Kaiwhaike. Te Kooti, we were told, 
had seized a big ship, an English man-of-war, though we doubted 
this seizing of a sailor's floating pa, and had landed at Poverty 
Bay. Te Kooti and Whitmore had previously had much fighting- 
together, and Te Kooti, taking advantage of the absence of his 
experienced antagonist and brave warrior, made a sudden and 
well-directed attack on Poverty Bay, and in one night slew, 
without mercy, over forty Europeans — men, women, and children ; 
and Te Kooti, to encourage his men to commit excesses on the 
women and girls, which they had no wish to do, himself set the 
example. Over fifty IMaoris were slain, too, the same night by Te 
Kooti and his band. And this is what Whitmore left Wanganui 
to avenge. We considered this a great victory for Te Kooti, and it 
proved the stamp of man he was. He did perfectly right, in our 
opinion, in killing all these people, but we considered he was both 
wrong and foolish in treating the women as he did ; and, although 
Bryce has pardoned him, there are some who will kill him yet, if a 
good chance occurs, for the acts he has committed, pardoned though 
he may be. This I hear from many pakehas, and they are right. 

To sum up, Te Kooti, after this victory (termed by the pakeha as 
usual when we had a success, a massacre), entrenched himself at 
Ngatapa. This strong ancestral pa was stormed by the brave 
Whitmore and his men, assisted by the chief Major Ropata, 
of Nga te Porou, a terrible warrior. Over one hundred tattooed 
warriors bit the ground. Colonel Whitmore has earned, in our 
opinion, a decoration for bravery as a warrior for his personal 
conduct at Ngatapa. He then returned to Wanganui to renew 
the fighting Avith us, and after a few skirmishes and ambuscades 
wo made a stand at Taurangika, where we built a strong palisaded 



MAORI HISTORY. 547 

pa. One day a body of Kai-Iwi troopers attacked a party who 
were out looting, so we turned out to the rescue from our stockade 
and engaged them, keeping in the scrub and swampy ground. 
We drove them away and followed them up some distance. 
Another time a party of troopers rode up to our double-palisaded 
pa to try, as we thought, to ride it down. The majority of us were 
in the bush, but the guard of the Taurangaika Pa made a great 
noise, and shot one trooper — Maxwell — but his comrades bravely 
rescued his body. We laid ambuscades, and a party of Ngatiruanui 
laid an ambush for Wirihana Puna at Okehu stream one evening, 
but were just too late, as he rode by the beach to Wanganui. They 
nearly, however, succeeded in shooting McDonnell, whom they 
wounded in the leg. He fired at us, and then galloped back to the 
beach, and we retreated up the creek, as we had done before at the 
same place when we ambuscaded Rookes, Nixon and Von Tempsky. 
We had, the day before this, sent a large party to take messages 
to Kaiwhaiki, asking Te Oti Takarangi and his brave people to 
join us and help us to fight Whitmore, but he sent back word that it 
was too late to ask him now. Whitmore now attacked our pa with 
mortars, and shelled and blazed away, but they did us no harm. 
Seeing now that no good could result by remaining here any 
longer, we left one night, after first tying up a female dog and three 
puppies to keep up a noise. Whitmore entered the pa next day, 
and the puppies were taken and made pets of by his army. Whit- 
more, after finding we were gone, lost no time but followed us up, 
but we shot some of his men at the Karaka. We had several 
skirmishes after this, and ambuscaded and killed seven men who 
were stealing our peaches. But Whitmore pursued us and we 
retreated to the country of the Ngatimaru. 

Had we been followed up here we would have turned again on 
the force with renewed vigour, as we took our mana with us. As 
it was they left us alone; we were tired, and wished for lest. I 
am pledged to tell the truth. Well, had the Waimate Plains been 
occupied then, all trouble would have ended ; but, instead of 
settling the land that had been conquered, first by General Chute, 
secondly by McDonnell, and now again by Whitmore, the late Sir 
Donald McLean promised to give these lands back to us, after we 
knew they had been taken ; and he paid one of us ;^6o a-year to 
keep guard at the crossings of the Waingongoro River, to keep 
pakeha cattle from straying on to OUR LAND ! We got blamed for 
destroying the settlers' sheep and cattle on the Waitotara, as if we 
w^ere going to let them graze quietly before our eyes, when our 
insides were yearning for the meat on their bones. We would have 
been fools, indeed. But thousands of our cattle had been killed by 
McDonnell and his men in the Patea district, and by the army of 
Colonel Whitmore. 

Whitmore was made a great rangatira by England's Queen for 
his valour ; but his officers made a mistake when they informed 
him that we lost heavily in these fights and skirmishes. Neither 
was it a right thing for the Governor to do, by the rule of the 



548 MAORI HISTORY. 

Christians, to offer a reward for heads. We thought that the trade 
in our heads, formerly carried on between the Christian pakeha 
and the savage INIaori at the Bay of Islands, called the "Preserved 
Head Trade," had come to an end in or about the year 1830, but it 
was recommenced by a Governor of New Zealand. If our heads are 
buried at one place and the bodies elsewhere, at the last day these 
bodies won't know where to find their heads, and the heads won't 
know where their bodies are, and the confusion will be great ; and 
probably some bodies will have to suffer for the conceived wrong of 
heads that did not belong to them ; but this is by no means an unusual 
thing to happen. We should not in any way have blamed Whitmore 
if these things had been done by his order ; we should have served 
him the same if we had caug-ht him, out of respect, as this is the 
custom of our race, and it is natural to wish for trophies ; and even 
now w^e had much rather he had taken our heads to ornament the 
door of his pa with than bury them. But it was Sir George Bowen 
who offered ^1000 for Titokowaru's head, not that Titokowaru felt 
annoyed at this, as it was only natural that having failed to remove 
his head from his shoulders by fair means that unfair means should 
be tried to obtain it ; it was all fair in war. So Titokowaru offered 
in return half-a-crown — two shillings and sixpence — that being the 
amount of cash voted for his military expenditure, and which was 
kept tied up for security in an old shirt, for Sir George Bowen's head. 
No doubt each of these great rangatira warriors knew the value of 
each other's head. But it is strange that pakehas will call them- 
selves Christians and preach Christ to us, and then offer rewards 
for our heads ; but pakehas are strange beings ! Sir George 
Bowen put us in mind of Herodias, who Avished for the head of 
John the Baptist. Only that Herodias was successful in obtaining 
w^hat she wanted, because she knew how to set about it, and Sir 
George Bowen was not, because he didn't. 

Now the remnant of the Pakakohe tribe surrendered to Major 
Noake. They felt no disgrace in doing- this, for they gave in to a 
man who had proved himself a warrior at Balaclava, and were 
not deceived, but were sent to Otago. Another force, commanded 
too by this officer, went up the Waitotara river in canoes, and got 
past Piraunui village and near to Oruanga village, when they met 
a canoe pelting down with three young men in it. Uruti Angina, 
our chief, had, with his people, retired four miles past Oruanga. 
The pakehas fired on this canoe, but the men escaped, and returned 
quickly to their people. Uruti Angina, hearing that the pakehas 
had come so far up the river, took canoes with his men, and went 
to meet them, intending to cut them off overland at the bends of 
this tortuous river ; but, fortunately for them, as not one would 
have returned to tell the tale, they had pulled back. We followed 
them up until we past Te Iringa village, but they had gone. So 
we returned. A few days after this we accepted terms sent to us 
through the AVanganui natives living at Hiruharama, and gave in 
for good. This was the Ngarauru tribe, who have never fought 
against the pakehas since. 



MAORI HISTORY. 549 



CHAPTER XII. 



7 atipo campaign under Colonel McDonnell — Defeat of Te Kooii at Tokano 
and at Porere — Escape of Te Kooti iJito the King Country — 2'he end of 
the zuar. 




E KOOTI, the great warrior, who had so often defeated 
the Europeans, and the trading tribe of Ngati Kahu- 
ngunu at the Wairoa, Mohaka, Wai Kari, and other 
places, had retired into the bush after his defeat at 
Ngatapa by Whitmore. He now went to Taupo with his followers, 
and there came upon a party of troopers at Opepe. These men did 
not recognise them, but mistook them for a party of friendly Arawas. 
Te Kooti seeing this, told his people to get between them and their 
arms. The troopers, fifteen in number, were thoroughly off their 
guard. Te Kooti now gave the signal, and they were all shot 
down but two or three, who managed to escape, and tomahawked. 
It was a great success for Te Kooti. Then he wrote a letter cleverly 
accusing the Arawa of the " massacre," and moved on to Tokano. 
This affair of Te Kooti was only second to his clever "massacre" 
of people at the Mohaka and Wairoa, where he killed over forty 
people. But neither of these affairs, in our opinion as jMaoris, 
came up to the attack on Poverty Bay. That was a great success 
and victory. Te Kooti now surprised Te Heu Heu's settlement at 
Tokano, when he gave them the option of joining him against the 
Arawas and Europeans or being" killed. There was no second 
course with Te Kooti, and the end of it was they all agreed to 
make common cause against the enemy. 

About this time I joined Te Kooti with a few of the Whaka- 
momonis. We all went to Waikato now and tried to induce the 
Waikato tribes to join, and thus pave the way to a rising in that 
district, and there repeat what had been so successful in Poverty 
Bay. But the Waikatos wished to find out first whether Te Kooti's 
atua fgod) was as invincible as he had declared it was. Te Kooti 
replied, "Come with me, and see for yourselves," and Rewi, of the 
Ngatimaniapoto tribe, agreed to return to Tokano with him, when, 
if Te Kooti proved by his valour that his god was really as 
powerful as he had represented, he would assist him with all his 
power, and let him plan out a campaign for Waikato. So Rewi 
and a small following of tried men accompanied Te Kooti back to 
Taupo. On our arrival at Poutu, at the lake of Roto Aira, we 
caught and killed four scouts belonging to the Ngatituwaharitoa 
tribe, of whom Hare Tauteke was the chief. We shot them down 
the morning after we captured them. Te Kooti asked one of these 
men (who had fought well in the Waikato, at Rangiriri, and 



55P MAORI HISTORY, 

Koheroa against the pakeha) if he would join him, and thus save 
his life. We all thought the reply a noble one, though it cost him 
his life : " If you had asked me to join you before 3^ou slew my 
comrades, I might have thougiit about it ; but with those lying 
dead before me, I say that I will not join a tutua (common fellow) 
like you." Te Kooti had him immediately killed, to Rewi's 
disgust, and chopped up, and throAvn, with the others, in a swamp, 
where McDonnell's force afterwards found them, 

We were now informed that the Ngati Kahungunu, under Henare 
Tomoana, had arrived on the banks of the Taupo lake, at a village 
named Taurang-a Taupo, distant from where we were at Tokano 
some fifteen miles. "Oh," said Te Kooti, " Henare Tomoana is 
it r Ugh ! a fat Leicester wether. Ngati Kahungunu are the dust 
under my feet. Let us go and kill them." He was a great warrior 
was Te Kooti. Off we went, and Rewi with us to look on. As we 
got near the Ngati Kahungunu tribe rapidly began to throw up 
earthworks. They turned their horses loose, and those we had 
captured, so they could not gallop off, and had to fight, for Te 
Kooti never gave any quarter, and he hated Ngati Kahungunu. 

By the next morning those fat people (I expect they had never 
worked so hard in their lives before) had erected a palisading, and 
we commenced to attack them. We sapped up to their defences 
from the sides and from the lake. In a few hours we would have 
them, and Rewi looked on approvingly, but they called out to us 
from the inside that IMcDonnell and Renata Kawepo, an old 
warrior, were close on our rear, and that Herrick with the cavalry 
and George with the Arawa tribe were coming up to their assistance 
in front from Runanga and from Tapuwaeharuru ; and while we 
were turning this over in our minds we suddenly saw two mounted 
men on the rise of a hill in front. Thinking these to be the 
advanced guard of Herrick and the Arawa under George we at 
once raised the siege and retired on Tokano, taking all the Ngati 
Kahungunus' horses with us. These two mounted men afterwards 
turned out to be two orderlies from Runanga, and we would have 
had plenty of time to have killed all those fellows had we remained. 
As it was we got all their horses. The next day McDonnell arrived 
at Poutu, Lake Rotoaira. He rode up to Tokano with a few men, 
and we nearly caught him before he discovered who we were. He 
then rode away rapidly to Tauranga Taupo. 

The next day Herrick and George arrived with the Arawa. 
They took possession of Tokano, and we fell back over the ranges 
to Papakai, intending to return and fight directly the weather 
moderated. We commenced the next fight by laying an ambush, 
commanded by Te Heu Heu, for McDonnell, as we found he was 
in the habit of riding from Poutu to Tokano, a distance of about 
twelve miles, sometimes with only one orderly ; but on the day we 
had determined to attack Tokano we commenced firing, so that 
McDonnell could hear and ride in that direction. He soon made 
his appearance with twelve troopers after him. We waited till 
they came up hot with haste, and then fired a volley into them 



MAORT FIT STORY. 551 

from some timber and broken ground, but they dashed past none 
the worse, fired a few pistol shots at us, and joined the Arawa, w'ho 
were now coming to the attack under George, who was cheering- 
them on. Up the hill they came, Ngati Kahungunus' main body 
well in the rear as usual, as Te Kooti remarked. As our people 
fell the Arawa cut their heads off, and held them up for us to see. 
We broke and fled over the ranges back to Papakai, leaving our 
dead and wounded that McDonnell had killed as payment for the 
Poverty Bay massacre and the Opepe troopers. 

The next fight was at the Porere on the Iwituaroa Range, near 
Tongariro ; but Rewi told Te Kooti that he and his gods were 
imposters, and that he had no skill in battle, and returned to 
Waikato in a rage, having lost one man, who would go and 
fight at Tokano. The fight at the Porere was on the 4th of 
October, 1869. This was the last stand-up fight that occurred 
between the Europeans and our race. The battle lasted 
several hours, and we lost very heavily — more than forty killed 
and left on the field and in the pa, and many of us died from 
exposure and from wounds afterwards. The last charge — • 
and many were made, for we fought hara — took the position. 
George, the commander of the Arawas, fell dead, shot by Te 
Kooti ; and Winiata fell too, whose name had reached us for 
bravery. The Wanganui native contingent, under jNIajor Kemp, 
now poured over the parapet of our earthwork in front ; at tha 
same time our pa was stormed from the rear by the Europeans and 
the traitor Arawas, under IMajor Scannell, commanding No. 2 
division of the Armed Constabulary. A terrible revenge was now 
taken by the native contingent for the death of Winiata, and by 
the Europeans and the Arawa tribe for the loss the) had sustained 
in the death of Captain George. No quarter was given by 
]\IcDonnell and his officers ; all went down before the bayonets 
and clubbed rifles. Nearly all our w'omen were captured, 
and were shared between the Arawas and Wanganuis. These 
men fought well under Captain George and Major Kemp, who 
recaptured most of the horses w^e had taken from Henare's men. 
Te Kooti barely escaped with his life, but he got wounded in the 
hand, supposed to be by ]\IcDonnell. Lieutenant Northcroft was 
instrumental in saving Renata Kawepo's life, as one of our women 
had got him down and gouged out one of his eyes and tore his 
ears. But we were beaten, and the pakehas showed us no mercy. 
We were terribly hard put for want of provisions, but we got some 
potatoes from Tuhua. If our enemies had had provisions they 
could have annihilated us ; but one time, as they were quite out 
of food and expecting the convoy to bring them kai (rations) from 
Napier, the convoy came, they rushed to meet it, but it only 
brought candles and soap. Candles and soap ! Nice food for 
warriors to fight on. No wonder they all cursed and swore at the 
way they were treated. But we Avere delighted to hear about this 
and the rotten meat biscuits they had to eat or starve to death. 
They ate horses, ha! ha! ha! How we laughed in Waikato at 



552 MAORI HISTORY. 

the idea of sending a convoy all the way from Napier to Tokano 
with candles and soap, to feed five hundred warriors fighting for 
the peace of the island ! Funny pakehas ! 

After this there was another fight at Tapapa, Avhen Te Kooti 
lost many men and all his pack-horses and pack-saddles in trying 
to surprise McDonnell early one morning at daybreak ; but the 
force were standing to their arms and we were terribly sold. The 
Ngaraurus from Waitotara had joined JMcDonnell to help him 
against us. This fact so disgusted me that I slipped back to 
Waikato. Te Kooti now tried to effect his escape to the Uriwera 
country, and on his way to massacre the Arawa women and children 
who had congregated together for safety at Rotorua. McDonnell 
divined his intention, and dispatched Tawa, Captain Mair, with the 
Arawa warriors to prevent this being carried out. Tawa arrived 
just in time, neatly intercepted him, and slew many of his followers, 
shooting with his own rifle Te Kooti's best man, a half-caste. Te 
Kooti's force hardly could have escaped from the Arawa this time, 
but night fell, and so they got away. Te Kooti now wandered 
about, seeking rest but finding none, for Captain jMair was ever on 
his track. He was attacked several times, but at length effected 
his retreat to Waikato, where he humbly sought .refuge with Rewi 
and the King. 

We have had some great generals and captains, Te Wherowhero, 
of Taupo, who Avith his ow^n hand tomahawked at one time 
over two hundred prisoners taken in war. I can't say whether 
this was before or after he had embraced Christianity. Then 
there was Hongi Hika, Kai Karu, and the other celebrated 
brave warriors ; but the last war with the pakeha proved that the 
same spirit which had actuated our forefathers was still in 
existence, and brought to our help the splendid warrior leaders 
Kereopa, Titokowaru, Te Kooti, and others, of whom it can truly, 
to their praise, be said, that they were true descendants of 
Arohakore, who was " a man without fear." Poor Kereopa was 
betra3'ed in cold blood, and hanged at Napier. What a shame ! 
But the brave warrior Te Kooti has not met with this treatment ; 
thanks to his Tanewha, he has reached a haven of rest. This 
ends the fighting. Soon after this I became converted, and my 
present belief is in Te Whiti and Tohu, who are striving to 
redeem their people from destruction. We have been greatly 
injured by the pakehas, and thousands assembled to crush us 
at Parihaka, led by INIr. Bryce ; but, to save their people, who 
were not allowed to fight with carnal weapons, Te Whiti and 
Tohu gave themselves up. No injury was done to these two 
good men, and shortly afterwards they were returned to us by 
^Ir. Bryce ; and we now await patiently the day when it shall 
please the god of Te Whiti and Tohu to cause the removal of 
all the pakehas, and the lands we have been plundered of will 
be returned to us, but without a renewal of bloodshed. How this 
is to be done none of us know, but we feel that it is sure and certain 
to come at last, for have not Te Whiti and Tohu said so } 



MAORI HISTORY, 553 




CHAPTER XIII. 

Koivhai Xgiilii Kaka's opinions on certain slanders — He vindica/cs his 
ozun race, and offers advice for the future. 

OME time since a pakeha who wishes us well, and whose 
warnings have ever been for our good, wrote a parable — 
a history of a pretended outbreak. The plot was that 
we were made to kill numbers of people, but the result 
told heavily upon us, and in a tight on the slopes of Mount Egmont 
we were all slain ; only one man, the last of our race, was left to 
tell the tale, and then he died too. But even a better organised and 
real plan had been talked about among'st Titokowaru's people. It 
was nipped in the bud, however, by Te Whiti and Tohu. After- 
wards, when this story was explained to us by those of our race 
who could read, with its melancholy ending, we appreciated the 
wisdom of our leaders in abstaining from any more war. We 
heard that this pakeha was much abused for this parable, as it was 
said that he was trying to teach us how to fight, as if, for one 
moment, we required any pakeha to teach us how to go to work. 
But we knew the tale had been written as a warning to us, and 
we knew who wrote it. 

Another work, I believe the last published, relating the doings 
in this country, has been read and explained to me. I am not 
sufficiently acquainted with the disreputable portion of pakeha 
politics to judge the truth of the political part of it ; but it seems 
to me to contain, in the spirit of its writings, a great deal of petty 
slander, and that ignorant kind of Christianity peculiar to the 
pakeha kuias (old women) of Exeter Hall. Therefore I can only 
form my estimate of the whole work by coniT-iring- those portions 
of it that relate to things and incidents I am personally acquainted 
with, and then judging how far the writer has confined him- 
self to fact and truth In the same way, when the writer of 
this book m.akes mention of officers and other gentlemen, whom I 
have first known as brave enemies and afterwards as sincere 
friends, I will not wrap up my speech in raurekau leaves, but say 
that this man Rusden is telling lies ! — lies that possibly were told 
to him (unless he dreamt themj ; but he, not possessing- the 
courage of justice, has not paused to investigate the truth before 
he wrote about the conduct of men in every way his superiors. I 
judge, therefore, of the value of his book, as to its being a truthful, 
reliable history of the past, from that portion of it which I am able 
to understand, and which 1 know to be false. But then I am only 
a New Zealand savage, and therefore am nor well versed in the 



554 MAORI HISTORY. 

doctrine of that kind of Christianity practised among the Christian 
race away from Christ and His glorious charity. 

Now, if that scribbler thought to please us by slandering the 
pakeha chiefs who were leaders against us he has made a great 
mistake in our character. Rusden would, if we had happened to 
tomahawk one of his kith or kin (if he has any), have rubbed noses 
with us, told us we had acted quite right, and have pointed out 
where the others lived so that we might serve them the same. As 
a race w^e respect those who fought against us, hand-to-hand, but 
who always saved life where circumstances (in a European point 
of view) warranted their doing so. Customs differ ; and we kill 
prisoners, such being our rule, as I have before explained in this 
our history. 

After our defeat at Rangiriri, overtures of peace were proposed 
to us ; but though we had lost our pa and many men we never sued 
to the pakeha for peace. To sue for peace is a confession of 
weakness — an acknowledgment that one is beaten. We invariably 
treated all these offers with contempt. Numbers of times the 
pakeha sent heralds of peace to us, proclaimed it (almost without 
our knowledge) in the Gazette, sent flags of truce to us to treat for 
peace, just as if they had experienced all the reverses and losses 
themselves that we had. Why could they not have waited until 
we made signals to that effect ? This persistence irritated us more 
than our defeats had. We tore up their Gazettes, hred upon their 
Hags of truce, and shot and tomahawked their messengers, both 
pakeha and Maori, yet they still persisted. We sustained defeats 
from the Queen's troops and from the colonial troops often ; but we 
had our victories — " massacres " they mostly called them — and yet 
the soldiers gave us no credit for our cleverness ! When they 
hastened to occupy any pa that we had evacuated, after they had 
failed with their appliances to take it from us, such as Wereroa, 
Rangiriri, Paterangi, Pikipiko, Gate Pa, and other places, they 
exclaimed, "Maoris never could have designed these works ; some 
deserter of a sapper or engineer has shown them how to flank this 
angle, make this rifle-pit bomb proof," and so on. And this 
mythical deserter of a sapper, whose name was never heard, got 
the credit of designing our fortifications ! The strange part of it 
was, that they could never make anything half so good for them- 
selves. They built a redoubt on the other side of the Wanganui 
River on the hill, for the settlers to send their families to during 
Titokowaru's raid in 1868. It was never occupied; but the first 
wet day after it was finished all the sides tumbled in. It was the 
same in the Waikato and everywhere else, and then they laid the 
fault on the soil of the country. That they did not know how to 
conquer or manage any of our kuias (old women) would have 
known better. Then only look at the foolish sap carried on by 
them at Taranaki. Truly the empty vanity of the pakeha is 
great. 

The pakeha can beat us in masses, but if the average sing'le 
pakeha meets the average single Maori, each with his own 



MAORI HISTORY. 555 

weapons, our man would, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, 
come off victorious, killing his antagonist each time, and I am 
ready to prove my words against any man of my age any time 
before competent judges. I don't speak of the billiard-playing, 
degraded Maori; I speak of warriors. IIow can ignorant men 
know how to pona, rapa, marangae, or piki a spear ? And 
as for warding off a rallying whakaoho or a Avero, it would be 
ridiculous to see them try it, because they have not been taught 
how. But nothing seems to come to them naturally. They have 
even to be taught how to row in one of their own boats and to 
speak their own language correctly. Then to see some of them 
attempt to paddle a canoe is simply ridiculous to contemplate. 
They are a strange people ! We have been beaten because the 
pakeha outnumbered us in men. But we are not conquered or 
rubbed out, and not one of these pakehas can name the day when 
we, as a race, sued for peace. The most that can be said is that on 
such and such a date we left off fighting. Ilaka ! wah ! ha ! ha ! 
ha ! We can still dance our war-dance ! In what have the pakehas 
proved better than we, or intellectually our superior r 

So, I say, let the pakeha cease to plung-e about in his pride, 
praising himself alone. God will judge all men, Te Whiti and 
Tohu say, in due course of time, and each man will receive the due 
reward of his deeds, be they good or evil ; but as for sanctimonious 
cant and hypocrisy, we don't want that rubbish to interpose 
between the races. Leave us alone, I say, to such meannesses, 
and in time we may learn to respect, if we cannot love, each other. 
Try, O pakeha gentlemen ! those of you whose thoughts and 
"whose talk is not all of bullocks," and whose learning we 
acknowledge, to give us credit for a little common sense. AVe 
contribute largely towards paying the taxes, and we are, we know, 
much plundered. We wish, in our very natural struggle for 
existence, to have a real and not a sham voice in the way we are 
to be governed ; and though we, as a race, are disappearing — such 
being the will of God — yet we still number ov^er 46,000 people 
Do you know the power of passive resistance r We do. You had 
better take a lesson how to overcome that, as you have hitherto 
failed to understand many things connected with New Zealand. 
Who broke the Treaty of Waitangi r Let the Europeans 
know the facts of the past, though that cannot be recalled, 
but let it be remembered in time to come, lest more trouble 
unhappily arise. Note the words of Wiremu Kingi, in his 
letter to the Governor, written in 1859, and quoted by Sir George 
Grey, in 1863. "It was settled so in consequence of your bad 
system of purchasing land. For we had lost numbers of our own 
people through this same land purchasing. Whenever the 
Government shall have laid down some equitable system of land 
purchase, and when calm is once more restored, then the tribes 
who are for selling will sell their lands under a properly registered 
system, etc." The Treaty of Waitangi, as far as any of us can be 
said to have understood it, was not broken by us, but by the 



556 MAORI HISTORY. 

pakeha. By it our rights to all our lands, forests, fisheries, etc., 
etc., were guaranteed in every way, so long as it was our wish 
to retain the same in our possession ; and, in 1859, Wirimu Kingi 
gave notice to the Governor that he would allow no land to be 
sold within forty miles north of the European boundary at 
Taranaki. Contrast these things with the system of land 
purchasing adopted, and then say truly, who broke the Treaty. 
But might is right, and right is right only when it suits might. 

Now, you pakeha who may read this simple but truthful history, 
do not be surprised at the sentiments contained in it. I am aware 
that in many things you, the pakehas, will condemn us, and no 
loyal pakeha will or can say we were right in many things we have 
done. You will say to us, " You murdered innocent women and 
children purposely, though it is true some were killed by us unin- 
tentionally, and some of your women fought against us in the field 
with gun and tomahawk." This is true, I acknowledge, but it was 
our custom so to do, and I know that in relating the past we must 
each tell our history from this point of view, but at all events the 
results were the same to those killed. You, the English nation, 
have given your account of the battle of Waterloo and how you 
won it ; the French nation have given their account of how they 
lost it. But in this point only do the two accounts agree. In all 
the rest they differ. And so it is here. You have written your 
side of the question many times, I have now written ours once. 
Kaati ! Enough, till I write again, or until the god of Te Whiti or 
Tohu return to us all the lands you have robbed us of, and quietly 
but effectually remove you from among'st us. 

KOWHAI NGUTU KAKA. 



Encikut!:! of the ®au 



TALES 



OF 



Maori Kharacter and Customs 



ETC., ETC., ETC. 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL .AIcDONNELL 



OK THK NEW ZEALAND MILITIA. 



HlKI;lan^ 
FI. Brett, Printer .vnd Pl'Bi.isher, SitORTL.Axn Street 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, 



J 



NCIDENTS OF THE 



Wai^. 




AVAS residing in Hawke's Bay in 1862, when hearing that 
a mounted corps was about to be raised in Auckland, to 
be used as a defence force for the colony, I proceeded to 
that town, which was then the seat of Government, to 
offer my services as a colonist in assisting to quell the native 
disturbance, that had from small beginnings now assumed the 
proportions of a war of some mag-nitude, and promised to become 
still greater. Week after week brought news of fresh disasters, 
and of such and such a tribe having joined the King natives, who 
thought that the lands of their ancestors were being wrested from 
them and slipping from their hold, which was sufficient of itself to 
rouse every savage feeling in the breast of the New Zealander. 
Many, no doubt, had private reasons for hating the Europeans, 
but the one absorbing feeling in their hearts was : " Our lands are 
going from us against our wills ! Let us kill every pakeha we 
can. They are but thistles ! Let us cut them down and save 
our country." No one pakeha knew this feeling existed, and had 
existed, among the natives better than I. My knowledge of 
their character was not as poets love to pourtray it, but as 
it really is — nothing worse and nothing better. I had hunted, 
fished, and travelled with them (with all tribes), and had been 
much thrown with them in their districts, kaingas, and pas. I 
had not become acquainted with their character by second-hand 
means or translations through Government or other interpreters, 
few of whom, alas! were then fitted for the very important position 
they filled, and many of whom were only Pakeha-jNIaoris — S(i//s 
culottes — who had private ends to work, w^hich the twisting of 
a sentence would materially aid. A great portion of the misery 
and desolation this country has suffered has been caused by men 
of this description. I repeat, I had not gained my knov.-ledge of 
the natives by these means. I had the advantage of knowing the 
Maori language from childhood thoroughly, and by mixing with 
them had become acquainted with their habits and customs and 
the practical use of their native weapons, which has often proved 
of good service to me. I\Iy father, a captain in the Royal Navy, 
had on certain occasions only one argument. If a native grossly 
insulted either himself or his family he knocked him down. The 
natives understood this argument, which had rarely to be repeated. 



^6o INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

Otherwise he was their friend. No settler was more respected or 
more beloved by the Northern tribes, and the name of " Kapitane" 
(the native name for captain) is, though he is no more, well known 
and remembered in the North. 

On my arrival in Auckland, I called upon the Premier (the Hon. 
A. Domett), from whom I had received much kindness and 
consideration during his residence in Hawke's Bay, where he had 
filled the office of Resident Magistrate. I told him why I had 
come to Auckland, and asked for a commission in the Colonial 
forces, which I understood were about to be raised. Mr. Domett 
told me that the time had not arrived for raising this corps, but 
that, when raised, I should receive a commission in it. In the 
meanwhile he gave me an appointment as interpreter to Mr. 
Lawlor, Resident Magistrate at Coromandel. I thanked Mr. 
Domett, and went to assume my new duties, feeling certain in my 
own mind that this corps, or some corps, must soon be raised, and 
that Mr. Domett would never have promised had he not intended 
to perform. So I left Auckland for Coromandel in high spirits. 
There was little or nothing to do in Coromandel, as everyone was 
too busy to engage much in litigation I managed to arrange 
many matters between Europeans and natives out of Court. It 
answered the purpose quite as well, saved me much trouble, and 
the Resident Magistrate much annoyance. I used to occupy much 
of my spare time in digging in a creek for gold, in company with 
some friends. It put me in mind of my digging days in Australia, 
and served to kill time. AVe used to work hard to keep the claim 
dry ; but at last we bottomed the creek. ]\Iy share of the expenses 
came to thirty pounds ; there were five of us. The result of our 
labour we looked upon with no small pride, for, under a strong 
magnifying glass, it looked very rich, the point of the penknife 
which held it looking like a broad bar of steel covered with huge 
nuggets of gold. One of my mates, a careless sort of fellow, 
opened the door of the room we were in, and a puff of wind flew 
away with our riches. Our party broke up, we dug no more, 
though I am certain there is plenty of gold in that creek. If 
any one disputes this he can go there and try for himself. 

Several months flew by, when the whole of Coromandel was 
placed in a state of ferment by the receipt of the news of 
the diabolical murder of Traggett and Hope, who were killed 
by an ambuscade on the West Coast, near New Plymouth, 
with several others. This happened in May, 1863. Soon after- 
wards the Defence Force was raised, a splendid fellow appointed 
to command, and I' received my commission, giving me the rank 
of sub-inspector in the same corps. My friend Von Tempsky 
received an ensign's commission, and raised a corps of Forest 
Rangers. Lieutenant Jackson raised a similar body, and these 
two corps, and the names of their two skilful leaders, Jackson and 
Von Tempsky, are entwined with the history of New Zealand. 
Jackson and Von Tempsky will ever be remembered. I joined 
our headquarters at Otahuhu, some eight miles from Auckland, 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 561 

and was there introduced to my Ijrothor officers, and our major, 
and commanding ofificer. The corps consisted of two troops of 
fifty each ; each troop was under an experienced officer — Captain 
Wahnsley and Captain Pye, V.C. — and there were two sub- 
inspectors to each troop. A gentleman named ]\Ir. Mair was 
attached to us as interpreter. AVe all soon became fast friends, 
and I look back with feelings of pleasure and pride to the many 
pleasant hours we all spent together. Alas ! how many of those 
gallant settlers have fallen in seeking to restore peace to their 
adopted country. 

RECONNOITRING THE REBEL <CKl\V AT PAPARATA. 

Camp life during our stay at Selby's farm was very monotonous. 
A parade in the morning, a walk round our horses at stables, and 
now and then a light puff of blue smoke, accompanied by the faint 
sound of a shot from the high wooded range about Queen's Redoubt, 
fired by some of the enemy's scouts, showing that every movement 
in our camp was watched with the eye of a hawk, were almost the 
only break in our camp life. It was a weary time. AVe were 
forbidden to stray from camp, as the enemy were always on the 
look-out to cut off stragglers, and many an unfortunate man met 
his fate quite unexpectedly and unprepared in this way ; but in 
spite of such sad warnings these orders were not too strictly obeyed. 
I believe I felt the inaction more than the majority of us. I was 
unaccustomed to confinement, and loved to roam in the woods, and 
being an expert bushman I had little fear of being surprised. In 
a rather melancholy humour one afternoon I started for a prowl by 
myself, and ascended the hill at the rear of our camp that over- 
looked the broad river AVaikato, and where I could obtain a 
bird's-eye view of the valley below and the country to the right, 
where the river sailed on to the sea. Gaining the summit of the hill, 
I sat down, and taking out a glass I had borrowed from our Colonel, 
commenced to take a survey of the country. The enemy's strong- 
hold, Paparata, I could see remarkably well from my position, and 
on closely examining the earthworks, distant about twelve miles, I 
formed a resolve to scout up to the position and obtain intelligence 
that was much wished for, and report to the General for his infor- 
mation. I took another long look, and, full of ideas, retraced ;.iy 
steps to our camp, not knowing how best to frame my request to 
our Colonel. I sought advice from my old friend Von Tempsky, 
who promised to do all in his power to obtain permission if I would 
promise him one thing in return, his request being that he should 
accompany me. This being agreed upon, we started together in 
search of Colonel Nixon and laid the matter before him. For a 
long time he would hear nothing of it, and withheld his consent 
to speak to the General, pleasantly remarking that we were too 
valuable officers to lose. He said that Sir Duncan never would 
give his consent, that he had reconnoitred the position before 
with a large body of troops, and had thought it best to let it 

U* 



562 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

alone for the present. After much persuasion, the fine old 
fellow promised to see about it the next morning, but gave 
it as his opinion that the General would not allow us to risk our 
lives. I thought differently, and that any information about 
Paparata would be very acceptable, as he wanted information. 
Next day Von Tempsky and I were requested to attend at head- 
quarters at I p.m., when, introduced by our Colonel, we met the 
chief, who told us the heads of the information he wished for, and 
gave his permission for us to go, and wished us a safe return. 
We received a letter to the officer who commanded at the next 
post to allow us to pass, and early the following morning we 
started. Our reception here was very ungracious, and we were 
forced to quit the camp before dark, and march to Koheroa, 
a post some seven miles olf, and out of our way. The road 
between the two posts was only used by strong escorts,, and a 
corporal of the i8th had been waylaid a week before, having 
ventured alone to start to walk the distance, and was tomahawked 
by the natives. However, we reached Koheroa safely about 
3 p.m., and met with a hearty welcome from the garrison, who 
proved old acquaintances of mine. We had scarcely got rid ot 
the dust of our march when liis Excellency Sir George Grey and 
Sir Duncan and staff arrived in camp. Sir Duncan was surprised 
to see us here out of our road ; but I informed him of the 
cause. The following day we took notes of the country, 
and made ourselves as familiar as we could with the position 
of the hills and general features of the neighbourhood, so as 
to be prepared for any emergency that might happen to us. 
We then returned to camp, and after partaking well of our 
friends' hospitality, we started at dusk on our enterprise. 
We had to retrace the steps we had come some six miles along a 
razor-backed ridg-e, with gullies and swamp on either side — the 
very places for ambuscades ; and supposing scouts to have been 
out that evening, they must have seen our figures against the sky. 
This idea gave us much anxiety afterwards. In a short time we 
came to the branch track leading in the direction of Paparata, 
now about seven miles distant. The country was quite level up to 
it, with the exception of a few small gullies. A very large swamp 
was to our left hand, backed by a high wooded range, intersected 
with deep ravines running into the swamp. To our right was the 
road we had just come along, the Waikato River, and the enemy's 
position at Meremere. Before us lay Paparata. The path we 
were now on was scarcely discernible, it being very dark, and at 
times, we could scarcely tell if we were off or on the track, but by 
keeping the night air on our left cheek, and stooping down now 
and agam to feel for the road, we moved slowly along. Any tree 
and dark object was carefully approached, lest it should prove 
an enemy. Our object was to avoid a meeting, if possible, for 
many reasons, and we did not know but that we might fall 
in with scouts sent to shoot stragglers and pick up infor- 
mation. Presently we heard the buglers at Queen's Redoubt 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 563 

sound the last post, the echoes replying and dying away in 
the ranges. All again was still, and nothing broke the silence 
but the boom of the bitterns from the swamp — a rather melancholy 
sound at any time. Perhaps it was not till now I fully realised 
the risk of what we had volunteered to perform. Onward we 
went, gradually nearing- our destination. We had gone over 
six miles, when we came to a little swamp, over which we had to 
pass. Pungas were growing in the middle of it, and in the dark 
we mistook these for a picket of the enemy. We crept up on 
hands and knees, and to our no small satisfaction found our 
mistake. We had made up our minds for a small fight if there 
proved occasion for it, but, of course, anything in this way would 
have spoilt the object in view. We crosocd over and entered a 
broad track, fenced in on both sides with toitoi and flax. On our 
right was a long narrow clump of forest. We passed a small 
village on our right, and could detect the odour of the cooking 
ovens of the inmates. We continued on for about 500 yards, now 
and then getting into clear patches of grass and clover. 

Presently we heard voices approaching, so we began to retrace 
our steps till we could get to one side and allow the natives to pass 
us ; but we had not gone far when we heard other voices 
approaching in what had been our rear. " We are in for it now," 
I whispered to Von Tempsky, and it struck us both that we had 
been seen by scouts as we had passed over the razor-backed ridge 
before mentioned, and that we ■« ere in rather a mess, and were 
being hunted. One chance seemed open — to leave the path and 
strike for the narrow belt of forest. This we did, and went a short 
distance and sat down to rest for awhile. The two parties of 
natives met nearly opposite to where we were seated, muttered a 
few words too indistinct for us to understand, and then they moved 
off in the direction we had been g-oing. We remained quiet for a 
short time, but, as we commenced to move off again, the day began 
to break, and cocks to crow all round us. We did not know where 
we had got to. About this time I was lying on my back, when I 
imagined I saw a man standing over me. I fancied I recognised 
the features of a hali-ca^te named George Clarke, a noted character 
in Hokianga. I had presented my pistol, and in another moment 
would have pulled the trigger, when the figure faded away, the 
object taking its real form, a koromiko bush. For the time I could 
have sworn it was a man. I suppose the strain on the nerves 
caused this strange hallucination. 

We now heard a horseman approaching, and presently a native 
galloped past on a grey horse. A brute of a dog yelped at his 
heels. The dog stopped close to where we lay. He evidently 
scented mischief, and was trying to attract attention to it ; but at 
last he obeyed a shout from his master and made after him, a great 
relief to us. It was now light enou-h to distinguish objects more 
plainly. The flax we found ourselves hidden in was about four feet 
high. This was all the shelter wq had, and to our disgust we found 
it would be impossible to gain the forest without being seen by the 



564 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

natives, some of whom were on the alert. Our position was such 
that we required to use the greatest caution lest we should be 
discovered. We were in a small piece of flax swamp that stood in 
the centre of a level bit of country, showing a very different aspect 
to what it had borne as we had marched on it by night. I stood 
upright to get a good view of the position, when Von Tempsky 
gave me a tug. I turned, and he pointed silently to a native 
standing about twenty paces from us, holding a bright double- 
barrelled gun in his hands. I at once threw myself down on the 
ground. Fortunately he had not seen us. After the sun had risen 
we took another view. Good heavens ! we were almost in the 
centre of the natives, and on two sides of us, and about 500 or 600 
yards off, were newly-dug rifle pits, and some earthworks, and new 
roughly-made whares. 

"After the natives have had their breakfast," whispered Von 
Tempsky, " they will find us out, old fellow." 

" Very likely," I replied ; " some horrid hag will be coming to 
cut flax and discover us hidden here. Of course she will yell out 
her discovery, other natives will come up, and we will be toma- 
hawked." 

We resolved, should we be discovered, to fire right and left and 
make a dash for it as well as we could. Von Tempsky, I could see, 
was thinking of his wife and little ones. I blamed myself for 
bringing him. It did not at that time so much matter for myself. I 
had no one to care for me. Having arrived at the conclusion that we 
were in what the Yankees term a ''considerable fix," we determined 
to make the best of it, and commenced our breakfast off biscuit, 
two cakes of chocolate, and a tin of kippered herrings, and prepared 
for what might happen. The natives were all now on the stir, and 
after their morning meal a certain proportion commenced work at 
the pits (the pa was on the hill above us), others making speeches ; 
and we gathered that a large body of natives had arrived the 
previous day from Meremere to talk affairs over with the men at 
Paparata. Some natives now began catching pigs, and sometimes 
a porker would dash close by us, pursued by all the curs in the 
place. We dared not stir, and at times our very breath seemed 
suspended, our nerves were strung to the uttermost, and several 
times I was on the point of rushing out and having the suspense 
over. Anything was better, so it seemed, to silent endurance. The 
wind, now proving our best friend, continued to rise, and soon 
increased to a gale, and rain fell in torrents, continuing without 
intermission all day, and to this change in the weather, thank God, 
we owe our lives. The little hollow where we lay commenced to 
fill with water, which soon rose five or six inches. The high wind 
beat down the flax, so w^e could not sit upright, but had to lie on 
our sides in the water, keeping ourselves dry as we best could. It 
was trying work. For twelve long hours we were forced to keep 
this position, every moment expecting to be found out. At last 
the day passed away into night and the rain ceased. We tried to 
resume our sitting posture, but we were so cramped we could hardly 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 565 

effect this. After chafing our limbs as well as we could we prepared 
for our return. We had run the risk, but had gained a considerable 
part of our object, and had a tolerably correct estimate of the 
enemy's strength, and from speeches we had heard we collected 
a certain amount of information needless to repeat. 

We now commenced our return, and after re-crossing tlie swamp 
with the punga roots we waited a short time, thinking the man 
who had ridden away in the morning might return. Luckily for 
him, or maybe for ourselves, he did not make his appearance. 
We resumed our journey, and reached Koheroa about one a.m. 
Captains Phelps, R. Langtree, Green, and Picard, of the Artillery, 
were anxiously waiting up for us, and had almost given us up for 
lost. Captain Phelps was afterwards killed at Rangiriri, and 1 
lost a dear friend. Langtree, too, has also gone to his long home. 
Wherever Green and Picard may be, I trust they are as happy as 
1 wish them to be. The next day we returned to Queen's Redoubt 
and headquarters, reporting ourselves and the result of our trip to 
the General, who was pleased to thank us for the service by letter 
and in general orders. Our dear old Colonel was delighted to see 
us safe back, and threw up his cap and cheered ; indeed our welcome 
back to camp was very flattering to us. So began and ended our 
trip to Paparata. The enemy shortly afterwards evacuated the 
position, in reality not a very strong one. Colonel Nixon, beloved 
by all those who knew him, met his death-wound some months 
afterwards at the fight and taking of Rangiaoahia, and this country 
sustained in him the loss of one of its bravest and best leaders. 
My friend and comrade Von Tempsky has also met his fate at the 
hands of the Hauhaus, shot dead in action at Te Ngutu-o-te-AIanu. 
I have gone through much, yet I am still here ; and 1 often, when 
musing with myself, think with softened feelings of those dead and 
gallant friends of mine who have gone, but whom 1 some day hope 
to meet again. 

THE BATTLE OF RANGIRIRI. — GENERAL CAMERON'S BRAVERY. 

Soon after our return from Paparata, No. i troop, under Captain 
Walmsley, was ordered to accompany a force of regulars to the 
Thames, who were to march across the country from there and 
get to the rear of the Paparata. We marched to Auckland and 
shipped our horses on board the steamer Cairo. The Forest 
Rangers accompanied the expedition, which sailed from Auckland 
to the Firth of the Thames in five steamers, two of which were 
men-of-war — the Esk, commanded by Captain Hamilton, and the 
Miranda, commanded by Captain Jenkins. A heavy gale brought 
us to anchor near Mareitai. During the time we were anchored 
here, we heard of the- storming of Rangiriri, the fortifications of 
which pa were constructed with much skill and care. Our troops 
suffered severely. General Cameron exerted himself to the utmost, 
regardless of his person. "Let us kill the General," said the 
natives; "he is too much for us;" and many a gun was levelled 



566 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

at him ; but the natives then were indifferent marksmen, and 
happily the General escaped. I notice a singular error in a work 
on New Zealand (" New Zealand — Past, Present, and Future," by- 
Missionary Taylor), in which, referring to Sir Duncan Cameron 
in this very fight, it states that " the General exposed himself, and 
the natives might have killed him, but, in admiration of his 
boldness, said, ' Don't shoot him ; he is a brave man.' " But the 
natives of New Zealand, although capable of admiring a brave 
man, will nevertheless, if he is opposed to them in fight, shoot 
him if they can, like sensible fellows. Captain ]\Iercer, R.A., 
Lieutenants Davis and Alexander of the j\Ii'randa, lost their lives 
at the storming of this place. Many a brave fellow bit the dust 
that day. The natives lost one hundred and ninety men, and about 
one hundred and eighty surrendered, and were placed on board 
a hulk in the Auckland harbour. The expense of keeping them 
there must have been something considerable. Bread and meat 
of the best description, port, sherry, brandy, and beer were 
provided, besides sago, sugar, jams, sardines, potted meats, and 
butter. The butter being- found fault with (I have been glad to 
eat worse), pots of the best Scotch marmalade were substituted. 
They lived well. By Jove they did ! — that is if they got all these 
good things. Many visited the hulk to see the prisoners and 
learn Maori ! 

LIFE AT SURREY REDOUBT. — LOOTING HORSES. 

The weather having cleared up, we weighed anchor, and steamed 
for the Thames. The force disembarked, and we marched to 
Wainongo, over the hills, taking it in rear. Major Drummond Hay 
acting as our guide. This settlement was deserted, but the rebels 
had made preparations for our reception, if we had tried to effect a 
landnig- in the boats in front, rifle-pits having' been dug in the 
scrub that fringed high-water mark, and newly-cut boughs of trees 
had been artfully stuck in the ground, in front of the pits, so 
as to hide them, and to appear as if they were simply bushes that 
had grown there. We erected a redoubt at this settlement, and 
christened it the Miranda. Herds of cattle roamed the neighbour- 
hood, and many a capital hunt we had, spearing and shooting the 
bulls. This was at last attempted to be stopped, but the temptation 
was too strong for some of us. Our horses would stray over the 
ground occupied by the cattle, men were sent to look for them, 
and this nearly always ended in a cattle hunt. The force now 
moved on. Not a rebel was seen, but there were plenty of tracks, 
and we wondered where the Maoris had vanished to. We 
camped on some rising ground that commanded a good view. 
Here another redoubt was erected named the Esk. We moved 
onward again, and finally camped on a hill above Paparata, from 
where we could see Queen's Redoubt and the broad, clear river 
Waikato. Paparata had been left by the natives, who had got 
intimation of the force in rear of them. The rebels were very 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 567 

daring in their attempts to gain information. I know for a fact 
that natives used to leave Paparata and go through the forest, 
keeping on the ranges, coming out at a flat bush near Otahuhu. 
They would remain in this bush till nightfall, and then find a way 
over the fields into Auckland, purchase tobacco and newspapers, 
see their friends, and return the same way they came. 

A redoubt was erected at Paparata named the Surrey. A series 

of operations now commenced of hunting up the enemy; but most 

of them had cleared out and gone up the Waikato. I here amused 

myself by looting several horses, which I managed to pass on to 

Auckland. Many a hand-gallop I had on my trusty horse 

Retribution. One evening I had secured a fine chestnut mare, 

five years old, and a perfect picture, worth forty guineas to anyone. 

A certain officer — a colonel — sent his groom to me to ask if I 

would sell this horse and name the price. I mentioned £t^o, and 

I would give a week's trial, or a four-mile gallop with any horse. 

After dark I was in my tent when the Colonel came to me. I 

invited him in, and he produced a bottle of brandy — a very scarce 

article with us subalterns. The Colonel placed the brandy, 

corked, on the ground, and spoke pleasantly. " I wish for tho 

mare you have looted ; I want her for my wife, and will give you 

£^ for her." I laughed. " She is worth £^0, Colonel. You shall 

have her for /^30." " No, no," he replied. " If General Carey 

knew you had been looting horses he would be very savage. You 

had better let me have the mare. I will give you £■] for her.' 

j\Iy friend was now desired to draw the cork of the brand}'. 

" Now, about the mare ; you had wiser, by far, let me have her." 

" You can have the mare, Colonel, for £'^o, and not a penny less." 

"Very well," said he, " all loot horses will have to be given up to 

the transport corps, to-morrow," and he flung himself out of the 

tent. We kept the brandy. If he had asked me for the mare 

politely, I would have made her a present to him, but I was not to 

be frightened into selling her. Feeling that the Colonel would 

make good his threat on the morrow, I resolved to lose no time. I 

saddled my horse quickly, and, taking a trusty man with me, led 

the horses round and galloped to Queen's Redoubt, passed the 

sentries at a gallop, with " Officers' horses, to be shod," and 

placed them in a fair way of being forwarded to Auckland, 

returning myself to the Surrey Redoubt in the morning. I was at 

the stables when a groom came up to me. " Compliments, sir, 

from Colonel , and he will give you £\o for the mare." 

" My compliments back to your master, but the mare and all the 
loot horses galloped last night in the direction of the Queen's 
Redoubt. Your master had better send you after them." The 
mare brought me £10 by auction. I looted a fine black horse a 
day or two after this, and presented him to lirigadier-General 
Carey, who commanded the expedition, and I believed it carried 
him well afterwards. 

A strong garrison was placed in charge ot the Surrey Redoubt, 
and I was sent to Armitage's farm, on the bank of the Waikato 



568 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

river, with twenty-five men, where a detachment of the 14th 
Regiment was stationed. The remainder of the Defence Force, 
under Major Nixon, moved to Whatawhata, on the Waipa, a 
brancli of the river Waikato, I had little or nothing to do at 
Armitage's farm. I detested the place. We had to provide orderlies 
to carry despatches, a work the men hated. The commissariat for 
the troops and officers' messing went up by boats, principally 
manned by sailors of Her Majesty's ships of war ; and fine pickings 
these fellows got. There was a low wooded island in the middle 
of the river. Here the sailors used to land and overhaul the stores. 
INIany a case of brandy, Avine, and now and then champagne, were 
confiscated by them ; and the rum — the fellows used to drink it as 
only British sailors know how. " Hang- the old Commodore ; tap 
another cask. Jack," said they. They had what is called "plants" 
on the river bank, and well Jack remembered them. They worked 
hard though, and were often wet through to the skin. 

One morning some of the enemy's horse were reported on the 
other side of the river. We made a party up of two officers of the 
14th, myself, and a couple of men, and went across the river. The 
horses gave us the slip and galloped away. One fine horse, however, 
continued galloping along the bank until he reached the margin of 
the Mission Station at Kaitotehe, and jumped into a large orchard 
there. " Now we have him," I cried, and we paddled the canoe up 
the river, then landed and went after him. Now it so happened 
that a certain naval officer was at this time stationed at Kaitotehe, 
and had made it a practice, when any unfortunate devil of a sailor 
or marine looted a horse or found a piece of greenstone, to take 
both horse and greenstone from him. We had heard of this, and 
here the}^ all were, supposed to be guarded by a sailor whom vre 
found up a tree eating cherries. " Are they all the loot horses ?" 
I inquired. " They are," replied the man, swallowing a mouthful of 
cherries, stones and all ; " I have to do guard over them and the 
fruit." I determined to take all the horses, and we sent them gallop- 
ing down the river bank. My friends jumped into the canoe, and I 
with two men ran after the horses, and with some trouble got them 
safely across to Armitage's. We had fifteen. They had all 
belonged to the enemy, excepting a grey mare, the property of the 
missionaries. We had ten good horses, five yearlings and foals. 
We gave six horses to the men and kept the other four. The 
yearlings and foals were a nuisance ; what to do with them we did 
not know. 

The next morning an orderly rode up and handed me a note 
demanding the horses. " What horses r " " The loot," replied the 
man, grinning-. " Then you will not have them," I said. He 
rode back, and I received a letter threatening to report me to 
(ieneral Cameron. In the meanwhile we sent our horses to 
Auckland and sold them. I now received a letter from head- 
quarters, telling me to deliver up the property of ]\Ir. , the 

'missionary. I sent back the grey mare, which we had no intention 
of keeping, and I sent word the yearlings and foals would follow 



INCIDENTS OF HIE WAR, 569 

the next day. Two mounted men came up to fetch the yearlings 
and foals, but they, as soon as they got out of the yard, plunged 
into the Waikato and swam across the river. No more corres- 
pondence on the subject took place that I know of. I believe it 
created much amusement at headquarters, and gladdened the hearts 
of the sailors who had been done. I gave them a fair proportion 
of what the horses had fetched as their share. 



THE FIGHT AT RANGIAOHIA. — DEATH OF COLONEL NIXOX. 

At length I received instructions to join our headquarters with 
my detachment. Never was an order more cheerfully obeyed, and 
soon we joined the troops under General Cameron at Te Rorc, 
where the pas of Te Rangi and Pikopiko were, two of the most 
formidable pas I had ever seen. After the loss of life at Rangiriri 
the General was reluctant to storm these pas in front, and having 
procured guides, determined to march to the rear of them by Te 
Awamutu at night. Preparations were made ; a large force told 
off of foot and horse; a troop of mounted artillery were under 
Lieutenant Bate, R.A. ; Von Tempsky's and Jackson's Rangers, 
and our Defence Force — the whole comprising 1,200 men. On 
Saturday evening after dark the forces fell in. The strictest silence 
was enforced as we moved off parade, the General commanding in 
person. Our guides led us over hills and through valleys. I was so 
fatigued that I slept half the night in the saddle as we moved slowly 
on. As we neared Te Awamutu the sun rose on a glorious morning, 
fresh and fair ; but there was little time given for thought. Our 
corps was ordered to the front, and as we passed the mission station 
at Te Awamutu, every house of which was familiar to me, the 
order was given to advance and capture the village of Rangiaohia, 
two miles ahead. " Forward ! trot !" A few more minutes — I 
knew the ground well — and we would be there. The native village 
rapidly came in sight. I was close to our major. He gave the 
word "Charge!" and we galloped up. A few natives rushed out 
of their whares, firing their guns at us, and then ran to the right 
and left over the kumera and corn plantations ; our men pursuing 
them. One fellow I singled out was running slowly towards a 
large peach grove ; he reached it about six horses' lengths before 
me, slowly turned round, dropped on one knee, shouted " Kia 
mate " (for death), and fired. The ball passed by me, and before 
he could rise I fired at him with my revolver. I now found myself 
rather detached from my comrades, but a hundred yards or so to 
my left I saw half-a-dozen of our fellows cutting at something with 
their sw^ords I g'alloped up, and the following scene was taking 
plac(i : — The men had surrounded a small peach tree, rather tall, 
and the branches of which spread out some distance from the 
stem. A single native held the stem of the young and pliant tree 
with both hands, and was jumping from side to side, using the tree 
to keep off the horses, and twisting to avoid the cuts which were 



570 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

being- made at him. His activity was extraordinary. As I got 
close up I determined to save him ; this, from my eye, he must 
have divined, for he made a feint, a dive under a horse's belly, 
avoiding two cuts made at him, and, with a leap like a kangaroo, 
lit on my saddle bow, clasping me round the shoulders. The 
violence of the shock, for which my horse and myself were not 
prepared, threw the animal right back on his haunches. " I will 
save you," I cried; "but jump off, quick!" He did so, but held 
my leg tightly with one hand, beseeching with the other. I sent 
the men away to look for more natives. After a pause I looked 
round, but could see no one in sight, though firing was going on. 
I now asked the j\Iaori where his gun was, as he had a couple of 
cartridge boxes on. He pointed out some docks, and said it was 
there. I told him to fetch it, but jjromised to shoot him if he 
played any tricks. He brought me his arms, and I then desired 
him to fetch my horse round to where my own people were. So 
we went on for about six hundred yards, until we came to a group 
of our men who had dismounted. I gave them the prisoner, and 
inquired where our colonel was. They pointed to the other side 
of an enclosure containing some huts, and I saw Colonel Nixon, 
"Walmsley, Pye, Bowen, AVilson, and Alair standing with a few 
men on the other side. Leaving my horse here I sprang over the 
fence, and advanced through the huts towards them. They waved 
me back and shouted, but I could not hear what they said, and 
kept on. As I passed one of the whares, in the low doorway I 
noticed a trooper — as I thought — kneeling and looking in; but as 
I passed before the door several shots were fired at me. One 
glance now showed me that the trooper was dead, and the hut 
occupied by IMaoris. I quickly ran forward. The colonel had only 
just come up with the others as I had appeared, and now 
requested Captain Walmsley and myself to come with him and 
charge the hut — a low, slabbed whare, about five feet high, with 
sloping roof. The doorway we were going to charge could 
only have been entered in a stooping position. It was almost 
certain death, but I could not argue the point. I advised 
our Colonel (Nixon) to take off his scabbard, which he did, 
and we advanced, revolver in hand, round the corner of the hut, 
Nixon leading. A flash, a report, and our gallant and beloved 
commander fell back in our arms. We carried him out of the 
line of fire, and laid him on the grass. I cannot describe the great 
sorrow felt. At last he rallied a little, and I went for some water, 
and was returning when two natives made after me. I, however, 
gave them the slip. Our Colonel had been hit in the left side, the 
bullet passing through his body, and breaking two of his ribs. 
Our men, now in a fury at seeing the Colonel fall, rushed the 
house, but were driven back from the low doorway. A sharp fire 
from the house kept the place. The Rangers now came up, and 
at it we went again. Bang ! bang ! two more fellows dead ; 
another charge, two more fallen. The floor of the house was two 
feet below the level ; it was a covered in rifle-pit. Tlie Imperial 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 571 

troops now came up ; ' they ordered us to stand back. They 
charged the house, but it was of no use : they were beaten back. 
One man made a rush forward, and put his head in at the door, 
but staggered back with a ball through his head. Strange to say, 
this man (65th Regiment) lived a week. Someone now set the 
thatch on fire. Volley after volley was poured into the hut, and 
we concluded that all had been killed inside, when a naked little 
child, about four years old, darted out of the burning whare, and 
rushed first to one side and then to the other, its large brown eyes 
dilated with terror as it dashed about, trying to escape, like a wild 
bird. Several shots were fired, but the men, in their excite- 
ment, did not know what they were firing at. At last, seeing that 
escape was impossible, and being exhausted, the child sank down 
on its knees by a young bush, as if appealing for its protection, 
and, covering its eyes with its baby hands, sat panting. ]\Ir. 
Mair wrapped it in a great-coat, and the men put biscuits before 
it. The child gazed from one to the other, trying every now and 
then to repress a deep sob. At last it looked shyly at the food, 
and presently commenced to eat heartily. x\nother rush from the 
burning house, and a man came out. Many shots were fired, and I 
and Von Tempsky could hear the thud of the balls as they struck 
him. He staggered and reeled, and the firing ceased. The IMaori 
lifted his head and gave one earnest look around, as if bidding us 
a mournful farewell, then taking up the corner of the half-burned 
blanket he had on, he covered his face and lay down and died. 

The troops now fell in, and marched back to Te Awamutu. ]\Ir. 
]\Iair, ]\Iajor D. Hay, a half-caste lad, who had acted as guide, 
and myself, rode towards a house I had remarked, built in 
European style, and near a grove of trees. We had noticed a 
little white flag flying from the roof. We dismounted, fastened 
up our horses, and I knocked at the door, which was locked. I 
heard whispering inside, and called out in Maori to open the door. 
The bolt was withdrawn, and we entered. There were about 
thirty young women and girls inside, some of whom I knew. 
jNIost of them were crying. I requested Hay to ride after the 
troops, and inquire what the General wished done with these 
women. He left, but did not return. I told the women that they 
had no cause to be frightened, gave them what tobacco I had in my 
pouch, and shook hands with them. They begged me not to make 
them prisoners. The half-caste guide now spoke to them. "You 
dog," said the women, "you slave; you led the pakeha to 
kill your mother, your sister, and," holding up a pretty 
little girl, "your cousin, too. .Stand off! stand away!' It 
suddenly struck me we had better clear off. All the troops had 
gone, and some natives would be sure to return. We wished the 
women good-bye, mounted our horses, and rode up to the 
smouldering whares ; but we were glad to turn away. Mr. 
Hale's body, that had been drawn inside the hut, was burnt into a 
cinder ; only his feet were left in his boots. We now heard natives 
entering the house we had just left ; so we galloped after the 



572 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

troops. Our corps camped in the graveyard of Te Awamutu, and 
I slept wrapped in my plaid, the grave of some infant serving me 
for a pillow, I was tired out, and slept as soundly as the ashes 
that reposed beneath me. 

We rose early next morning to bury our dead. There were two 
brothers in our corps, one a sergeant, the other a private, named 
Alexander, and they were much attached to each other. One ot 
them, the private, had been shot before the hut and was buried with 
the other dead. The sergeant swore to be avenged. He had not 
long to wait. The news of our attack on Rangiaohia had been 
rapidly conveyed to the pas of Te Rangi and Pikopiko. The 
natives, furious at being outwitted, and goaded to desperation at 
their beautiful and pet district round Te Awamutu and Rangiaohia 
being in our hands, turned to drive us back. The King's force now 
evacuated their pa, and marched at night by the broad dray track 
to Rangiaohia, where, if they had been doubting whether to attack 
us or not, the charred remains of the village destroyed the day 
before caused them to hesitate no longer. We had taken possession 
of the district on Sunday. On the INIonday morning following 
they made a desperate effort to regain what had passed away from 
them for ever. Our camp at Te Awamutu was protected by 
strong- pickets. One of these pickets, about ten a.m. on Monday, 
was attacked. The sentries on duty held their ground, and the 
enemy drew off to return in greater numbers. The trumpet sounded 
" Boot and saddle," and in a few moments we were all mounted on 
parade, and moved off under the command of Captain Walmsley. 
The General rode with us to where two roads met. The enemy 
had taken possession of a double ditch and bank that ran along the 
top of a rise. We were ordered to gallop past this bank and take 
up some ground to the right. This order was carried out under a 
heavy fire from the embankment as we thundered past. Where 
we were going to and what we were about to do I knew no more 
than a child. The thick yellow dust that rose in clouds prevented 
me from seeing anything, and nearly choked me. We pulled up in 
some ti-tree, where we dismounted. The 50th and 65th now came 
up, and as they prepared to charge the ditch and bank from which 
the natives (several hundred) were firing rapidly, we remounted 
and waited for the order to charge. One of Bates' men, a few 
paces from me, suddenly tumbled from his horse, shot through 
the head. The Imperial troops fixed bayonets and, cheering 
loudly, rushed up the rise, our force following them slowly. 
A few hot moments passed, several men and officers went down, 
and the Maoris left their position, running down the other side of 
the rise into a raupo swamp, nearly dry, and a number of them took 
to the right and left Had the soldiers, after driving the rebels 
from the ditch, continued in pursuit, instead of halting to form up, 
they might have killed a great many of the rebels. The cavalry 
divided, No. i taking one direction, and No. 2, thirty strong, taking 
another. Sergeant Alexander cut down two of the enemy, and so 
avenged his brother's death. One native fired off his musket at 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 573 

me about a yard off. I just got singed. I shot him with my 
revolver, and got one good clip at another fellow, just as he was 
about to shoot a man named Wyatt, since drowned at Alanawapo, 
Patea district, while carrying despatches. These thirty had knocked 
over eleven, wounding many more, who, however, managed to gain 
a rough piece of bush close by. We ought now to have pushed on, 
but were ordered to halt. I dismounted to secure a flint musket, 
when hearing a native groan near me, I turned to look at him. He 
was lying on his back, with a severe sabre wound on his head, and 
a thrust through the chest, from which the blood was oozing. I 
poured some spirits down his throat, which seemed to revive 
him a little, and placing some leaves under his head for a pillow, 
1 left him. 

The General and staff now rode up, and I was directed to come 
with them. I rode with the staff for about an hour, when I 
managed to secure another horse for myself. The enemy had lost 
considerably, and we had a few killed, and many more wounded. 
A strong- force was posted on the side by the ditch and bank, and 
we returned to Te Awamutu just before sunset. I was going 
down to the river to bathe, when I happened to remember the 
wounded man I had seen. Bishop Selwyn, who had, I suppose, 
marched from Te Rore wnth us, asked whereabouts the native was 
lying. I volunteered to accompany His Lordship and point out 
the spot. We rode out to the scene of the late fight, and hunted 
about everywhere, but I could not find the man. He must have 
crawled towards ihe bush on our left. The Bishop called out in 
Maori, " It is I — the Bishop ! Any wounded man come out — be 
not afraid ! " I shouted, too, with all my might. We proceeded 
to the edge of the bush and looked in. I strongly recommended 
His Lordship not to remain any longer. On our return to where 
the bodies were lying, we called out again, when, from a bush on 
our front, shots were fired at us. We then rode slowly away. As 
we neared the troops that were posted at the bank and ditch, we 
remarked that one of the sentries had been placed in such a 
position that, to anyone in the bush or raupo swamp, the figure 
of the sentry would stand out in bold relief against the sky, and 
afford an easy aim to the enemy. " Stupid fellow," said Bishop 
Selwyn ; " that sentry Avill certainly be shot. I will give the officer 
the hint." He did so as we passed the post. The man was not 
removed, and the natives shot him the same night from the swamp. 

The dead ]\Iaoris had been sent for at the request of the Bishop, 
and His Lordship read the burial service over them next day. 
The native we had gone to look for had been found in some scrub, 
where, no doubt, he had crawled to die. 

SWORD VERSUS SPEAR. 

One evening AVilson and I paid Von Tempsky a visit to where 
he was camped, and while we were amusing ourselves with a song 
and a smoke, a European, who had accompanied the force, joined 

KK 



574 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

us at our camp fire, and commenced to relate what he would do if 
he had command. We were awfully bored, but when he drew 
Von Tempsky's sword out of its sheath, and only wished he had 
half a dozen INIaoris before him, with their spears, such as those 
(pointing- to some the men had captured), I thought it time to put 
an end to his nonsense. *' You might find it rather difficult," I 
said, "to ward off one of those spears, if properly handled." lie 
rudely told me I knew nothing about them. "Well," I said, "I 
do not know, perhaps, as much as you do." Here I laid hold of a 
six-foot spear, a stout one made out of manuka wood, called a 
matia. Von Tempsky chuckled, and so did AVilson. They both 
knew what I was going to do. Our visitor said, " I might hurt 
you with the sword." "I will chance that," I replied. "I am 
now — look out ! — going to give you a choice. I will either hit you 
right on the crown of the head, or give you the point in the 
stomach." He placed himself in an attitude. " Come on." I 
gave a spring and war whoop, danced round him for a moment, 
and, after a feint or two, broug-ht the butt end of the spear heavily 
on his head. Down he went. I rushed at him, and in a quick 
way asked Von Tempsky to make haste with the tomahawk. I let 
him get up at last, and he walked off a wiser man as regarded his 
knowledge of native weapons. Von Tempsky was the only man 
whom I had tried that I could not touch ; but he was an excellent 
swordsman. 

pat's stratagem. 

During the war with the Maoris many of the soldiers deserted 
from the regiment they belonged to and scattered themselves over 
the country. Scores of them went North, where they were employed 
by timber merchants and others. Little effort was made, as a rule, 
to recapture these men, but after the troops had gone home a Gazette 
was issued proclaiming a free pardon to all deserters from Her 
Majesty's service. Attempts had been made previous to this to 
capture a few, and a reward of ten pounds per head offered for 
their capture. 

One strapping young fellow, a son of Erin, had taken " French- 
leave " of his regiment. Pat, as he was called, ran away, and 
after roughing it some time in the wilds, engaged himself as cook 
to a large party of sawyers. Now Pat had been an officer's 
servant, and was a first-rate groom ; so really his loss was more 
than his master could bear with equanimity of temper, wherefore 
many inquiries were made as to where he had taken refuge, wdth 
a view to his arrest. 

At last, a mean-spirited, sanctimonious devil-dodger betrayed 
the hiding place of poor Paddy, but the distance was too great 
to send a corporal's guard to arrest him ; and, in fact, to have 
done so would have been useless, as he would have had timely 
warning of his danger. Two natives, however, for a reward 
of twenty pounds, offered to capture Pat, handcuff him, and 
deliver him bound, like Samson, into the power of his enemies. 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 575 

The plan of these brawny savages was to entice Pat to their 
villag'e, which was not far distant from where the sawyers were 
working-, where he was to be overpowered by numbers and tied 
up. But, though many plans were laid to accomplish this, they 
all proved failures. Brown, dusky-eyed girls were sent to lure Pat 
from home; but, though more than willing to make love to these 
charming children of nature, Pat kept his beat round and about 
the hut and sawpits. It is not at all unlikely that he received a 
quiet hint or so to be on his guard from one of his brown adorers. 
But the stealthy Maoris, ever on the alert, contrived to ascertain 
that on a certain day all the sawyers were going some distance 
back in the bush, and would not return till the evening. The 
]\Iaoris thought that Pat, with two against him, would have no 
chance of escape if they happened to light on him unprotected. 
They had obtained full leave to knock him down in case of 
resistance, so they started on their expedition. They crept up to 
the hut about dinner time, armed with a gun, a hard-wood spear, 
and a pair of handcuffs. On looking through the window, they 
saw Pat sitting by the fire, alone, smoking his pipe, and half 
asleep. 

" He is ours," they thought as they opened the door and went in. 

Their entrance aroused Pat, who looked up. He took in the 
situation at once. It has been said that Irishmen are wanting in 
ballast ; but when was ever a true Irishman placed in a dangerous 
predicament that he did not act with perfect sang froid and all 
his mother wit come to his rescue r Pat rose and welcomed his 
visitors. 

" Come in, Johnny, my boy ; shure all the sawyers chaps 'ave 
gone to the bush, and won't be back till to-morrow; sit ye down. 
Where are the illigant wahines (girls) and how are yez all ; begorra 
we'll 'ave somethin' to ate — pork chops and plum-duff, and bile 
some praties, and put on the billy, for a cup of tay is the right 
thing in the cowld weather, Johnny me boys," said Pat, looking at 
his visitors with the " tail of his eye." 

The ]\Iaoris understood quite enough English or Irish to com- 
prehend that they were going to have a delicious feed of fried 
pork chops and potatoes and tea. They no doubt felt that their 
man was safe and their prisoner, and it was but fit and right that 
he should prepare a good dinner for them. 

After the chops were eaten, they could, of course, handcuff him 
and take him off; so they loosened their flax belts in anticipation 
— pork chops was not an every-day meal with them. Pat bustled 
about, cut up the chops, pitched more wood on to the fire, filled the 
kettle, though he remarked that, " Divil a cow them sawyers had, 
so there was no milk and the two goats is dead, rest be to their 
sowles." So chattering merrily on he took down the huge old and 
worn frying-pan, and placed it on the tripod. In went the pork 
chops and plenty of lard ; on went the potatoes and kettle. Pat 
set the table in order, tin plates, pannikins, knives, and forks. 

" We can eat by the fire," said the Maoris. 



576 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

*' Divil a fear," said Pat, " two grate jintlemen rangatiris like yer 
two selves to ate on the floor , you will just sit down at the table 
wid me. Take yer seats boys, till I bring the praties." 

Each native having piled up his plate with potatoes, Pat fetched 
the hissing frying-pan full of chops swimming in fat. 

The time had come ' 

In the twinkling of an eye — an Irish eye — the whole of the 
contents of the pan. chops, scalding fat, and all were capsized over 
the head of the most powerful of the two Maoris, and before he 
could give utterance to his howl of terror and pain, Pat brought 
the frying-pan with his two hands and all his might on the head of 
the other, and with such force and good will, the fellow's head 
came through the bottom of the old pan, which rested like a collar 
on his shoulders. The two Maoris rolled on the earthern floor of 
the hut. Pat went out at the door, snatching up the gun as he 
went after wishing them good-bye, and telling them to make them- 
selves perfectly at home, he slipped away into the forest. 

" Batheshin," said he, " the dirty varmints to make me waste the 
mate and praties and spoil me frymg-pan." 

No one attempted to molest Pat after this, and he became a 
first rate bushman, and is now, I believe, doing well as a small 
farmer. 

THE TRIAL OF KEREOPA. — HORRIBLE DISCLOSURES. 

The preliminary trial of Kereopa commenced at Napier, on i ith 

December, 1871. before B. Sealy, Esq., R.M., and J. A. Campbell, 

Esq., R.M The magisterial inquiry was commenced on the 12th, 

when the prisoner was committed to take his trial at the Supreme 

Court, on 21st December, on a charge of murdering the Rev. Mr. 

Volkner We give below the leading points of evidence taken by 

the Magistrates. Penetito deposed: "I saw the prisoner in 1865, 

at Te Tuku He urged the people of that place to become 

Hauhaus. It was in the spring of 1865. He went from Te Teka 

to Whakatane. He asked the people of that place to give up the 

Roman Catholic priests that he might kill them. They had not 

agreed to it. Kereopa then went to Opotiki. He asked the chiefs 

there to let him have Mr. Volkner, that he might kill him. I 

myself heard him do so. Mokomoko, one of the chiefs, agreed to 

do it Mokomoko was hanged by the Europeans at the Wairoa. 

The day after I heard Kereopa make the demand, I started for a 

place called Te Puio. I returned the same day. When I got 

back, I saw the people assembling in a church. Then I saw 

Kereopa with Mr Volkner's head. He was standing in the pulpit. 

It was wrapped in calico. Then I saw him gouge out Mr. 

Volkner's eyes The right eye was in his right hand, and the left 

eye in his left hand. Then I saw him put the right eye into his 

mouth and swallow it. I then saw him put the left eye into his 

mouth. It stuck in his throat. He drank something that I 

thought was water, till I saw the blood running down his chin. 

A.fter I saw Kereopa with the head, I saw the body lying outside 



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INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 577 

the church. j\Iy brother wrapped it up in a blanket." Pihana 
Tiwhai deposed : " I saw him and Petara at Opotiki. The prisoner 
had a basket with him with a European's head in it. The first 
words that I heard him say were, ' Friends, this is a word from 
God to you. If any minister, or other European, comes to this 
place, do not protect him ; he must die ! die ! die ! ' Petara said 
next, ' I am come to bring the new God to you. This is the true 
God. If a minister or European come within these boundaries, he 
shall not be spared.' I knew ]\Ir. Volkner. He arrived after 
Kereopa and Petara had come to Opotiki about five days. He 
came by vessel. The vessel came up the river, and lay close 
against the bank. As soon as the vessel came alongside the 
Taranaki natives tied up the Europeans, including ]\Ir. Volkner 
and ]\Ir. Grace, and led them away to the gaol. I saw the whole 
transaction — I mean by the Taranaki natives — Kereopa and 
Petara, and those that came with them. Next thing I saw was 
Mr. Volkner being led away. I could not see who the native was 
who was leading him. I was too far off. It was one of the 
Taranaki natives. JMy wife said to me, * Don't follow them ; they 
are putting Volkner to death.' I went away to a mill near. In 
the evening I returned. I was told that Mr. Volkner was killed, 
and was shown where his body was. The body had on black 
trousers, boots, and white shirt. There was no head on it. I 
asked Kereopa to let me have the body to bury it. (The witness 
here gave some very disgusting details of the treatment the corpse 
subsequently received.) I saw Mr. Volkner's head, and that of 
another European, afterwards, at Opotiki, in a tent." Wiremu 
Pahi, sworn, deposed : " I remember when Kereopa came to 
Opotiki in March, 1865. Mr. Volkner was then absent in 
Auckland, The first the Taranaki natives did was to rob 
Mr. Volkner's house. Kereopa said Mr. Volkner was to be 
killed. At the time of ]\Ir. Volkner's arrival Kereopa was 
inland. The vessel when it arrived was robbed, and the 
Europeans put in gaol. Kereopa returned on the arrival of 
Mr. Volkner. Kereopa then sent some people to bring Mr. 
Volkner from the gaol, that was my house (the names of some 
of the party were given). Kereopa was also with them. ]\Ir. 
Volkner was brought to the church. After the talk was done there, 
he was led off to be hung. Kereopa gave orders to take him to a 
tree and hang him. The last I saw of ]\Ir. Volkner was when he 
was being led to the tree. I went to my plantation ; when I 
returned ]\Ir. Volkner was hanging on the tree. I went straight to 
my own house. After a short time I returned to the church, and 
saw Mr. Volkner's body lying outside it, without the head. 
Thauraira Kari cut the head off. Kereopa told him to do it. The 
head was put in the church through the window. Kereopa placed 
the head on the table before him, and took out the two eyes with 
his two hands. He said : ' Listen, O tribe, this is the parliament 
of England.' Then he swallowed the eyes. After this the head 
was carried round to all the people in the house. I went out. I 

KK* 



578 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

saw the body." Renata deposed : " Two Jews, besides Mr. Volkner 
and INIr. Grace, arrived in the same vessel. After the vessel arrived 
he went inland and saw Kereopa there. He was telling the people 
that he had received a message from his god that he was to kill 
Mr. Volkner. I went back to Opotiki. After I arrived I saw Mr. 
Volkner led from a whare to the church. Kereopa was alongside 
of ]\Ir. Volkner. I did not go to the church. The next thing I saw 
was ]\Ir. Volkner being led from the church to a tree. Kereopa 
was a few yards behind Mr. Volkner. Kereopa had Mr. Volkner's 
watch and waistcoat on, and Mr. Volkner had on a shirt and 
trousers. I saw them lead ]\Ir. Volkner up to a bush. After that 
I went to my own place on the opposite side of the river. 1 stopped 
at my place some time. AVhen I got back I saw Mr. Volkner's 
head in the church. I looked in at the Vvdndow. I saw the head 
on the table, and the two eyes in Kereopa's hand. Kereopa first 
offered them to his god, and then ate them himself. Kereopa had 
seagull feathers stuck in his hair." Hori Wetere Te Motutere 
deposed : " Kereopa asked the people of Te Teko to let him have a 
European named Aubrey, a mill-er there ; they did not give him up. 
He went next to Whakatane. There they asked the people to give 
them up the Catholic priest, Father Grange, to kill him. They 
did not agree to do so. They next went to Opotiki. I went into 
the church. I saw there the head lying on the table, and Kereopa 
with one of Mr. Volkner's eyes in each hand. He said : ' These 
are the eyes that have looked on the destruction of this Island, I 
will eat them. He has eaten me, and I will now eat him. Pie 
crucified me, and I will crucify him.' Then he swallowed the eyes. 
He drank something out of a pannikin. I don't know what it was. 
He then said : ' All men, women, and children, must eat of this 
sacrifice.' I jumped out of the window and ran away." Hautakura 
being sworn, deposed : " I live at Waiotahi. I remember the 
arrival of Kereopa and the Taranakis at Opotiki in 1865. Kereopa 
explained the Hauhau religion and laid off boundaries. 'Whatever 
European comes within these boundaries,' he said, * whether 
minister or otherwise, they shall be killed.' After this Mr. 
Volkner arrived, and was taken to gaol by Kereopa's orders. I 
heard him give them. They then assembled at the Catholic 
Church Kereopa said, ' Listen ! Mr. Volkner must die this day.' 
I went home. I came back some time afterwards, and found the 
people all assembled near the church. I was at the doorway. I 
heard Kereopa say then again, ' Mr. Volkner must die this day.' 
He then sent a party to fetch ]\Ir. Volkner. Keramita, Kahupaia, 
Hakaria, and Kereopa himself were of the party. I remained in 
the doorway, and saw them leading up Mr. Volkner. Kereopa 
had Mr. Volkner's clothes. When they got to the doorway of the 
church Kereopa ordered some men to lead him to execution. The 
words he used were : * Come some people, and lead JNIr. Volkner 
to kill him.' The same persons that went to fetch him on the 
former day led him away together with Kereopa and the whole 
population. They were Taranakis. Kereopa was close behind 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 57^; 

Mr. Volkner when he wis being led away within a yard of hnn." 
The prisoner was then asked if he wished to say anything- for 
himself. He declined to do so. The prisoner was then committed 
for trial before the Supreme Court on the 21st December, 1871, 
and afterwards he was hanged. 

ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF NATIVE FORCES. 

During the war at the north with Hone Ileke and Kawiti, which, 
on our side, was conducted principally by Col. Despard, many 
natives from Hokianga under their chiefs — Tamati Waka Nene, 
Te Tao Nui, Wi Kipa, Wi Hopihana, and others — rendered us 
great assistance, partly from a good feeling they entertained for the 
whites, and partly from hatred to their old enemies, and a natural 
love of fighting which is inherent in the New Zealander. Tamati 
Waka Nene held a prominent part throughout the war, and his 
word carried great weight with the majority of the friendly natives. 
The first Maori stockade, or pa, attacked by our troops was 
Okaihau. This pa, much to the astonishment, and against the 
advice of the chiefs, was rushed by the soldiers, and resulted in 
about thirty of our men being shot dowm within a few feet of the 
palisading, and we had to retreat. Kawiti's men, who were in the 
front, charged our troops ; but they never again tried this, many of 
them being killed by a charge of bayonets. 

After this, Colonel Despard depended greatly on the advice of our 
native allies, as he wisely saw he did not understand the enemy's 
mode of Avarfare, and that our natives had w^ays and means of 
knowing what the others were about, and manoeuvred accordingly. 
But however Tamati Waka obtained his knowledge of passing 
events he never, as a native general or chief, thought of ordering 
the natives to do what he considered best but when he had arrived 
at certain conclusions. As, for instance, at Ohaiowai he wished 
to take possession of a certain eminence, which commanded a 
portion of the enemy's work. Perhaps this had been the result of 
a secret conference with two or more old chiefs. Early in the night 
Tamati Waka would have a dream and a huhi fa convulsive 
starting of his right or left arm). The dream might have been a 
successful weka hunt, or that a taniwha (a fabulous sea monster) 
had invited him to a feast, as the case might be, which would 
denote to the tribe's success. The order would be given in the 
following manner : " The enemy have (the oracle informs) deter- 
mined to attack our camp, and in doing so will succeed in killing 
some of us ; to prevent this a strong party will take possession of 
the hill over the pa to-night ; " when, before morning, it was 
occupied by 250 men, and then Colonel Despard was informed of 
the movement, and desired to do certain things, but almost always 
when the arrangements had been nearly completed by our natives 
for destroying the enemy after their own way of advancing and 
fighting, an abortive attempt at storming would be made, never 
once successful, and always ended with the enemy escaping, and 
us losing many valuable lives, to the anger and disgust of the 



58o INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

friendlies. Towards the close of the campaign the officer in 
command admitted that, owing to the peculiar mode of warfare, to 
be successful against the enemy, it was necessary for his troops to 
act as a contingent to the friendly natives, and not the natives as a 
contingent to the troops ; and he was right, as there were then 
several hundred friendly natives in the field, by nature independent, 
impetuous, trickish, and impatient of control, who could only be 
managed by their chiefs through their superstitions, and not by 
ordering them about, and they were not fighting so much for love 
of the pakeha as from the memory of old grievances. The love 
so often prated about for the Queen weighed not a feather in the 
balance. Letters and speeches, commencing — "O Governor! great 
is my love for you," " O Queen ! we are your children, and our 
love for you is great," means no more than, "I remain, 5^ours 
truly," or *' I have the honour to be," etc. At this time they were 
receiving no pay for their services, but this was nearly forty years 
ago, and the conduct of Hone Heke and Kawiti was condemned by 
most of the northern tribes. We will now turn to the present and 
the last few years. 

When the Arawas assisted the Government in 1864 they received 
no pay, but were only supplied with arms and ammunition during 
this time ; though I had considerable command over them, I was 
careful not to let such appear. I gained the confidence of their 
chief, and certain successes were obtained, as they fought to revenge 
themselves on their enemies and not on ours. It gave them no little 
confidence, too, the lact that they were fighting under our law, and 
were considered to be helping the Government and the Queen's 
general. 

Shortly after this they were placed on pay, when they soon found 
out, if the fighting lasted one week and the enemy were beaten, 
the pay only lasted one week, and then abruptly ceased. The 
result of this discovery was, they used all their cunning to prolong 
hostilities. This was only to be expected would occur when under 
their own chiefs, who il they had ever urged them to action, would 
have less influence with their tribes. But a European placed in 
command had no reason to fear the loss of any influence he might 
have obtained if he considered himself as a gentleman ought to, and 
if properly supported by the Government ; for the natives who know 
when a man does his duty respect him accordingly, but they will, 
to attain their own ends, write letters to the Government requesting 
that so-and-so be remiOved, mentioning some childish reason, in the 
hope that another pakeha may be sent to replace the one in 
command, in the further hope that the new-comer may fall more 
easily into their ways, and they have an easier time of it while the 
pay goes on. As one instance out of scores I could mention, I will 
relate what happened to my friend the late Captain St. George. 
He at the time was stationed at Taupo in command of a body of 
Arawas, who had to do their duty. Returning one day with his 
native orderly from a long wet ride, he retired to change his 
clothes. The two principal chiefs of the settlement or pa came to 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 581 

him, and begged for one of the bottles of rum he had by him. This 
request he refused. Had he given it to them they would both have 
become tipsy. Shortly after this, Captain St. George sent for his 
orderly and gave him a glass of grog. The two chiefs heard of it, 
and wrote a letter to the Commissioner (a gentleman), and begged 
he would cause the officer in command to be removed, as he was 
giving the men rum, and making them drunk, causing neglect of 
duty. The Commissioner, ]\Ir. Clarke, enclosed this production to 
Captain St. George, asking an explanation. The chiefs acknow- 
ledged to the letter, said they had written it in a moment of anger, 
and wrote to Mr. Clarke explaining the truth, and confessing they 
had told a falsehood to spite the officer for not giving them the 
bottle of rum. 

I have obtained many successes with the Araw^as serving- under 
me when in receipt of pay ; but I have made allowance for their 
customs and superstitions. Up to a certain point I have often given 
in to their wishes, when I had my way in return. I have my secrets 
worth knowing, the advice of an old and noted Tohunga chief, and 
if we have to fight again, which, perhaps, we may, a few of the 
secrets of my Tohunga Karakai (praying wizard) may be found 
useful, even though times are altered from what they were, and the 
officer who may then be placed in command of our forces (if he is not 
too proud to inquire) shall be made acquainted with at least a few. 
]\Iy sword belt has got so stiff, and the lock of my rifle so rusty that 
it would require more soft soap to soften the one, and more sweet 
oil to lubricate the other, than the Government stores can perhaps 
provide. No chief, however he may wish to perform his duty to the 
country, has sufficient power among the hapus a tribe consists of 
to get the men to make short, quick work of a campaign against 
their wishes, and retain his influence ; for that, amongst the Maoris, 
is subject to their changeable opinion. The tribe led against our 
enemy have little or no feeling of hostility to those they are 
expected to fight. They have had their day of utu (payment) for 
the past, and think now that five shillings a day under their own 
chiefs, who are bound, as their chiefs, to look after the interests of 
the tribe, is a good thing. And let any chief beware lest he strain 
this point too much, as there are those who would quickly thwart 
any apparent intention from one of themselves to use the tribe for 
the pakeha. 

The power of a chief is well hinted at by " Old New Zealand " in 
the scsne of the wrestling match with " Melons." The head chief 
appears, and is very angry. " ' Look at that ; the pakeha does not 
bear you any malice. I would kill you if he asked me. You are a 
bad people — killers of pakehas. Be off with you — the whole of you 
— away ! ' This command was instantly obeyed by all the women, 
boys, and slaves ; but I observed that tJie whole of yoii did not seem 
to be understood as including the stout, able-bodisd, tattooed part 
of the population — the strength of the tribe — the warriors, in fact, 
many of whom counted themselves to be very much about as good 
as the chief." The sympathy of the natives is for themselves, and 



582 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

not for the pakeha ; and this is very naturaL Why should it be 
otherwise r 

Tribes sent out under their own chiefs are expensive and 
sometimes mischievous, and little is done for the reasons I have 
mentioned, though much may be reported, etc. ; but the same 
natives, in concert with Europeans, under a European oflicer who 
has some knowledge of the Maoris, will not fail of success, always 
provided the natives are honestly told the European is in command, 
whose word must be obeyed, and from whom there is no appeal, 
then good will result. The Europeans otherwise had far better go 
by themselves, when, if not worried and harassed with the 
telegraph from all quarters all at once, will in the end have their 
opportunity, and succeed. 

The old Wanganui contingent, when acting with the European 
forces, was a happy and successful way of employing- natives, and 
Avould be so again, but the European portion of the force ought to 
number two or three to one, and a European to command the whole 
is indispensable, if certain success is looked for. 

Such is my practical experience during eight years' compaigning* 
in New Zealand, and of more than forty years' residence among the 
natives. 

One time I particularly wished to march in a certain direction, 
and had concluded, as I thought, all arrangements with the fighting 
chief; but he, feeling his way with the tribe, preparatory to giving 
the order, found that for some reason or another they were not 
willing to go, and looked to him to frustrate the march and my 
plans. He returned and told me of the feeling existing. It was 
absolutely necessary for the success of certain designs that we 
should march, and he knew this. " Exert your influence," I said, 
" and make them go." " That would never do," he replied, " they 
would soon cease to listen to me ; but as we are all on pay — you 
appear to be angry with me — I will then speak to the tribe, and 
get them to march." I did as requested, and had the satisfaction 
of hearing my friend complain loudly to the tribe that I was a 
pakeha, a hard pakeha, one who would not listen to reason ; that 
this march was not requiied, it being only a whim of mine, etc. ; 
but they must remember they were only on pay, and some weeks 
in arrears. Perhaps after all they had better march ; he would 
write to the Government to remove me ; so they would all march 
now he had decided it. In a short time they paraded, declared their 
chief was a " Tangata whai whakaaro" (man of understanding), 
and knew how to manage affairs. The chief returned to me with 
laughter in his eye, and said, " Come, be quick, while they are in 
the humour ; I had to abuse you, but I hope you are not angry ; 
they are my tribe, and I must not lose my influence." I replied I 
was much pleased, and that he might abuse me to his heart's 
content as long as good results were obtained. Two or three 
days afterwards, when the tribe saw the good our march had 
helped to, they took great credit to themselves for what had been 
achieved. 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. ^Z^ 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF NATIVE ALLIES. — THE ?^IARCII ROUND MOUNT 

EG MONT. 

After the capture of Otapawa, and the total defeat of the natives 
at Katemarae, Ahipaipa, Pa Poaka, jNIawhitiwhiti, and other places 
by General Chute, arrangements were made by the General for one 
of the most hazardous enterprises ever undertaken in New Zealand. 
This was to march through ]\Iataitawa, by the old track round 
Mount Egmont. As far as the contingent and Wanganui kupapas 
were concerned, ]\Iaori ingenuity was fairly exhausted in trying to 
persuade the General from such an arduous task, but he was not to 
be put off. ]\Ien were told off for the expedition from each 
regiment in camp, and the Forest Rangers, under the personal 
superintendence of their gallant leader, Von Tempsky, cleaned up 
their trusty breech-loaders, and made preparations. As I was Jiurs 
de combat from my wound, which my late exertions had made very 
painful, the General came to my tent, where every information that 
could be procured from the jNlaoris was obtained, and laid before 
him in the presence of Commissariat-General Strickland and His 
Honour Dr. Featherston. 

I was instructed to tell off as many natives as I thought would 
be sufficient, procure special guides, and report progress with the 
least possible delay. The General then left us. I then asked the 
doctor to collect all the chiefs into our tent. This was done, and 
a long korero (talk) ensued. At first the chiefs declared that it was 
impossible to go round the mountain by the proposed route ; that 
the force would never get out of the bush, and that it would be 
better to go round by the coast. We combatted every argument 
that they brought forward, and finally wrung an unwilling consent 
from them that the natives should go with the expedition. I may 
here remark that it was absolutely necessary that the natives 
should go, as no one knew the direction to be taken in the pathless 
forest about to be entered. Doctor Featherston communicated 
the result of our consultation to the General, who, naturally 
concluding that all obstacles were removed from his undertaking, 
ordered a certain number of rations to be issued to the men of all 
corps about to march, and to be cooked at once. 

Somehow or other a kind of instinct which I sc'^m to have, 
whenever ]\Iaoris are concerned, caused me to feel certain mis- 
givings when they consented to go. I could not feel sure in my 
own mind that any of them would really start. True they had said, 
" Yes, we v\all go, you can tell the General that so many shall 
accompany the force," and that they had also drawn fresh 
ammunition and rations ; but yet, knowing them as I did, I was by 
no means easy on that point. This worried me. I felt that any 
blame would naturally fall on myself, and as I lay in my tent 
thinking the matter over, the uncertainty gradually established 
itself as a fact. The natives did not intend to go, but I had no 
proof to lay before the General. 

I knew INIete Kingi and others had from the commencement of 



584 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

the campaign endeavoured to raise 'obstacles in the way, and the 
reserved look ]\Iete had on his face during the korero in my tent 
helped to confirm my suspicions. I felt miserable and helpless. 
It was now about 9 p.m. The echoes of the bugle, sounding "lights 
out," had scarcely died away among the hills when the curtain of 
my tent was slowly raised, and a native crawled in. I recognised 
him as one of the most faithful of my followers. ]\Iany were the plots 
which he had given me timely warning of. " What is up now r" 
1 said, in a subdued voice. " But a word," whispered the man ; 
" when the General parades to-morrow morning, one native alone 
will be present, and that is myself. INIete Kingi and the rest 
have been deceiving you. None of the natives will go round 
the mountain. The tribes have their orders. I must go now," he 
continued. " I could not come near you before." " Kapai (good) " 
1 replied ; " it is enough. Go away quietly, as you came." Soon 
after he had gone. Dr. Featherston returned (we occupied the same 
tent) from the General's quarters, when I mentioned the visit I had 
had. We sent for the native chiefs, my brother William (who now 
commanded the contingent) taking the message. They soon 
collected. On putting the question plainly, and demanding an 
immediate reply, they said (like the hypocrites they were), " It is 
true the men will not go, in spite of all our endeavours to induce 
them." Mete added that his heart was broken utterly; he might 
get over it, but he thought not ; his heart would remain dark for 
ever. I frankly told him and the others that they lied, and that he 
had, through his superstition, tampered with the men ; that my 
familiar spirit had told me so, and it was therefore no use denying 
it ; and I ordered the whole of them — contingent officers, and all — 
out of the tent. 

The doctor lit his cigar, I filled my pipe, and we gazed at each 
other for a few seconds in silence. " It's that beggar, Mete 
Kingi," I said, breaking silence. The doctor ground his teeth, 
and smoked away vigorously, uttering short but pithy sentences 
between each puff of smoke. " The General will be in a towering 
rage. I have only just left him, and he was delighted at having 
overcome all difficulties. It is now half-past twelve, and he eight 
to know this, What's to be done ? " 

Only one chance occurred to me to try — being unable to ir.ove 
about — and with Dr. Featherston's consent, I prepared to put it to 
the test. Hori Kingi te Anana, at this time the principal chief of 
Wanganui, had with his tribe received much kindness from Dr. 
Featherston. They looked up to him for advice, not only from the 
high position he held, but privately. Hori Kingi respected him as 
one who had never deceived him, whose word, once passed, was 
good for the performance of what had been promised, but who, at 
the same time, was not easily imposed upon by threats in whatever 
shape they were made. I awoke my brother, Capt. McDonnell, and 
asked him to find Hori Kingi, and bring him by himself to our tent. 
I then advised Dr. Featherston to recount to Hori, when he came 
in, the events that had taken place between them during the past 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. ^8 



0<^D 



few years. The friendship that had during- that time existed 
between them — his own fixed determination that the expedition 
should march as already agreed upon, at 3.30 p.m., and then telling 
Hori that the other natives might remain if they chose, to then ask 
him, as his old and trusty friend, to accompany him. Dr. Feather- 
ston caught at the idea, and I prepared to translate word for word 
what the doctor might say. 

Presently the old chief entered, and squatted on the lloor of the 
tent. *' So the natives won't go to-morrow, Hori," I said. " I'hcy 
will not," he replied. "They are not required to now," I rejoined, 
" but the doctor has something to say to you before he leaves in 
the morning, and he will now speak." Dr. Featherston then made 
a short, straightforward speech, and to the point, that understandings 
the natives at the eleventh hour had resolved not to go, he had sent 
for his old friend Hori to request that he would accompany him in 
the morning with the troops. 

Old Hori was much excited, and moved about uneasily. " I 
would, oh Featherston, go with you," he said, " but I am lame. 
Behold my foot." 

" I sprained my ankle severely some days since," replied the 
doctor, " yet I accompanied your natives wherever they went. My 
ankle is much swollen and very painful now, but I will go to- 
morrow, and you, Hori, shall accompany me. It shall never be 
said that the whole of the Wanganuis were frightened. You and 
I must prevent this evil thing." 

The blood of his ancestors rose to the old chiefs brow, and 
his face underwent a change. " Patatone, but for you, were 
v.'ould the tribe be : If Europeans had acted like you, like 
chiefs, we would not now be fighting. You have been — you 
are — our father. Hori Te Anana speaks now. Hori Kingi will 
go with his father — go by himself with you, but will not return 
agam to his tribe. I will, in future, go where you go, and stay 
where you stay. You will hear me tell my tribe this. I go to bid 
my people farewell. Listen, both of you ! " As Hori uttered 
these words, he rose and stood upright at the door of the tent. 

It was a clear night, and the contingent and kupapa tents 
showed out white and distinct, and not a rustle was heard as the 
old warrior spoke. " O Whanganui ! Whanganui ! farewell. The 
tribe, farewell ! The past, farewell ! Farewell for ever ! Listen 
to me now. Hearken to me. I cast off my tribe, and they are no 
longer mine. The spirit of the tribe has fled, bewitched by Ngati- 
manui. They have become strange. They are now what they 
were not. I cast them on the dark side of the path. I, Hori te 
Anana, leave with my father, Dr. I-^eatherston, and the Queen, 
to-morrow. Farewell to you, O tribe farewell ! I have spoken ; 
it is enough." 

A low hum, like the working song of the bees, like the murmur- 
ing of a stream, arose in the camp of the Maoris as the old chief 
spoke. I could feel that everyone was drinking in his words, and 
now and then a low moan was heard, which proceeded from the 



586 INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

women of the tribe. Hori re-entered the tent, and grasping- each 
of us by the hand, said, in a subdued voice, " They are my children, 
I think. Some of them will come with their father." 

A shrill voice was now heard addressing the tribe, and, my ears 
being quick, I told Hori, word for word, what was going forward. 
Chief after chief of the plotters succeeded the man now speaking; 
but a muffled roar from the contingent presently echoed through 
the camp. The young warriors, the best and the bravest, had been 
worked up to a pitch of frenzy. Mete's name was coupled with 
English oaths, and he was most unromantically told to *' shut up." 
" He is a coward," said one. " He is always meddling," added 
another. " We thought you did not want us to go, Hori," said 
they ; and, although it wanted an hour of the time to parade, tents 
were struck, baggage packed, and over seventy of the flower of the 
contingent (with cries of " To Taranaki ! to Taranaki ! "] formed up 
on parade, with arms and accoutrements, ready to march. 

The reaction was comjilote, but the excitement had cost old Hori 
a struggle, and he asked for a glass of spirits, which, by the way, 
he had scarcely ever tasted before. The General now looked in to 
wish me good-bye. He little knew then of the previous night's 
work we had had. One of the plotters (Paora) now came to the 
tent, and began to tell me and the doctor how very glad he was 
that the natives had consented to go, and how superhuman his 
endeavours had been to accomplish the result. " I feel cold," 
he continued, and stretched out his hand to a flask of commis- 
sariat. I jumped up, regardless and oblivious of my situation, 
and kicked the rascally hypocrite out of the tent ; but I hurt 
myself worse than I hurt him. The force fell in, and my friends 
bade me adieu, and marched away on their uncertain journey. 

A CURIOUS MISTAKE. 

During one of our long and hung-ry marches through the Tuhua 
forests in search of the notorious Te Kooti, Major Kemp, who was 
leading at the head of a column of 400 men, committed a curious 
mistake. We had from the plain seen fires that were supposed 
to be those of Te Kooti's bands, and the smoke rose in a high 
pillar to the sky. I took the bearings with a small compass I had, 
as there was no known road, intending to guide the force myself in 
search of the enemy, Kemp, however, earnestly begged me to let 
him lead the column, so, as I knew him to be a splendid bushman, 
and that his instincts were of the right kind, I resigned the first 
post of honour, and took the second, that is the rear of the whole. 
The duty of a leader of a column in a trackless forest is, first, not 
to march too quickly ; secondly, to notice every log and creek 
the men have to cross over, and regulate the pace accord- 
ingly, halting occasionally to allow the men in the rear to 
close up. I of course thought that when Kemp made the 
request he did he was going to trust to his native instinct 
But r was mistaken ; a brilliant idea had occurred to him ! He 
noticed that a compass Mr. Malinu", one of a corps of guides, 



INCIDENTS OF THE IVAR. 587 

had pointed in one direction, no matter which way the case 
containing it was placed. Now, the direction the fires were in 
from us was about due south. One end of the compass was as good 
as another to Kemp, and he came to the conclusion that the 
compass pointed for Te Kooti himself, and that if he held the 
compass, it would soon take him to where Te Kooti was, and in this 
way he would cheat the other sections of tribes now on the march, 
out of the honour and glory of killing this miscreant. Full of these 
ideas, and chuckling to himself, he entered the bush at the head of 
the column. On we went over hill, creek, and dale, clambering up 
steep ascents, and carefully descending all but precipices, halting 
ever so often. Such a scramble I never had before or since, and I 
have gone over some rough country. To make matters worse, it 
poured as if a second deluge had been let loose. At last darkness 
set in, and we camped without fires, as Kemp assured me from signs 
he had seen, we were not far off from Te Kooti now. But the other 
chiefs declared we had passed the place where the smoke had been 
seen hours ago, and that we would soon reach Waikato or Auckland. 
For my part, although I had no suspicion of the truth, I felt sure 
we were all at sea, and were off the scent. The next morning this 
proved to be the case, and the column had to return to camp the 
best way it could, as our meagre stock of biscuits had given out. 
Several days after this Kemp came to my quarters, and looldng 
curiously at my compass, said, " I cannot quite make out this 
instrument.'' I explained it to him as well as I could, and how 
vessels were guided by it on the trackless ocean. " I know they are," 
said Kemp, " but it is because the needle points out the direction 
the ships must take. Is this not so?"' "Eureka, I have it now," I 
thought, as the truth flashed upon me. " Did you have a compass 
the other day when Vv'e were out after Te Kooti ?" " Yes," replied 
Kemp : " I halted too, every now" and then, to see if we were going 
in the right direction, but somehow or another we did not go right." 
I could not help laughing ; but it had caused one of the roughest 
and most wearisome marches we had at Taupo. I satisfied Kemp 
of his mistake, and I think he will trust to his native instincts in 
preference to any compass in future. 



TALES OF THE MAORI. 



ALES OF THE 



Maori. 



TOENGA POU. 




N the left bank of the Hokianga River, about twenty- 
miles from the Heads, was once a famous native settle- 
ment. The rich kumara grounds belonging to it were 

celebrated far and near, and right in front, half way 

across the river, was an island, fringed with mangrove trees, on the 
extensive flats of which, at low water, an unfailing supply of shell- 
fish, eels, and patiki were to be procured. vStingrays were also very 
abundant here, and I have seen them caught measuring hve feet 
across. At the back of this settlement a high hill, the summit of 
which had, after great labour and skill, been fashioned by many- 
hundreds of pair of hands into a formidable pa, hewn, as it were, 
out of the solid earth. It was the principal stronghold of the 
settlement ; and even to the present day, though most of the outer 
lines have been filled up with dry leaves and rubbish, and the 
outer and deep ditch is now less than half its original depth, enough 
remains to form a good idea of what this fighting pa once was. It 
would probably have taken five hundred navvies, working with 
pick, shovel, and barrow, twelve months' hard work to cut down 
and form this work; but when one knows that all the tools with 
which this was undertaken and accomplished were only bits of hard 
wood, pointed and burnt hard in a fire, and the only means of 
carrying aw'ay the thousands of tons of earth, stones and gravel, 
were small buckets made of flax, one is forced to admire the courage 
and perseverance of the New Zealander in those days. 

This pa was called Karewa Ki Runga (the Lofty Reared on 
High). Hence the IMaori canoe song — 

Puke tiki tiki te puke ne Karewa, 
Iri noa aki taku aroha to maunawa. 

O lofty hill, the hill Karewa ; 

Yet my love is loftier within my soul. 

" Karewa Ki Runga " was the fighting pa of the Popoto tribe at 
the time I speak of, and they numbered over one thousand warriors, 
the most powerful tribe of the Ngapuhi, and IVluriwae Te Tuku 
Take was its head chief, and at the period I tell of was in the prime 
of his life, a just man according to tradition, but astern and terrible 
warrior in battle. He was the grandfather of Te Taonui, who 



TALES OF THE MAORI. 589 

proved himself such a staunch friend to the Europeans at the time 
of the war with Hone Heke. Taonui (Biijf Spear) was then about 
sixty years of age. His father, Te Ahuriri, died about 1849, and 
was supposed to be at least 1 10 years old at the time of his death. 
He remembered Captain Cook well, and at that time he had, so he 
said, wives and children, so ]\Iuriwae Te Tuku Take (his father) 
must have been about forty or fifty years of age when what I am 
about to relate occurred, and several years before the arrival of the 
great navigator Cook to these shores. 

The Alaori villages under Karewa Ki Runga were Otaehau, Te 
Horeke, Parepare, jMangatete, INIangaraupo, and Waikahanganui, 
and the slopes of Karewa, part of which were cultivated as 
calabash grounds. Karewa Ki Runga frowned aloft some 700 
or 800 feet above the villages, and commanded the whole ; but 
about a mile from tliis hill were two other pas, which had also 
been cut out of a solid hill top, but they were inferior to Karewa 
in height. 

At the back of the Waikahanganui settlement, the village 
furthest off from the centre, was one of the most beautiful wooded 
valleys I can remember. A narrow brook of clear, ever-cold water 
ran through the middle of it ; here and there were gigantic kauri 
trees, but the graceful miro were crowded on both banks of the 
little stream, and lined the valley stretching away to the ranges 
on each side of it. This stream, in the pigeon season, when the 
berries on the miro trees were red ripe, used to be covered from 
sight by thickly-leaved branches, which were placed over it. It was 
but a moss-lined little brook, about eighteen inches wide, but deep, 
and ran the same winter and summer. This covering over w^as a 
work of care, but places were left at intervals here and there for 
the birds to come to bathe and drink. Each of these drinking 
places was provided with innumerable perches for the birds to 
light and plume themselves upon, but rows of snares were placed 
in every direction, and meshes out of number. These were made 
out of the cabbage tree leaves, being much stronger than flax, and 
kept their shape like very thin steel. When this valley was used 
for bird meshing, about three miles of it was laid under snares, 
and during the season it was under strict tapu, and only visited 
each evening before sundown, to remove the captive and drowned 
birds and replace any of the snares which had chanced to get 
broken or displaced ; but under no pretence whatever were 
strangers permitted to go there, either in or out of season ; in fact, 
it was never thought that anyone could have dreamt it possible to 
go to places of this kind, not being one of the tribe, and death 
would have followed to a certainty anyone who so transgressed 
tribal rights. The usual take, or harvest, of birds in one month, 
during the full fruiting of the miro in its season, was from 4500 to 
5000 birds, such as pigeons, parrots, and tuis ; but even in my 
time, when I was a youngster, I used to accompany old Toenga 
Pou, when he went out bird snaring to this valley, and have 
helped to lift between 300 and 400 birds from the few hundred 



590 TALES OF THE MAORI. 

yards of the stream he had prepared in the way I have described. 
There were other valleys and places, bird snaring grounds, in 
plenty on the estate of the Popotos ; but the Puna Valley was far 
away the best and most valued, as it was so complete and near to 
the settlements. Each of three pas, even when no war party was 
expected, was held by an efficient garrison, and the tribe took 
turn and turn about, naturally and by instinct, to guard them. 
Hundreds of short darts, so pointed at the ends that on striking an 
object the point would remain in the wound and, being barbed, 
prove difficult to get out, were kept in covered pits. Heaps of 
round iron stones, weighing from one to five pounds each, were 
collected from the beach and piled up for the use of the slingers 
(kotaha) ; and heavy logs and boulders were kept in place on the 
outer ditch to use in case of an assault, and ready to launch over 
the precipitous sides of the pas, in case such a defence was 
required. Before early dawn, which the tui and bell bird heralded 
each morn, the war note of the watchers in the pas proclaimed all 
was well, and a good watch kept. The slumbering tribe in the 
villages beneath now bestirred themselves, and soon hundreds of 
columns of white steam, shooting upwards to the sky, showed that 
the morning meal of the Popoto tribe was being prepared in the 
ovens. After this was eaten, the tribe betook itself to its different 
occupations, which varied according to the seasons. Behind the 
hills on which these pas stood were forests, extending for many 
miles, and where the young men and maidens used to go bird- 
hunting, and snaring and spearing tuis and parrots, and to gather 
the wild fruits of the forest, and collect scented moss for their hair. 
I will now as well as I can remember, for it is many years since 
old Toenga Pou recounted his strange story to me, and which had 
been handed down to him by his forefathers, relate what he told 
me one night when we two were camped out in a miro bush on 
the JNIataki Hills, where we had gone to get birds. 

TOENGA POU'S TALE. 

The once great Popoto tribe, of whom I am one, gave a feast in 

the pigeon season . to the whole of Ngatiwhatua who lived on the 

Kaipara and Wairoa runs ; the scaffolding alone which was to 

support the piles of food w^as six kumis long (a kumi means sixty 

feet, so the total length would have been 360 feet). Each scaffialding 

was one kumi in length, and tapered up from its base, which was 

twice the stretch of a man's arms (12 feet) to 40, 50, 60, and 75 feet 

in height, according to the strength or amount of food the hapu of 

the tribe it belonged to had, and tapered off at the top to about 

18 inches broad. On the bottom tier would be about 600 baskets 

of kumeras ; a strong platform was lashed over this to support the 

next tier of, say, 500 baskets ; then another platform, and so on, 

until a single row of baskets graced the top of the pile. In all, to 

each piece of scaffolding there would be between 3,000 and 3,500 

baskets of kumeras ; nere c^nd there would be calabashes of 



TALES OF THE MAORI. 



591 



preserved birds— pigeons, tuis, kakas, weka, kiwi, curlew, ducks, 
and widgeons ; fish of all kinds, tons of them taken in immense 
tidal bag nets 70 feet long by 2^ feet square at the mouth, 
narrowing off to 18 inches, an immense basket capable of holding 
tW'O hogsheads fastened on the other end. These nets used to be 
set near the mouth of a creek in the tide way, and held in position 
by two stout spars firmly driven into the river-bed, and were filled 
to tightness each tide — bundles of dried dog-fish, sharks and eels, 
and baked dogs, preserved rats, etc., but at these tribal feasts, 
unless under peculiar circumstances, such as returning from war, 
or an impromptu feast on the death of an old chief, when, if a lazy 
slave taken in war could be spared, he w^ould be eaten ; no human 
flesh would form part of a feast such as described. Even when 
human flesh was eaten it was cooked in a separate oven, and not 
tossed about as a common article of food, except on the battle field, 
whatever may be said to the contrary. 

The Ngatiwhatua accepted the invitation of the Popotos and 
came to Hokianga by the coast from Kaipara, first assembling at 
Mangaw'hare, on the Wairoa R.iv^er, making that their starting 
point. The party consisted of two thousand men and women ; the 
young children were left behind, and all those who were old and 
infirm. They all, of course, went fully armed and prepared for war, 
for one could never tell what might happen. Besides, it was not 
wise or prudent to go unarmed and place undue temptations in the 
eyes of their hosts, the Popotos, or not to be able to take advantage 
of any good chance that might occur to themselves ; but the head 
men of each family hapu of the tribe received a hint, in a speech 
addressed to the whole by the head tohunga, Puni, to keep the 
young men within bounds during the intended visit. (A large party 
of natives travel slowly; and though I walked once for a wager 
from Mangawhare to the sea beach, and on then to Hokianga to 
the settlement of Waimamaku in one day, and without anything to 
eat by the w^ay, but which "vvas not included in our wager, for I lost 
my provisions in the surf of a stream I crossed, Ngatiwhatua took 
one month to go this route.) At the head of the Hokianga River 
the party were met by a fleet of war, fishing, and other canoes, 
sent to convey them up the river. Each pa had its usual garrison 
doubled, and an extra row^ of manuka stakes was shown to have 
been placed round the already double palisaded pas. The green 
boughs and leaves were left on each stout stake, as a hint that any 
attempt to surprise the garrison would be vain and without hope 
K f success. 

The fleet of canoes drew near after the morning's meal had been 
consumed, and the noses of the canoes touched the landing-place 
pointed out for them at the settlement, and 1,500 w^arriors, not 
including the women, formed up in array. They were met by the 
Popotos and their allies, and a terrific war-dance took place on 
both sides, until (as Toenga Pou said) Karewa Ki Runga reeled 
again. Then the distant garrisons had each their war-dance, which 
contained, said Toenga, a very strong hint of power. The guests 



50? TALES OF THE MAORI. 

were then shown to their quarters, and alter an abundant meal 
night closed ov^er the whole 

The next day the feast was karanoaed (called) that is each piece 
of scaffolding was formally lianded over to a hapu of Ngatiwhatua 
by a correspondin.C! hapu of the Popotos, and this was subdivided 
.i^ain and again until all the food and delicacies were distributed, 
and ?. wpek's. feasting and unbridled license of all kinds Avas 
indulged in But any vestige of morality that may have existed 
before amongst these children of nature was, as such, according to 
'J oongas strict account, considered out of place, and carefully put 
by where nobody could find it ; bur as it was not required, it was 
nor sought for The pigeon portion of the feast was extolled to the 
skies — the freshness, the flavour of the aromatic, miro-berry fed 
birds, the lumps of yellow fat ' Alas' such have never been seen 
since The backbone and thighs melted away in their mouths, and 
fairly bowled over the conceit of the Ngatiwhatua, who asked, 
" Where did you get these delicious birds r" This question was a 
breach of Maori etiquette ; but a young chief without any brains 
replied, "These birds came from the Puna Valley. We had ten 
takings in one month, but only a few birds are hereof what we took, 
and there are many large calabashes of preserved birds in the 
storehouses m the valley now," but this was a bit of bounce. Now, 
gluttony pure and simple, and before which passion all has to go 
down to gratify it, is unfortunately a leading trait in the Maori 
character (said Tocnga Pou). Once let gluttony get possession of 
a chief and his tribe, and they will not rest till it has been appeased. 

" Ugh !" said Ngatiwhatua, amongst themselves, " more of these 
fat pigeons in calabashes at Puna Valley, are there ? Why should 
these Popotos haA^e retained these f If we could surprise and slay 
these people we could have all their nice settlement and the rich 
bird valley," and the water ran out of their jaws at the bare idea of 
continual feasts of pigeons and other birds. 

Now, Te Koukou, a famous warrior of Ngatiwhatua, and his giant 
brother Ngahe, had been ov^ertaken by this spirit of kaihoro 
(gluttony) and an opportunity was sought for ; but our garrison 
never relaxed their vigilance, and it was hopeless to attempt any- 
thing unless these were overpowered first. J3ut the time drew near 
for the gue^3ts to disperse and return to their homes, so the canoes were 
accordingly prepared to take them to the heads, so far on their way 
back, but all Te Koukou's and Ngahe's men declared they would 
return overland by way of Mangakahia, that being so much shorter 
than going by the round of the sea beach. At this a large 
proportion of the Avarriors said they would go that way too. So 
about 800 men left one morning for Mangakahia, and the rest left 
for the heads, accompanied by a number of Popotos in the canoes, 
little dreaming of what w-as about to take place. 

Te Koukou had, according to custom, asked a small party of 
Popotos to see them as far as the forest, through wdiich they would 
have to pass to get to their own country. This forest was about 
fifteen miles distant, and about twenty of them accepted and went, 



TALES OF THE MAORI. 593 

and one girl named Ponaiti (small joints). On reaching the forest, 
Te Koukou slew every m.an and ate them, but saved the girl, whom 
he told he intended to make his wife, a proposal and alliance which 
she cheerfully assented to then and there. The other division of 
Ngatiwhatua, on reaching their former camping place at the 
heads of the river, contrived to quarrel with their late hosts about 
a woman. This led to blows, and some of the Popotos were slain, 
and the rest lied back in dismay with their canoes to the settle- 
ment, vowing vengeance. They had barely ended their tale to 
the assembled tribe v.'hen Ponaiti, the girl, stood in their midst, 
nearly dead from fatigue and running ; but she managed to tell 
her people of the slaughter of her father and other relatives, and 
what her destined fate had been, ending her horrible tale of blood 
by saying that Te Koukou was on his way to surprise the pas and 
kill everyone. 

" Get ready for them," was the only sentence that fell from 
Muriwai to Tuke T£dve. The tribe was like a flock of birds 
all at once. Men with tapuecl back and still more tapued heads 
and arms seized huge baskets of kumeras, bundles of dried fish, 
calabashes of water, and streamed up the hill sides to their pas. 
In less than the roasting of a small kum.era in the ashes, the 
villages were deserted, and all was quiet in the fighting pas and 
ready. Ponaiti said that she had so deceived Te Koukou as to 
lead him to think she had remained at J\Iangakahia till he 
returned ; but she had made tracks through the forest after they 
had left, to get home before they could attempt their surprise. 
"They won't go to the villages,'' said the leading warriors, " but 
will attack us at dawn to-morrow ; and they think they are sure 
to surprise us, when the destruction of the settlements would 
follow." Scouts were sent out down the hills to give notice ot 
their approach. They returned soon, and reported the advanced 
guard of the enemy creeping up the hills, followed by the main 
body. " Let them come close, and be ready with the logs and 
boulders, and sling's and spears. I will give tho charge," said 
Muriwai te Tuke Take, and several trusty messengers were 
despatched, by the rear of the pa adjoining the bush, to warn 
the river natives at Opara, and at Taheki and Wairua, close to the 
INIangakahia forests, to warn them to look after and close up 
all the roads, so as to let not one of Ngatiwhatua escape after 
they were defeated — for that result was looked upon as a certainty, 
as the Tohungas had foretold. Silence now reigned supreme in 
the three pas, as the occupants waited the coming storm ; but as 
the objects began to form out of the darkness, the enemy were 
seen within a few fathoms of the pa, preparing for the final rush up 
the steep rise in overwhelming numbers. 

The chief Tohunga's son had been killed and eaten by the enemy 
before him, and the fighting chief passed the word, and then one 
horrible yell burst from Karewa ki Runga, quickly followed by 
two more frantic war cries from the two other pas. These were 
returned by the enemy, who had to win now or be eaten. It was 

LL* 



594 TALES OF THE MAORI. 

in reality your head or mine, and the enemy sprang up the rise to 
the assault, but the varied collection of rocks and logs, and a 
shower of slung iron stones, accompanied by well-aimed darts, 
whistled about their ears and heads, and bore them down. But 
the enemy fought with determination, knowing the terrible result 
of defeat, especially in a case like theirs. Each pa was attacked 
simultaneously, but heavy logs rolling down the steep sides of the 
pas bore dowr. tens of warriors, and many jaws were broken and 
skulls cracked by the slingers. At last, seeing their attempt was 
hopeless, the enemy broke and fled in every direction. " Now 
then," sung out the chief, " let them smell the pigeon's fat in the 
valley of Puna. The empty calabashes of our tribe will be filled 
before night. Show no quarter. Kill everyone, and we will have 
enough Mokai INlokai's preserved tattooed heads to adorn every 
post in the pa and village, and our women will sing to them from 
the flutes we will make out of their thigh bones," and the pas 
poured out their forces on the retreating enemy, while the old and 
infirm priests, A\'ho viewed the battle from the pas, cursed them 
in their flight. One special curse was so curious I have not 
forgotten it. " Haere ! haere ! Katahuna-e-au-ngahinu, o-to-tua- 
roa, he Turamahaeriwi i to wairua ki te reinga, haere! ha-e-re ! 
Tenei au te haere nei." " Run ! ay run ! but I will render down 
the grease out of your backbones to light 5-our soul to the reinga 
with. Run ! ay run ! Here I am now, in full chase." 

Run they did. Many brave deeds were done ; but what was the 
use of defeated men fighting ? So many of them never warded 
off the blows given in anger, lest they should be made prisoners 
and tortured. Te Koukou and his big brother w^ere both killed 
after a tough struggle. The majority of those who escaped fell 
into the hands of those who had been warned by the scouts to 
be on the alert, and their varied tortures afterwards amused the 
people for several days, until finally they were eaten. A very few 
ever reached their homes. The whole hillside, from summit to 
base, smelt of blood and the flesh and fat of men, for the slaughter 
had been great, and the Popotos rejoiced exceedingly at their 
splendid victory over Xgatiwhatua, who, in numbers, were once 
able to cope with them ; but now their principal warriors were 
slain, and their heads would be preserved and stuck up on the 
edge of their pas, and on every carved post in the settlements 
beneath. 

i\Iany )'ears afterwards, the Ngatiwhatua tried to retrieve their 
loss and get payment, but were met on the sea beach between the 
heads of the Ivaipara and Hokianga rivers, and on this occasion 
the Popotos were accompanied by one European ; this was the 
notorious Jacky ]\Iarmon. Here a fierce fight took place, which 
ended in the total rout of Ngatiwhatua, of whom many scores 
were killed and eaten. 

Jacky Alarmon himself related the history of this fight to me 
personally, and his description at the time made my blood run cold 
in my veins. 



TALES OF THE AiAORE 



595 



The top of Karewa Ki Runga was oblong in shape, about 
80 feet long by about 50 feet broad, about 35 feet above the rest of 
the hill from whence it had been formed, and the sides were steeper 
than an angle of 45 degrees. A deep ditch surrounded this fortified 
mound, which w-as 6 feet deep and 12 feet wide, and the earth taken 
out of it and from the cutting- away to form the pa itself was used 
to make outer lines of breastworks, and make the rest of the hill 
steeper and smoother in doubtful places. A double palisade had 
stood on the outer edge of the ditch, and I remember several of the 
old puriri posts that had formed part of it as sound in their positions 
as if freshly placed there, but I believe puriri will last as long as 
iron. 

During the war with Hone Heke in 1845-46, my father, Captain 
McDonnell, R.N., fortified Te Horek, then our homestead, and had 
two 3 2 -pounders dragged up to the top of Karewa Ki Runga and 
placed in position there, and at one time w-e had a garrison of 
300 river natives, whom he partly armed with flint-lock Tower 
rifles and no end of ball-cartridges ; and there is no doubt the news 
of our garrison, and one upper and lower battery of two 3 2 -pounders, 
seventeen pieces of cannon lower down, consisting of 18-pound 
carronades and long sixes, had a grand moral effect on those 
natives w'ho were hesitating w'hich side to join, and also on Heke 
and Kawiti's men ; but we had lively times of it for several months, 
and many Europeans were scared and left the district, never more 
to return to it. We saw it out ; but few know, or w^ould credit it 
at this distance of time, the hardships, troubles and dangers some 
of the pioneer settlers went through, or of the miserable returns 
made to them for their dogged perseverance and courage. 

THE TRIBAL PAKEHA —STORY OF A FEAST AND A DOUBLE 

SUICIDE. 

A favourite pastime of the Maori in the " good old times " 
was the " moari," or swing, formed by placing a long tapering 
ricker or spar firmly on some rising ground, and sometimes, 
for a love of peril, on the brink of a precipice. A number 
of ropes, according to the size of the spar, were fastened 
to the top of it, one below the other at intervals of a foot, 
from which the people would swing, grasping the ropes in 
their hands and then running swiftly round and swinging off 
into the air over the sloping ground, river or cliffy, as the case might 
be. Then as each person alighed, the spar being relieved from the 
weight springs more erect, causing the individuals yet revolving in 
the air to be lifted higher wdth a jerk, and experiencing a feeling as 
if the ropes were being dragged out of their hands. 

Serious accidents often used to occur. I have a very vivid recol- 
lection of losing my hold one day as I was swinging round a 
thirty-foot moari and of revolving through mid-air. I was flung- 
into a swamp, where I was picked up much bruised and shaken. 
I once saw a Maori named Tamati Tutonu sent spinning through 



596 TALES OF THE MAORI, 

the air from a sixty-feet moari and disappear through the tops of 
some puriri trees. Fortunately for him he was not killed, but he 
could not bear us to touch him, as many of his bones were broken. 
A Job's comforter improved the occasion, and told him it had 
happened as a punishment to him for swinging on a Sunday ; but 
the poor, ignorant, unsophisticated Maori said that if the rope had 
been new, in place of being- old and rotten, it would not have 
occurred. 

A rather romantic, though sadly tragical, affair occurred in con- 
nection with one of these swings. It chanced to be one of the 
tallest ever known, had ten ropes attached to it, and was situated 
near to a precipice that overlooked a mountain torrent, that hissed 
and dashed wildly over huge black-looking boulders and rocks. 
No accident had hitherto occurred from using this celebrated moari ; 
perhaps the reason of this was that few dared stand the jerks of the 
outer ropes as the inner swingers landed. A great feast was given 
by the tribe at their chief settlement, where this moari stood, and 
Avhich on this occasion was handsomely decorated with feathers 
and painted with red ochre. Thou